Dv±dasapadavaººan±

23. Apariyosite padeti ucc±raºavel±ya½ pade asamatte, vippakateti attho. Pariyosite hi “padan”tve samaññ± siy±, na “akkharan”ti adhipp±yo. Padassa vevacanat±ya atthavasena pariy±ya½ kharanta½ sañcaranta½ viya hoti, na eva½ vaººo avevacanatt±ti ±ha pariy±yavasena akkharaºato”ti. Na hi vaººassa pariy±yo vijjat²”ti ida½ ak±r±divaººavisesa½ sandh±ya vadati, na vaººas±mañña½. Tassa hi vaººo akkharanti pariy±yo vutto ev±ti.
Akkharasaddassa attha½ vatv± tappasaªgena vaººasaddassapi vattu½ “kenaµµhena vaººo”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha nanu padena, v±kyena v± attho sa½vaºº²yati, na akkharen±ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha “vaººo eva h²”ti-±di. Pad±dibh±ven±ti padav±kyabh±vena. Yath±sambandhanti yath±saªketa½. Aya½-saddo imassatthassa v±cako, aya½ attho imassa saddassa vacan²yoti yath±gahitasaªket±nur³pa½ saddatth±na½ v±cakavacan²yabh±vo. Atha v± yv±ya½ saddatth±na½ aññamañña½ avin±bh±vo, so sambandho. Tadanur³pa½ ekakkhara½ n±mapada½ “m± eva½ maññas²”ti-±d²su -k±r±di. Kec²ti abhayagiriv±sino. Te hi abhidhammadesana½ “manas±desan±”ti vadanti, yato r±hul±cariyo “visuddhakaruº±na½ manas±desan± v±c±ya akkharaºato akkharasaññit±”ti ±ha.
Satvappadh±nanti drabyappadh±na½. N±mapade hi drabyam±vibh³tar³pa½, kiriy± an±vibh³tar³p± yath± “phasso”ti (ma. ni. 3.126; sa½. ni. 2.1, 39; mah±va. 1; vibha. 225; ud±. 1; netti. 24). ¾khy±tapade pana kiriy± ±vibh³tar³p±, drabyaman±vibh³tar³pa½ yath± “phusat²”ti. Tena nesa½ satvakiriy±ppadh±nat± vutt±. Kiriy±visesaggahaºanimittanti kiriy±vises±vabodhahetu kiriy±visesad²panato, yath± “cirappav±sin”ti (dha. pa. 219) ettha pa-saddo vasanakiriy±ya viyogavisiµµhata½ d²peti. “Eva½ manasi karotha, m± eva½ manas±katth±”ti-±d²su kiriy±visesassa jotako eva½-saddo. “Eva½s²l± (d². ni. 3.142) eva½dhamm±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.13; ma. ni. 3. 198; sa½. ni. 5.378) satvavisesassa. Eva½ sesanip±tapad±namp²ti adhipp±yo. Ten±ha “kiriy±ya…pe… nip±tapadan”ti.
Saªkhepato vutta½, ki½ pana tanti ±ha “pad±bhihitan”ti. Atha v± saªkhepato vutta½, yo akkharehi saªk±sitoti vuccati. Pad±bhihita½ padehi kathita½, yo padehi pak±sitoti vuccati. Tadubhaya½, yadi padasamud±yo v±kya½, tassa ko paricchedo. Y±vat± adhippetatthapariyos±na½, t±vat± ekav±kyantipi vadanti, bah³pettha pak±re vaººenti. Ki½ tehi, s±khy±ta½ s±byaya½ sak±raka½ savisesana½ “v±kyan”ti daµµhabba½. Nanu ca padenapi attho byañj²yat²ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha “padamattasavanepi h²”ti-±di. ¾k±resu v±kyavibh±gesu abhihita½ kathita½ nibbacana½ ±k±r±bhihita½ nibbacana½. “Abhihitanti ca p±¼i-±gatan”ti vadanti.
