3. Niddesav±ravaººan±

4. Niddesav±re s±maññatoti s±dh±raºato. Visesen±ti as±dh±raºato. Padatthoti saddattho. Lakkhaºanti sabh±vo. Kamoti anupubb². Ett±vat±ti ettakappam±ºabh±vo. Hetv±d²ti hetuphalabh³mi-upanis±sabh±gavisabh±galakkhaºanay±. Visesato pana lakkhaºanti sambandho.

H±rasaªkhepavaººan±

1. Ya½, bhikkhaveti ettha yanti paccattavacana½, tañca sukha½, somanassanti dvayena sam±n±dhikaraºanti katv± “ass±d²yat²ti ass±do, sukha½, somanassañc±”ti vutta½. Sukh±divedan± viya man±piyar³p±dipi av²tar±gassa ass±detabbanti ±ha “eva½ iµµh±rammaºamp²”ti. “Ass±deti et±y±ti v± ass±do, taºh±”ti etena “yan”ti hetu-atthe nip±toti dasseti. Tatr±yamattho– yena hetun± pañcup±d±nakkhandhe paµicca ass±dan²yabh±vena uppajjati sukha½ somanassa½, aya½ taºh±saªkh±to ass±do ass±danakiriy±ya k±raºanti. Iti katv± ayamattho diµµh±bhinandan±dibh±vato vipall±sesupi sambhavat²ti ±ha “eva½ vipall±s±p²”ti. Aniµµhamp²ti pi-saddena iµµhamp²ti yojetabba½, anavases± s±sav± dhamm± idha ±rammaºaggahaºena gahit±ti ±ha “sabbesa½ tebh³makasaªkh±r±nan”ti.
Dukkh±dukkhamasukhavedan±nanti ettha dukkhasabh±v± eva adukkhamasukh± vedan± gahit± aniµµh±rammaºassa adhippetatt±, na sukhasabh±v±. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½ “y±ya½, bhante, adukkhamasukh± vedan±, santasmi½ es± paº²te sukhe vutt± bhagavat±”ti (ma. ni. 2.88; sa½. ni. 4.267). “Sukhapariy±yasabbh±vato”ti imin± iµµhat±mattatopi lesena satt±na½ ±rammaºassa ass±dan²yat± sambhavat²ti dasseti.
¾d²navo dosanissandanat±ya doso, sv±ya½ p²¼anavuttiy± veditabboti ±ha “±d²navo dukkh± vedan±, tissopi v± dukkhat±”ti. Eva½ dosatthata½ ±d²navassa dassetv± id±ni kapaºatthata½ dassetu½ “atha v±”ti-±di vutta½. Yatoti yasm± dosakapaºasabh±vatt±ti vutta½ hoti.
Nissarat²ti vivitti, sabbasaªkh±ravivekoti attho. S±maññaniddesen±ti nissaraºasaddavacan²yat±s±maññena. Purim±nanti ass±d±d²navat±na½. Up±yo c±ti-±d²su ca-saddo padap³raºamattanti katv± ±ha “pacchim±nañc±”ti, phal±d²nanti attho. Tadantogadhabhed±nanti ariyamaggapariy±pannavises±na½.
K±mabhav±d²nanti ±di-saddena na r³p±r³pabhav± eva gahit±, atha kho te ca saññ²bhav±dayo ca ekavok±rabhav±dayo ca gahit±. Ten±ha “tiººa½ tiººa½ bhav±nan”ti.
Y±vadeva anup±d±parinibb±natth± bhagavato desan±ti ±ha “nanu ca…pe… nipph±d²yat²”ti. “Vuttamev±”ti imin± punaruttidosa½ codeti. Itaro “saccametan”ti anuj±nitv± “tañca kho”ti-±din± pariharati. “Parampar±y±”ti etena ajjhatta½ yonisomanasik±ro viya na paratoghoso ±sannak±raºa½ dhamm±dhigamassa dhammassa paccatta½ vedan²yatt±ti dasseti. Tath± hi “akkh±t±ro tath±gat±, paµipann± pamokkhanti, jh±yino m±rabandhan±”ti (dha. pa. 276) vutta½. Tadadhigamak±raºa½ ariyamagg±dhigamak±raºa½ siy±. Ki½ pana tanti ±ha “sampattibhavahet³”ti, tena carimattabh±vahetubh³ta½ puññasampatti½ vadati.
