Missakah±rasamp±tavaººan±

Id±ni yasm± suttesu h±r±na½ yojan±nayadassanatt± h±rasamp±tadesan± h±ravibhaªgadesan± viya na h±rasar³pamattadassanatt±, tasm± peµakopadese ±gatanay±nus±rena aparehi vipariy±yehi h±rasamp±tayojan±vidhi½ dassento “apic±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha vijj±vijj±ya kusal±kusalacittappavattiy± alobh±dosalobhados±pi paramparabh±vena pavattanti nid±nabh±vatoti dassento “cha dhamm±…pe… m³l±n²”ti ±ha. Yath± ca nid±nabh±vena pubbaªgamat±, eva½ attano vasevattanen±pi pubbaªgamat± labbhatev±ti vutta½ “s±dhipatik±na½ adhipati, sabbacittupp±d±na½ indriy±n²”ti. Alobhass±ti alobhayuttassa cittupp±dassa. Nekkhammacchanden±ti kusalacchandena. Nekkhammasaddo pabbajj±d²su niru¼ho. Vuttañhi–
“Pabbajj± paµhama½ jh±na½, nibb±nañca vipassan±;
sabbepi kusal± dhamm±, ‘nekkhamman’ti pavuccare”ti. (Itivu. aµµha. 109; d². ni. µ². 2.359; a. ni. µ². 2.2.66)–
Tesu idha kusal± dhamm± adhippet±. Tena vutta½ “kusalacchanden±”ti. Nekkhammacchandena upanissayabh³tena, na adhipatibh³tena. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– alobhappadh±no ce cittupp±do hoti, nekkhammacchandena upanissayabh³tena mano tassa pubbaªgamo hoti. Sesapadadvayepi eseva nayo.
Yadaggena tesa½ dhamm±na½ mano pubbaªgama½, tadaggena tesa½ jeµµha½, padh±nañc±ti vutta½ “manoseµµh±ti mano tesa½ dhamm±nan”ti-±di. Manomayat± manena kat±dibh±vo, so ca manassa tesa½ sahaj±t±din± paccayabh±vo ev±ti vutta½ “manomay±ti…pe… paccayo”ti. Te pan±ti ettha pana-saddo visesatthad²pako, teneta½ dasseti– yadipi tesa½ dhamm±na½ chand±dayopi paccay± eva, indriy±dipaccayena pana savisesa½ paccayabh³tassa manasseva vaseneva vutta½ “manomay±”ti. Tattha chandasamud±n²t±ti yath±vuttanekkhamm±dichandena samm± uddhamuddha½ n²t±, tato samud±gat±ti attho. Tato eva nekkhammavitakk±dito samuppannatt± an±vilasaªkappasamuµµh±n±. Tajj±manoviññ±ºadh±tusamphassena sah±dhiµµh±nato phassasamodh±n±. “Phuµµho, bhikkhave, vedeti, phuµµho sañj±n±ti, phuµµho cetet²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.93) hi vutta½. Ida½ manokammanti k±yaªgav±caªgacopana½ akatv± saddh±samann±gatena pasannena manas± pavatta½ ida½ kusala½ manokamma½. Ta½ pana anabhijjh±sahagata½, aby±p±dasahagata½, samm±diµµhisahagatanti tividha½ hoti.
Bh±sat²ti avisa½v±dan±din± v±caªgacopan±vasena pavattentiy± vac²viññattiy± s±dhetabba½ s±dhet²ti attho, tena k±yadv±rato pavattakusalavac²kammampi saªgahita½ hoti. Tath± hi vakkhati “vac²viññattivipph±rato, tath± s±diyanato ca bh±sat²”ti. Sabbampi vac²kamma½ sacc±divasena catubbidha½. Karot²ti attano, paresañca hit±hit±ni k±raº±k±raºehi k±yaªgacopan±vasena pavattentiy± k±yaviññattiy± s±dhetabba½ s±dhet²ti attho, tena vac²dv±rato pavattakusalak±yakammampi saªgahita½ hoti. Tath± ca vakkhati “k±yaviññattivipph±rato, tath± s±diyanato ca karot²”ti (netti. aµµha. 76 missakah±rasamp±tavaººan±). Kammapathavasena gayham±ne p±º±tip±t±divasena ta½ tividha½ hoti. Ten±ha “iti dasakusalakammapath±dassit±”ti. Dasapuññakiriyavatthuvasen±pi g±th±ya attho yujjati. Tath± hi vakkhati “so pasannacitto”ti-±di. Bh±sati v± karoti v± kevala½ manas± pavattat²ti aniyamattho -saddo. Tath± ceva sa½vaººita½.