“Nibb±na½ maggati, nibb±natthikehi v± magg²yati, kilese v± m±rento gacchat²ti maggo”ti-±din± (dha. sa. aµµha. 16) nibbacan±na½ vitth±ro. Ta½niddesakathanatt± niddesoti imamattham±ha “nibbacanavitth±ro niravasesadesanatt± niddeso”ti. Padeh²ti v±ky±vayavabh³tehi, v±kyato vibhajjam±nehi v± ±khy±t±dipadehi. Ten±ha “v±kyassa vibh±go”ti, tath± c±ha “apariyosite”ti-±di. Apare pana “pakatipaccayalop±des±divasena akkharavibh±go ±k±ro, niruttinayena padavibh±go nibbacana½, v±kyavibh±go niddeso. Vaººapadav±ky±ni hi avibhatt±ni, vibhatt±ni ca cha byañjanapad±n²”ti vadanti. Chaµµha½ vacananti chaµµha½ pada½. K±tabbanti “akkhara½ pada½ byañjana½ ±k±ro tatheva nirutti niddeso chaµµhavacanan”ti g±th±ya½ eva½ kattabba½, sa½vaººan±vasena v± ±k±rapada½ catuttha½ k±tabbanti attho. Sabbo saddavoh±ro vibhattehi, avibhattehi ca akkharapadav±kyeheva, tadaññappak±ro natth²ti ±ha “y±nim±n²”ti-±di.
24. K±san±saddo kammatthoti dassetu½ “k±s²yat²”ti-±di vutta½. Padehi t±va atthassa saªk±san±, pak±san± ca hotu, pad±vadhik±pi sa½vaººan± icchit±ti akkharehi pana kathanti ±ha “akkharehi suyyam±neh²”ti-±di. Padatthasampaµipatt²ti pad±bhidheyya-atth±vabodho. “Akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±din± akkharakaraºa½ saªk±sanabh³ta½ ugghaµanakiriya½ vadantena yath±vutto attho s±dhitoti dassetu½ “tath± h²”ti-±di vutta½.
Vibhajanutt±n²kammapaññatt²ti ekattaniddeso sam±h±roti aya½ dvandasam±so. Ubhayen±ti “vivaraº±, vibhajan±”ti imin± dvayena. Eteh²ti ettha eva-k±ro luttaniddiµµhoti ±ha “etehi ev±”ti. “Saªk±san±…pe… abh±vato”ti imin± yath±dhippeta-an³n±vadh±raºaphala½ dasseti. Ugghaµan±d²ti ±disaddena vipañcananay±ni saªgaºh±ti.
25. Samm± yuttoti samm± avipar²ta½, anavasesato ca yutto sahito. Tath± hi vutta½ “an³n±”ti. Sabbo hi p±¼i-attho atthapada-atthanayehi anavasesato saªgahito. Ten±ha “sabbassa h²”ti-±di.
26. Kasm± panettha m³lapadapadaµµh±n±ni asaªgahit±n²ti? Padatthantar±bh±vato. M³lapad±ni hi nay±na½ samuµµh±namattatt± padaµµh±n±n²ti dassitoya½ nayo. Tena vutta½ “ito vinimutto koci nettipadattho natth²”ti.
Nettiy± k±raºabh³t±ya. H±r± sa½vaººetabb±ti suttassa atthasa½vaººan±vasena h±r± vitth±retabb±. Sv±yanti so aya½ sa½vaººan±kkamo. Yena anukkamena nettiya½ desit±, teneva sutte atthasa½vaººan±vasena yojetabb±ti. Eva½ siddheti desan±kkameneva siddhe. Aya½ ±rambhoti “so¼asa h±r± paµhaman”ti eva½ pavatto ±rambho. Imamatthanti ima½ vuccam±naniyamasaªkh±ta½ attha½.
Yadi desitakkameneva h±ranay± sutte yojetabb± siyu½, ki½ so kamo k±raºanirapekkho, ud±hu k±raºas±pekkhoti? Kiñcettha– yadi t±va k±raºanirapekkho h±ranay±na½ anukkamo, aneke atth± vuccam±n± avassa½ ekena kamena vuccant²ti. Eva½ sante yena kenaci kamena sutte yojetabb± siyu½, tath± sati niyamo niratthako siy±. Atha k±raºas±pekkho, ki½ ta½ k±raºanti? Itaro k±raºagavesana½ akatv± attho evettha gavesitabboti adhipp±yena “n±yamanuyogo na katthaci anukkame nivisat²”ti vatv± “na pana maya½ dev±na½piyassa manorathavigh±t±ya cetem±”ti kamak±raºa½ vic±rento “apic±”ti-±din± desan±h±rassa t±va ±dito desan±ya k±raºa½ patiµµhapeti. Tattha dhammadesan±ya nissayo ass±d±d²navanissaraº±ni, sar²ra½ ±ºatti. Pakatiy± sabh±vena. Niddh±raºena vin±pi patiµµh±bh±vato nissayabh±vato.