“Att±nudiµµhi½ ³hacca, eva½ maccutaro siy±”ti ida½ ariyamaggassa pubbabh±gapaµipad±ya phalabh±vas±dhana½. Yena hi vidhin± att±nudiµµhisamuggh±to, maccutaraºañca siy±, so “evan”ti imin± pak±sitoti. Att±nudiµµhisamuggh±tamaccutaraº±na½ phalabh±ve vattabbameva natthi.
“Dhammo have”ti pana g±th±ya½ lokiyassa puññaphalassa vuttatt± ±ha “ida½ phalan”ti. Ya½ nibbattetabba½, ta½ phala½. Ya½ nibbattaka½, so up±yo. Ayamettha vinicchayo. Ten±ha “etena nayen±”ti-±di. Upadhisampatt²ti attabh±vasobh±.
Visuddh²ti ñ±ºadassanavisuddhi adhippet±ti ±ha– “etth±pi…pe… viññ±tun”ti. “Yasm± pan±”ti-±din±pi tamevattha½ vacanantare p±kaµatara½ karoti.
Sar³pato ±gat±ni “yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu pañcanna½ up±d±nakkhandh±na½ samudayañca atthaªgamañca ass±dañca ±d²navañca nissaraºañca yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.26-28). Ekadesena ±gat±ni “sa½yojaniyesu, bhikkhave, dhammesu ass±d±nupassino viharato (sa½. ni. 2.53), bahudukkh± bahup±y±s±, ±d²navo ettha bhiyyo (ma. ni. 1.117), saªkh±r±nameta½ nissaraºa½, yadida½ nibb±nan”ti-±d²su (paµi. ma. 1.24; 3.41). Na sar³pena ±gat±ni yath± s±maññaphalasutt±d²su. Atthavasen±ti ass±detabb±di-atthavasena. Na papañcitoti na vitth±rito.
2. Eseva nayoti atidesena viciyam±navacanaseso atidiµµho. Bh±vatthe tohi ±ha “vissajjitanti vissajjan±”ti. Sutte ±gata½ na atthasa½vaººan±vasena aµµhakath±ya½ ±gatanti adhipp±yo. Pucch±nur³pat± idha pubb±paranti catuby³hapubb±parato ima½ visesetv± dasseti. Pucch±nusandh²ti pucch±ya vissajjanena anusandh±na½. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana heµµhimadesan±ya pucch±nimittapavatta-uparidesan±ya sambandho “pucch±nusandh²”ti vutta½. Pubb±pekkhanti pucchitavissajjitapad±pekkha½. “Suttass±”ti v± imin± pucch±vissajjan±-anug²tiyo µhapetv± seso vicayah±rapadattho saªgahitoti padass±pi saªgaho veditabbo. Imasmi½ pakkhe g±th±ya½ ca-saddo padap³raºamatte daµµhabbo.
“Cakkhu aniccan”ti puµµhe “±ma, cakkhu aniccamev±”ti ekantato vissajjana½ eka½saby±karaºa½. “Aññindriya½ bh±vetabba½, sacchik±tabbañc±”ti puµµhe “maggapariy±panna½ bh±vetabba½, phalapariy±panna½ sacchik±tabban”ti vibhajitv± vissajjana½ vibhajjaby±karaºa½. “Aññindriya½ kusalan”ti puµµhe “ki½ anavajjaµµho kusalaµµho, ud±hu sukhavip±kaµµho”ti paµipucchitv± vissajjana½ paµipucch±by±karaºa½. “Sassato att±, asassato v±”ti vutte “aby±katametan”ti-±din± avissajjana½ µhapana½. “Ki½ panete kusal±ti v± dhamm±ti v± ekatth±, ud±hu n±natth±”ti ida½ pucchana½ s±vasesa½. Vissajjanassa pana s±vasesat± veneyyajjh±sayavasena desan±ya½ veditabb±. App±µih²raka½ sa-uttara½. Sapp±µih²raka½ niruttara½. Sesa½ vicayah±raniddese suviññeyyameva.
Ettha ca ass±do ass±dahetu y±va ±ºattihet³ti eva½ het³nampi ass±d±dayo veditabb±. Tattha saªkhepato sukhasukhapaccayalakkhaºo ass±do, so visesato saggasampattiy± d²petabbo. S± hi tassa ukka½so, ses± panettha bhavasampatti tadanv±yik± veditabb±. Tassa hetu d±namaya½, s²lamayañca puññakiriyavatthu. Dukkhadukkhapaccayalakkhaºo ±d²navo. Vipariº±masaªkh±radukkhat±na½ tadavarodhato vaµµadukkhass±pi ettha saªgaho. Visesato pana k±m±na½ ok±roti daµµhabbo, sv±ya½ sa½kilesavatthun±, ittarapaccupaµµh±nat±d²hi ca vibh±vetabbo, tassa hetu dasa akusalakammapath±. Nekkhamma½ nissaraºa½, tassa hetu yath±raha½ tadanucchavik± pubbabh±gappaµipad±. Phala½ desan±phalameva, tassa hetu desan±. Up±yo yath±vutta-up±yova, tassa hetu catt±ri cakk±ni. ¾ºatti upadeso, tassa r±gaggi-±d²hi lokassa ±dittat±, satthu mah±karuº±yogo ca hetu.