Dasavidhassa kusalakammass±ti dasavidhassa kusalakammapathakammassa, vakkham±nanayena v± dasapuññakiriyavatthusaªkh±tassa kusalakammassa. Nanu tattha d±n±dimaya½ tividhameva puññakiriyavatthu vuttanti? Sacca½, ta½ pana itaresa½ tadantogadhatt±.
“Sukhamanvet²”ti saªkhepena vutta½ sukh±nugama½ vitth±rena dassento “idhassu puriso”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha eva½ santanti eva½ bh³ta½, appah²n±nusayo hutv± sukhavedan²yaphassasambh³tanti attho.
Tattha “ya½ mano”ti-±din± g±th±tthavasena catusacca½ niddh±reti. ¾dito vavatth±pitesu khandh±d²su khandhamukhena sacc±na½ kathitatt± satt±na½ bhinnarucibh±vato n±n±nayehi vipassan±bh³mikosallattha½, pubb±parasambandhadassanatthañca eva½ vutta½ “eva½…pe… niddh±retabb±n²”ti. Saccamukhena ass±d±dike niddh±retv± desan±h±rasamp±ta½ yojetu½ “tattha samudayen±”ti-±dim±ha, ta½ vuttanayameva. Yañhettha aññampi atthato na vibhatta½, ta½ heµµh± vuttanayatt±, utt±natthatt± c±ti veditabba½.
Mananalakkhaºeti mananalakkhaºahetu. “Mananalakkhaºen±”ti v± p±µho. ¿h±bh±vato by±p±r±bh±vato. Yena pas±dena samann±gatatt± mano “pasanno”ti vutto, tassa pas±dassa kicca½ mane ±ropetv± ±ha “ak±lusiyato, ±rammaºassa okappanato ca pasannen±”ti. Tath± s±diyanatoti v±c±ya vattabba½ avatv±va phassas±diyanato anuj±nato. Dutiye tath± s±diyanatoti k±yena k±tabba½ yath± kata½ hoti, tath± v±c±ya sa½vidh±nato. Tath± pasutatt±ti yath± sukhamanveti, tath± upacitatt± ev±ti attho. Tatoti tato k±raº±, manas± pasannena, bh±sanena, karaºena ca hetun±ti vutta½ hoti. Anaññatth±ti etasmi½ pana atthe. Tatoti tato eva. Yo hi pasannamano tena ya½ bh±sana½, karaºañca, tato eva na½ sukhamanvet²ti vutta½ hoti. S±tabh±vatoti s±tavedan±bh±vato. Iµµhabh±vatoti man±pabh±vato. Kammato vip±kuppattiphalad±nasamatthabh±vena kammassa nibbattatt± vip±kasseva anibbattatt±ti ±ha “kat³…pe… anvet²ti vuttan”ti k±raº±yatta vuttitoti katabh±vahetukatt± kammass±ti adhipp±yo. Asaªkantitoti yasmi½ sant±ne kamma½ nibbatta½, tadaññasant±n± saªkamanato.
¾dhipaccayogatoti sahaj±t±dhipativasena ±dhipaccayuttatt±. Sahaj±tadhamm±nañhi ta½sampayuttassa manassa vasena pubbaªgamat± idh±dhippet±. Tato ev±ti ±dhipaccayogato eva. Manass±ti upayogatthe s±mivacana½. Tesa½ dhamm±nanti sambandho. Kusalabh±vo yujjati pas±dassa yonisomanasik±rahetukatt± Nanu vibhajjaby±karaºesu tesa½ s±vak±na½ saddh± uppajjat²ti? N±ya½ saddh±, tad±k±r± pana akusal± dhamm± tath± vuccant²ti veditabba½. Tath± hi vakkhati “n±ya½ pas±do”ti-±di (netti. aµµha. 76 missakah±rasamp±tavaººan±). Sukha½ anvet²ti yujjati kammassa phalad±ne samatthabh±vato. Yath± hi kata½ kamma½ phalad±nasamattha½ hoti, tath± kata½ upacitanti vuccat²ti.