“Tath± hi vakkhat²”ti-±din± yath±vutta½ attha½ p±kaµatara½ karoti. Esa nayo itaresupi.
Vicay±nantaranti vicayah±r±nantara½. Sesesupi eseva nayo. Tath± h²ti lakkhaºah±ravibhaªge yutt±yutt±na½ k±raºaparampar±ya pariggahitasabh±v±na½ avutt±nampi ekalakkhaºat±ya gahaºa½ vutta½.
Atthato niddh±rit±nanti atthuddh±rapubb±par±nusandhi-±di-atthato suttantarato uddhaµ±na½ sa½vaººiyam±nasutte ±n²t±na½ p±¼idhamm±na½. Saddato, pam±ºantarato ca laddh±na½ idha vic±retabbatt± ±ha “niravasesato”ti. Atthass±ti abhidheyyatthassa. Dhammass±ti sabh±vadhammassa. Tattha tattha ta½ abhiniropet²ti tasmi½ tasmi½ atthe, dhamme ca ta½ n±ma½ abhiniropeti, “ayameva½n±mo”ti voharati. “Atthassa, dhammass±”ti padadvayena s±maññato attho, dhammo ca anavasesetv± gahitoti ±ha “anavasesapariy±d±nan”ti, yato vutta½ “tattha tatth±”ti. Tath±ti yath± anavasesatth±vabodhad²paka½ anavasesapariy±d±na½ kata½ catuby³hap±¼iya½, eva½ punappuna½ gabbhamupet²ti ettha asaddavat² atth± pavattivasena labbham±n± samm±paµipatti uddhaµ±ti upasa½h±rattho tath±-saddo.
Tenev±ti suttantarasa½sandanassa sabh±gavisabh±gadhammantar±vaµµan³p±yabh±vato eva. Yatoti sabh±gavisabh±gadhamm±vaµµanassa s±dh±raº±didhammavibhajan³p±yatt±. Paµivibhattasabh±veti paµibh±gabh±vena vibhattasabh±ve.
Te dhamm±ti paµipakkhato parivattitadhamm±. Na pariy±yavibh±van± paññattivibh±gaparigg±hik±ti ±ha “pariy±…pe… subodhanañc±”ti.
Pucch±visodhana½ vissajjana½. ¾rambhavisodhana½ desan±ya atthakathana½. Tadubhayavic±ro dh±t±d²su asammuyhantasseva sambhavat²ti ±ha “dh±t±yatan±…pe… samp±detun”ti. Suddho ±rambhoti-±dip±¼inidassanenapi ayamevattho ud±haµoti veditabba½.
“K±raº±k±ro”ti padaµµh±na½ sandh±ya vadati. Pabhedato desan±k±roti vevacana½. Niddh±retv± vuccam±n±n²ti uddharitv± sam±ropiyam±n±n²ti adhipp±yo. Suttassa attha½ tathatt±vabodh±y±ti suttassa padatth±vagamamukhena catusacc±bhisamay±ya.
Veneyyattayayutto atthanayattay³padeso “veneyyattayappayojito”ti vutto. Veneyyattayañhi paccayasamav±ye tadupadesaphala½ adhigacchanta½ attha½ payojeti n±m±ti. Tadanukkamenev±ti tesa½ ugghaµitaññu-±d²na½ desan±nukkameneva. Teti tayo atthanay±. Tesanti ugghaµitaññu-±d²na½. Yath± uddes±d²na½ saªkhepamajjhimavitth±ravuttiy± tiººa½ puggal±na½ upak±rat±, eva½ tesa½ atthanay±na½. Tass±ti atthanayatthassa. Tatth±ti tassa½ tassa½ bh³miya½.