Tath± cat³su ariyasaccesu samudayena ass±do, dukkhena ±d²navo, magganirodhehi nissaraºa½, maggo v± up±yo, tadupadeso ±ºatti, anup±dises± nibb±nadh±tu phala½. Iti anupubbakath±ya saddhi½ buddh±na½ s±mukka½sik±ya dhammadesan±ya niddh±raºabh±vena vicayo veditabbo. Padassa padatthasambandho hetu. So hi tassa pavattinimitta½, pañhassa ñ±tuk±mat±, kathekuk±mat± ca. Adiµµhajotan±d²nañhi catunna½ ñ±tuk±mat±, itarassa itar±. Vissajjanassa pañho hetu. Eva½ ses±nampi yath±raha½ vattabba½.
3. Byañjanatth±na½ yutt±yuttaparikkh±ti byañjanaggahaºena pada½ gahita½, atthaggahaºena pañh±d²hi saddhi½ ass±d±dayo gahit±. Vicayah±rapadatth± eva hi yutt±yutt±divisesasahit± yuttih±r±d²na½ padatth±. Tath± hi padaµµh±napadaµµh±nikabh±vavisiµµh± teyeva padaµµh±nah±rassa padatth±. Lakkhaºalakkhitabbat±visiµµh±, niddh±rit± ca lakkhaºah±rassa, nibbacan±divibh±van±visiµµh± catuby³hah±rassa, sabh±gadhammavasena, visabh±gadhammavasena ca ±vaµµanavisiµµh± ±vaµµah±rassa, bh³mivibh±g±divisiµµh± vibhattih±rassa, paµipakkhato parivattanavisiµµh± parivattanah±rassa, pariy±yavevacanavisiµµh± vevacanah±rassa, pabhav±dipaññ±panavisiµµh± paññattih±rassa, khandh±dimukhehi otaraºavisiµµh± otaraºah±rassa, padapadatthapañh±rambhasodhanavisiµµh± sodhanah±rassa, s±maññavisesaniddh±raºavisiµµh± adhiµµh±nah±rassa, paccayadhammehi parikkharaºavisiµµh± parikkh±rah±rassa, pah±tabbabh±vetabbat±niddh±raºavisiµµh± sam±ropanah±rassa padatth±. “Byañjanassa sabh±vaniruttit±, atthassa sutt±d²hi avilomana½ yuttabh±vo”ti imin± asabh±vaniruttit±, sutt±d²hi vilomanañca ayuttabh±voti d²peti, tena yutt±yutt²na½ hetu½ dasseti.
4. Yonisomanasik±r±d²ti ±disaddena saddhammassavanasappuris³panissay±dis±dh±raºa½, as±dh±raºañca deyyapaµigg±hak±di½ saªgaºh±ti. Sambhavatoti yath±raha½ tassa dhammassa anur³pa½. Y±va sabbadhamm±ti ettha sabba½ n±ma padesasabba½, na sabbasabbanti. Ayañhi sabbasaddo yath± paµhamavikappe sutte ±gatadhammavasena padesavisayo, eva½ dutiyavikappe padaµµh±napadaµµh±nikaniddh±raºena ta½ta½pakaraºaparicchinnadhammaggahaºato padesavisayo eva, na anavasesadhammavisayoti. Sutt±gatadhamm±na½ y±ni padaµµh±n±ni, tesañca y±n²ti eva½ k±raºaparampar±niddh±raºalakkhaºo padaµµh±nah±ro, parikkh±rah±ro pana sutt±gatadhamm±na½ ta½ta½paccayuppann±na½ paµihetupaccayat±visesavibh±vanalakkhaºoti satipi k±raºavic±raºabh±ve aya½ padaµµh±nah±raparikkh±rah±r±na½ viseso.