Manopavic±r± idha nekkhammasit± somanass³pavic±r±, upekkh³pavic±r± ca veditabb± kusal±dhik±ratt±. Te pana yasm± citta½ niss±yeva pavattanti, n±niss±ya, tasm± vutta½ “mano manopavic±r±na½ padaµµh±nan”ti. Kusalapakkhassa padaµµh±nanti ettha kusalo t±va phasso kusalassa vedan±kkhandhassa saññ±kkhandhassa saªkh±rakkhandhassa sahaj±t±din± paccayo hoti. “Phuµµho, bhikkhave, vedeti, phuµµho sañj±n±ti, phuµµho cetet²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.93) vutta½. Eva½ vedan±d²nampi veditabba½. Saddh±d²nampi paccayabh±ve vattabbameva natthi. Sabbass±ti catubh³makassa. K±m±vacar± hi kusal± dhamm± yath±raha½ catubh³makass±pi kusalassa paccay± honti, eva½ itarabh³mak±pi.
“Pasannena manas± bh±sat²”ti vuttatt± visesato samm±v±c±paccaya½ bh±sana½ idh±dhippetanti vutta½ “bh±sat²ti samm±v±c±”ti. Tatth±yamadhipp±yo “bh±sat²ti yamida½ pada½, imin± samm±v±c± gahit± hot²”ti. Karot²ti samm±kammantoti etth±pi eseva nayo. Suparisuddhe k±yavac²kamme µhitassa ±j²vap±risuddhi, na itarass±ti vutta½ “te samm±-±j²vassa padaµµh±nan”ti. Tattha teti samm±v±c±kammant±. Yasm± pana ±j²vaµµhamake s²le patiµµhitassa uppann±nuppann±na½ akusaladhamm±na½ pah±n±nupp±dan±ni, anuppannuppann±na½ kusaladhamm±na½ upp±danap±rip³riy± ca sambhavanti, tath± samm±v±y±me µhitasseva k±y±d²su subhasaññ±dividdha½sin² samm±sati sambhavati, tasm± vutta½ “samm±-±j²vo…pe…padaµµh±nan”ti. Jeµµhakas²la½ p±timokkhasa½varo, saddh±s±dhano ca soti ±ha “ta½ s²lassa padaµµh±nan”ti.
Tesanti k±yavac²kamm±na½. Kammapaccayat±y±ti kusalakammahetukat±ya.
Padattho ca vuttanayen±ti “mananato ±rammaºavij±nanato”ti-±din±.
Aya½ ±vaµµoti aya½ sabh±gavisabh±gadhamm±vaµµanavasena ±vaµµo. Ettha hi kusalam³lasammattamagg±diniddh±raº± sabh±gadhamm±vaµµan±. Avijj±bhavataºh±na½ niddh±raº± visabh±gadhamm±vaµµan±.
Vibhattih±re padaµµh±nabh³mivibh±g± vuttanay±, suviññeyy± c±ti dhammavibh±gameva dassento “nayidan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha “nayida½ yath±rutavasena gahetabban”ti suttassa neyyatthata½ vatv± “yoh²”ti-±din± ta½ vivarati. “Dukkhameva anvet²”ti kasm± vutta½, nanu yattha katthaci hitesit± kusalamev±ti? Nayidam²disa½ sandh±ya vutta½, adhamma½ pana dhammoti, dhammañca pana adhammoti d²panena lokassa sabb±natthab²jabh³tesu sakalahitasukhup±yapaµikkhepakesu titthakaresu asantaguºasambh±vanavasena pavattamicch±dhimokkha½ sandh±ya vutta½. Yo hi loke appamattakampi puñña½ k±tuk±ma½ p±pika½ diµµhi½ niss±ya paµib±hati, sopi g±rayho, kimaªga½ pana ariyavinaye samm±paµipatti½ paµib±hantes³ti dukkhaphal±va tattha sambh±van±pasa½s± payirup±san±. Tath± hi vutta½– “na kho aha½, moghapurisa, arahattassa macchar±y±mi, apica tuyheveta½ p±paka½ diµµhigata½…pe… d²gharatta½ ahit±ya dukkh±ya sa½vattat²”ti (d². ni. 3.7), “yo nindiya½ pasa½sati (su. ni. 663; sa½. ni. 1.180, 181; a. ni. 4.3; netti. 92), sabbass±pi anatthassa m³la½ b±l³pasevan±”ti ca.