Samuµµh±na½ nid±na½. Anekadh± saddanayato, niruttinayato c±ti anekappak±ra½. Padattho saddattho. Vidhi anuv±doti idamettha vidhivacana½, ayamanuv±doti aya½ vibh±go veditabbo. Sam±dh±tabboti pariharitabbo. Anusandh²y± anur³pa½ nigametabbanti y±ya anusandhiy± sutte upari desan± pavatt±, tadanur³pa½ sa½vaººan± nigametabb±. Payojananti phala½. Piº¹atthoti saªkhepattho. Anusandh²ti pucch±nusandhi-±di-anusandhi. Upoggh±µoti nidassana½. C±lan±ti codan±. Paccupaµµh±na½ parih±ro.
Pakati-±dipad±vayava½ bhinditv± kathana½ bhedakath± yath± “dibbant²ti dev±”ti (ma. ni. aµµha. 1.153). Padassa atthakathana½ tatvakath± yath± “buddhoti yo so bhagav± sayambh³ an±cariyako”ti (mah±ni. 192; c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddesa 97; paµi. ma. 1.161). Pariy±yavacana½ vevacanaggahaºa½ yath± “paññ± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 16). Vicayayutticatuby³haparivattanah±rekadesasaªgahit±, vevacanah±rasaªgahit± c±ti ±ha “te idha katipayah±rasaªgahit±”ti.
Attano phala½ dh±ret²ti dhammoti hetuno dhammabh±vo veditabbo. ѱpakahet³pi ñ±ºakaraºaµµhena k±rake pakkhipitv± ±ha “k±rako samp±pakoti duvidho”ti. Puna cakkhub²j±dinibbattakameva k±raºa½ katv± dassento “puna…pe… tividho”ti-±dim±ha. “Tayo kusalahet³”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1059-1060) ±gat± alobh±dayo, lobh±dayo ca hetuhetu n±ma. “Catt±ro kho, bhikkhave, mah±bh³t± hetu, catt±ro mah±bh³t± paccayo r³pakkhandhassa paññ±pan±y±”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 3.86) ±gato paccayahetu n±ma. Kusal±kusala½ kamma½ attano vip±ka½ pati uttamahetu n±ma. Cakkh±dib²j±di cakkhuviññ±ºa-aªkur±d²na½ as±dh±raºahetu n±ma. Kusal±kusal±na½ satipi paccayadhammabh±ve iµµh±niµµhaphalavisesahetubh±vadassanattha½ visu½ gahaºa½, saddamagg±na½ pana ñ±pakasamp±pakahetubh±vadassanatthanti daµµhabba½. Aªkur±dikassa as±dh±raºahetu b²j±disam±naj±tiyahetut±ya sabh±gahetu S±dh±raºahetu bhusasalil±di-asam±naj±tiyat±ya asabh±gahetu. Indriyabaddhasant±niko ajjhattikahetu, itaro b±hirahetu. Keci pana “sasant±niko ajjhattikahetu, itaro b±hirahet³”ti vadanti. Parigg±hako upatthambhako. Paramparahetu upanissayapaccayo.
Nibb±nassa anibbattaniyepi samudayappah±nasamudayanirodh±na½ adhigam±dhigantabbabh±vato nibb±na½ pati maggassa hetubh±vo viya magga½ pati nibb±nassa phalabh±vo upac±rasiddhoti ±ha “phalapariy±yo labbhat²”ti.
Paµipajjam±nabh³mi maggadhamm±. Paµipannabh³mi phaladhamm±.
Kiccatoti sarasato. Lakkhaºatoti upalakkhaºato. S±maññatoti sam±nabh±vato. Tena sam±nahetut±, sam±naphalat±, sam±n±rammaºat± ca gahit± hot²ti. Tattha ya½ vattabba½, ta½ heµµh± lakkhaºah±raniddesavaººan±ya½ vuttameva.
Apicettha sampayogavippayogavirodhapakaraºaliªgasaddantarasannidh±nas±matthiy±d²nampi vasena nayavibh±go veditabbo. Tattha sampayogato t±vanayavibh±go– “n±ha½, bhikkhave, añña½ ekadhammampi samanupass±mi, ya½ eva½ lahuparivatta½, yathayida½ cittan”ti (a. ni. 1.48) cittassa lahuparivattit± gahit±, ta½sampayogato cetasik±nampi gahit±va hoti aññattha nesa½ cittena sampayogad²panato. Atha v± “saññino”ti. Saññ±sahitat±vacanena hi nesa½ vedan±cetan±divantat±pi sampayogato d²pit± hoti.