5. Yath± “sam±n±dhikaraºasam±napade”ti-±d²su ekasaddassa attho sam±nasaddo, eva½ ekarasaµµhena bh±van± “ekupp±d±”ti-±d²su (kath±. 473) viya ekalakkhaº±ti ettha ekasaddo sam±natthoti ±ha “sam±nalakkhaº±”ti. Sa½vaººan±vasen±ti ettha kammatthe ana-saddo, sa½vaººetabbat±vasen±ti attho. Lakkhaº±ti upalakkhaº±. “N±nattak±yan±nattasaññino (d². ni. 3.341, 357, 359; a. ni. 9.24), n±nattasaññ±na½ amanasik±r±”ti-±d²su sahac±rit± daµµhabb±. Saññ±sahagat± hi dhamm± tattha saññ±ggahaºena gahit±. “Dada½ mitt±ni ganthat²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni. 189) sam±nakiccat±. Piyavacanatthacariy± sam±nattat±pi hi tattha mittaganthanakiccena sam±nakicc± gayhanti saªgahavatthubh±vato. “Phassapaccay± vedan±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.126; sa½. ni. 2.1, 39; mah±va. 1; vibha. 225; ud±. 1; netti. 24) sam±nahetut±. Yath± hi phasso vedan±ya, eva½ saññ±d²nampi sahaj±t±din± paccayo hoti ev±ti tepi sam±nahetut±ya vutt± eva honti. Tath± hi vutta½ “tajj±manoviññ±ºadh±tusamphassaj± cetan±”ti (dha. sa. 5), “phuµµho sañj±n±ti, phuµµho cetet²”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 4.93). Eva½ “taºh±paccay± up±d±nan”ti (ma. ni. 3.126; sa½. ni. 2.1, 39; mah±va. 1; vibha. 225; ud±. 1; netti. 24) evam±dipi ud±haritabba½. “Avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.126; sa½. ni. 2.1, 39; mah±va. 1; vibha. 225; ud±. 1; netti. 24) sam±naphalat± daµµhabb±. Yath± hi saªkh±r± avijj±ya phala½, eva½ taºhup±d±d²namp²ti tepi tattha gahit±va honti. Ten±ha “purimakammabhavasmi½ moho avijj± ±y³han± saªkh±r± nikanti taºh± upagamana½ up±d±nan”ti. “R³pa½ ass±deti abhinandati ta½ ±rabbha r±go uppajjat²”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.424) vutte ta½sampayutt± vedan±dayo vutt± eva honti sam±n±rammaºabh±vato. Na hi tehi vin± tassa uppatti atthi. Evam±d²h²ti ettha ±disaddena atthappakaraºaliªgasaddantarasannidh±nas±matthiy±d²nampi saªgaho daµµhabbo. Atth±divasenapi hi sutte avutt±nampi vutt±na½ viya niddh±raºa½ sambhavat²ti. Vuttappak±ren±ti “vadhakaµµhena ekalakkhaº±n²”ti-±din± p±¼iya½, “sahac±rit±”ti-±din± aµµhakath±yañca vuttena pak±rena.
6. “Phusanaµµhena phasso”ti-±din± niddh±retv± vacana½ nibbacana½, ta½ pana padasseva, na v±kyass±ti ±ha “padanibbacanan”ti. Adhipp±yanid±n±nipettha byañjanamukheneva niddh±retabb±ni. Nibbacanapubb±parasandh²su vattabbameva natth²ti ±ha “visesato byañjanadv±reneva atthapariyesan±”ti. Pavattinimitta½ ajjh±say±di.
7. “Padaµµh±ne”ti ida½ sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ k±raºabh³tepi dhamme niddh±retv± sabh±gato, visabh±gato ca ±vaµµana½ k±tabbanti dassanattha½ vutta½, na tantivasena. Tasm± padaµµh±naniddh±raº±ya vin±pi ±vaµµana½ yuttamev±ti siddha½ hoti. Padassa v± saddapavattiµµh±na½ padaµµh±na½ padattho. Etasmi½ pakkhe “±rambhatha nikkamath±ti (sa½. ni. 1.185; netti. 29; peµako. 38; mi. pa. 5.1.4) v²riyassa padaµµh±nan”ti (netti. 29) ettha yv±yam±rambhadh±tu-±diko attho vutto, ta½ v²riyasaddassa pavattiµµh±na½ v²riyasadd±bhidheyyo atthoti evamattho veditabbo. Sesesupi eseva nayo. Sesaka½ n±magahitato itara½, ta½ pana tassa paµipakkhabh³ta½ v± siy±, añña½ v±ti ±ha “visabh±gat±ya aggahaºena v±”ti. Sa½vaººan±ya yojentoti yath±vuttavisabh±gadhammaniddh±raºabh³tena atthakathanena p±¼iya½ yojento. Ten±ha “desanan”ti. “Paµipakkhe”ti ida½ nidassanamatta½ daµµhabba½ sabh±gadhammavasenapi ±vaµµanassa icchitatt±.