Idañhi suttanti “manopubbaªgam±…pe…padan”ti (dha. pa. 1, 2) paµhama½ g±tha½ sandh±ya vadati. Etass±ti sa½vaººiyam±nasuttassa.
Kiccapaññatt²ti adhipatipaccayasaªkh±tassa kiccassa paññ±pana½. Padh±napaññatt²ti padh±nabh±vassa paññ±pan±. Sahaj±tapaññatt²ti tesa½ dhamm±na½ manas± sahabh±vapaññ±pan±.
Mah±bh³t±t²ti itisaddo ±di-attho, tena mah±bh³t±vin±bh±v² sabbo r³padhammo saªgayhati.
“Manopubbaªgam±”ti sam±sapade “mano”ti pada½ tadavayavamattanti ±ha “neva padasuddh²”ti. Tenev±ha “manopubbaªgam±ti padasuddh²”ti. “Ch±y±va anap±yin²”ti ida½ sukh±nugamassa ud±haraºamatta½, na yath±dhippetatthaparisam±pana½. “Sukhamanvet²”ti pana yath±dhippetatthaparisam±pananti vutta½ “padasuddhi ceva ±rambhasuddhi c±”ti.
Ekattat±ti manopubbaªgam±dis±mañña½ sandh±ya vadati. Eva½ sesesupi. Vemattat± “manopubbaªgam±”ti-±din± s±maññato vuttadhamme pas±do dh±raº±ya nivattetv± pasannasaªkh±te visese avaµµh±panato. Sesesupi eseva nayo. Pas±do sinehasabh±vo, assaddhiya½ viya l³khasabh±va½ dosa½ vinodet²ti ±ha “by±p±davikkhambhanato”ti. Bahiddh±ti saddheyyavatthu½ sandh±y±ha. Okappanatoti ±rammaºa½ anupavisitv± anupakkhanditv± saddahanato.
Deyyadhamm±dayoti ettha ±disaddena sa½vegahirottappakasiºamaº¹al±dayo saªgayhanti. Iµµh±rammaº±dayoti ±disaddena iµµhamajjhatt±rammaº±, dv±radhamm±, manasik±roti evam±d²na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo. Tath± phassoti yath± vedan±d²na½ iµµh±rammaº±dayo paccayo, eva½ phassop²ti paccayat±s±maññameva upasa½harati tath±-saddo. Vedan±d²nanti hi vedan±dayo tayo khandh± gahit±. Viññ±ºassa vedan±dayoti n±mar³pa½ sandh±ya vadati.
“S²lamayassa adoso padaµµh±nan”ti vutta½ khantipadh±natt± s²lassa. Adhiµµh±t²ti anuyuñjati upp±deti. Soti eva½ kusalacitta½ bh±vento. “Anuppann±nan”ti-±din± bh±van±pah±nasam±ropan±ni dassento nibbedhabh±giyavasena g±th±ya attha½ vicinitv± sam±ropeti, evampi sakk± yojetunti v±san±bh±giyavasena padaµµh±naniddese ud±har²yati.
Eva½ “manopubbaªgam± dhamm±”ti g±th±ya vasena h±rasamp±tayojan±vidhi½ dassetv± id±ni g±th±ntarena dassetu½ “tath± dadato puññan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha bh±van±mayanti paññ±bh±van±maya½.
“Alobho kusalam³lan”ti-±di d±n±d²na½ alobh±dipadh±natt± vutta½, sabbattha ca “vuttan”ti pada½ ±netv± yojetabba½. Tesanti r±g±d²na½. Nissaraºanti ca parinibb±nameva sandh±ya vadati.