Vippayogato– “ahetuk±”ti. Hetusampayutt± hi dhamm± “sahetuk±”ti vutt±ti tabbidhur± dhamm± vippayogato “ahetuk±”ti vutt±ti viññ±yati. Atha v± “asaññino”ti. Saññ±vippayutt± hi dhammapavatti idh±dhippet±, na saññ±ya abh±vamattanti viññ±yati.
Virodhato– “aµµhamako (yama. 3.indriyayamakap±¼i.439), saddh±nus±r²”ti (pu. pa. m±tik± 7.36) ca vutte ta½ santatiya½ sa½yojanattayappah±na½ viññ±yati, tath± “sati v± up±disese an±g±mit±”ti (d². ni. 2.404; ma. ni. 1.137) vutte pañcorambh±giyasa½yojanappah±na½ “diµµheva dhamme aññ±”ti (d². ni. 2.404; ma. ni. 1.137) vutte anavasesasa½yojanappah±na½ viññ±yati.
Pakaraºato– “aby±kat± dhamm±”ti (dha. sa. m±tik±). Adhik±rato hi kusal±kusalabh±vena na kathit±ti ñ±yati. “Upadh² hi narassa socan±”ti (sa½. ni. 1.12, 144) ca. B±hir± hi dhamm± idha “upadh²”ti adhippet±ti viññ±yati.
Liªgato– “s²tenapi ruppati, uºhenapi ruppat²”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 3.79). S²t±diggahaºena hi liªgena bh³tup±d±yappak±rasseva dhammassa r³pabh±vo, na itarassa.
Saddantarasannidh±nato– “k±yapassaddhi, k±y±yatanan”ti. “Y± vedan±kkhandhass±”ti-±divacanato hi purimo k±yasaddo sam³hav±c², itaro ±yatanasaddasannidh±nato pas±dav±c².
S±matthiyato “sabba½, bhikkhave, ±ditta½ (sa½. ni. 4.28; mah±va. 54), sabbe tasanti daº¹ass±”ti (dha. pa. 129) ca, tath± “sabb±vanta½ loka½ mett±sahagatena cetas±…pe… pharitv± viharat²”ti-±di (d². ni. 1.556; 3.308; ma. ni. 1.77, 232, 459, 509; 2.309; 3.230; vibha. 642). Ettha hi satipi sabbasaddassa anavasesasattav±cakatte ±dittat± s±pekkhasseva atthassa v±cakatt± padesav±c² sabbasaddo, lokasaddopi sattav±c². Satt±rammaº± hi appamaññ±ti. Tath± “m±tara½ pitara½ hantv±”ti (dha. pa. 294-295) sabbena sabba½ hi sapaµikkhepato, m±tupitugh±takammassa ca mah±s±vajjat±pavedanato, idha ca tadanuññ±ya kat±ya m±tupituµµh±niy± t±dis± keci p±padhamm± veneyyavasena gahit± viññ±yati. Ke pana teti? Taºh±m±n±. Taºh± hi janan² satt±na½. “Taºh± janeti purisan”ti (sa½. ni. 1.55-57) hi vutta½. Pituµµh±niyo m±no ta½ niss±ya attasampaggaºhato “aha½ asukassa ruñño, r±jamah±mattassa v± putto”ti yath±. S±matthiy±d²nanti ±disaddena desapakati-±dayo saªgayhanti.
Labbham±napadatthaniddh±raºamukhen±ti tasmi½ tasmi½ sutte labbham±na-ass±d±dih±rapadatthaniddh±raºadv±rena. Yath±lakkhaºanti ya½ ya½ lakkhaºa½, lakkhaº±nur³pa½ v± yath±lakkhaºa½. Hetuphal±d²ni upadh±retv± yojetabb±ni tesa½ vasen±ti adhipp±yo. Id±ni hetuphal±dayo ye yasmi½ h±re savisesa½ icchitabb±, te dassetu½ “visesato pan±”ti-±dim±ha. Ta½ suviññeyyameva.

Niddesav±ravaººan± niµµhit±.