8. N±mavasen±ti s±dh±raºan±mavasena. P±¼iya½ pana “micchattaniyat±na½ satt±na½, aniyat±nañca satt±na½ dassanapah±tabb± kiles± s±dh±raº±”ti-±gatatt± (netti. 34) “dassanapah±tabb±din±mavasen±”ti vutta½. Vatthuvasen±ti sattasant±navasena. So hi dhamm±na½ pavattiµµh±nat±ya idha “vatth³”ti adhippeto. Ten±ha– “puthujjanassa, sot±pannassa ca k±mar±gaby±p±d± s±dh±raº±”ti-±di (netti. 34). Vuttavipariy±yen±ti n±mato, vatthuto ca ±veºikat±ya. Ta½ta½maggaphalaµµh±nañhi ta½ta½maggaphalaµµhat±, bhabb±na½ bhabbat±, abhabb±na½ abhabbat± as±dh±raº±.
9. “Bh±vite”ti ida½ bh±van±kiriy±ya upalakkhaºa½, na ettha k±lavacanicch±ti ±ha “bh±vetabbeti attho”ti. Bh±van± cettha ±sevan±ti, kusalasaddopi anavajjaµµhoti veditabbo Paµipakkhatoti vipakkhato. Visadis³d±haraºena byatirekato yath±dhippetadhammappatiµµh±n± hes±.
10. Padatthass±ti pad±bhidheyyassa atthassa, sabh±vadhammassa v±.
11. Nikkhepo desan±. Pabhavo samudayo.
12. “Avutt±nampi saªgaho”ti imin± avuttasamuccayattho ca-saddoti dasseti.
13. “G±th±ru¼he”ti imin± p±¼i-±gatova pañho veditabbo, na itaroti dasseti. Ten±ha “buddh±d²hi by±kate”ti. Tassa atthass±ti ±raddhassa atthassa, tena ±rambhasodhanassa visayam±ha. Ettha ca atthadv±reneva padapucch±sodhanampi kar²yat²ti puna “tassa atthass±”ti vutta½. Atha v± vissajjitamh²ti vissajjane. Vissajjanasodhanena hi pañh±sodhana½. Pañheti pucch±ya½. G±th±yanti upalakkhaºa½, tena g±th±ya½, suttageyy±d²su c±ti vutta½ hoti. Yam±rabbh±ti ya½ s²l±dim±rabbha g±th±d²su desita½, tasmi½ ±rambheti attho. Pucchit±ti pucch±k±rin², “k± ettha padasuddhi, k± pañh±suddhi, k± ±rambhasuddh²”ti eva½ pucch±k±rin² puccha½ katv± pavattit± suddh±suddhaparikkh±ti yojan±.
14. Na vikappayitabb±ti yath± loke “j±ti s±mañña½, bhedo s±mañña½, sambandho s±maññan”ti-±din± s±mañña½ j±ti-±di½, tabbidhurañca visesa½ vikappenti parikappenti, eva½ na vikappayitabb±ti attho. Yad± yo k±laviseso “sve”ti laddhavoh±ro, tad± so ta½divas±tikkame “ajj±”ti, puna ta½divas±tikkame “hiyyo”ti vohar²yat²ti anavaµµhitasabh±v± ete k±lavises±. Dis±yapi “eka½ avadhi½ apekkhitv± puratthim± dis±, tato añña½ apekkhitv± pacchim± n±ma hot²”ti-±din± anavaµµhitasabh±vat± veditabb±. J±ti-±di-apekkh±y±ti j±ti-±didukkhavises±pekkh±ya. Sacc±pekkh±y±ti saccas±maññ±pekkh±ya. “Taºh±”ti vuccam±na½ k±mataºh±di-apekkh±ya s±maññampi sam±na½ sacc±pekkh±ya viseso hot²ti evam±di½ sandh±y±ha “esa nayo samuday±d²sup²”ti.
16. Etth±ti etasmi½ buddhavacane. Ten±ha “sikkhattayasaªkh±tass±”ti-±di. Yath±ruta½ yath±kathita½ saddato adhigata½ niddh±rita½, na atthappakaraºaliªgasaddantarasannidh±n±dippam±ºantar±dhigata½ “Atthato dassit±”ti ida½ yasmi½ sutte bh±van±va kathit±, na pah±na½, ta½ sandh±ya vutta½.