Paricc±gas²lo alobhajjh±sayo k±mesu ±d²navadass±v² sammadeva s²la½ parip³ret²ti ±ha “dadato…pe… padaµµh±nan”ti. Idha o¼±rik± n±ma kiles± v²tikkam±vatth±na½, tappah±na½ tadaªgappah±nena veditabba½. Majjhim±nanti pariyuµµh±n±vatth±na½. Sukhum±nanti anusay±vatth±na½. Kat±v²bh³mi nti kh²º±savabh³mi½.
Dadatoti maggasahagatena alobhena sadevakassa lokassa abhayad±na½ dadato. Puññanti lokuttarakusala½. Sa½yamatoti maggapariy±pannehi samm±v±c±kammant±j²vehi diµµhekaµµh±disa½kilesato maggasa½yamena sa½yamantassa. Veranti p±º±tip±t±dip±pa½. Kusaloti maggasamm±diµµhiy± kusalo vicakkhaºo. Jah±ti p±pakanti tehi tehi maggehi ta½ ta½ pah±tabba½ p±padhamma½ odhiso jah±ti samucchindati. Ten±ha “maggo vutto”ti.
“Dadato”ti-±din± pubbe avibh±gena kusalam³l±ni uddhaµ±n²ti id±ni vibh±gena t±ni uddharanto “lokiyakusalam³lan”ti-±dim±ha.
Puthujjanabh³mi sekkhabh³mi dassit± pah±nassa vippakatabh±vad²panato. Asekkhabh³mi dassit± anup±d±parinibb±nad²panato.
Saggag±min² paµipad± pubbabh±gappaµipatti.
Puññe kathite puññaphalampi kathitameva hot²ti vutta½ “dadato…pe… desanam±h±”ti. Saccakammaµµh±nena vin± sa½kilesappah±na½ natth²ti dassento ±ha “kusalo…pe… desanam±h±”ti.
Verasaddo adinn±d±n±dip±padhammesupi niru¼hoti vutta½ “eva½ sabb±nipi sikkh±pad±ni vitth±retabb±n²”ti. Dvepi vimuttiyo sekkh±sekkhavimuttiyo, sa-up±disesa-anup±disesavimuttiyo ca. Tath± hi vakkhati “nibbutoti dve nibb±nadh±tuyo”ti-±di (netti. aµµha. 76).
K±raº³pac±rena, k±raºaggahaºena v± phala½ gahitanti ±ha “dve sugatiyo”ti-±di. Vaµµavivaµµasampattiyo imiss± desan±ya phala½, tassa d±na½ s²la½ bh±van± up±yo, “sampattidvaya½ icchantena d±n±d²su appamattena bhavitabban”ti ayamettha bhagavato ±ºatt²ti imamattha½ sandh±y±ha “phal±d²ni yath±raha½ veditabb±n²”ti.
Vicayoti vicayah±rasamp±to, so vuccat²ti attho. Esa nayo ito paresupi. “Tividhampi d±namayan”ti-±din± padatthavicaya½ dasseti, tena ass±d±dayo, itare ca vicayah±rapadatth± atthato vicit± eva hont²ti. R³p±di-±rammaºassa paricc±go vuttoti sambandho. Sabboti sakalo anavasesato kiccassa vuttatt±.
D±n±bhiratassa c±g±dhiµµh±na½ p±rip³ri½ gacchat²ti vutta½ “dadato…pe… padaµµh±nan”ti. Viratisacce, vac²sacce ca tiµµhato sacc±dhiµµh±na½ p±rip³ri½ gacchat²ti vutta½ “sa½yama…pe… padaµµh±nan”ti. Kosallayogato ca p±pappah±nato ca paññ±p±rip³ri½ gacchat²ti vutta½ “kusalo…pe… padaµµh±nan”ti. Anavasesar±g±d²su pah²nesu upasamo upaµµhito n±ma hot²ti vutta½ “r±ga…pe… padaµµh±nan”ti.
Kusaloti puggal±dhiµµh±nena kosallasamm±diµµhi vutt±ti ±ha “kusalo…pe… maggaªg±dibh±vena ekalakkhaºatt±”ti. ¾disaddena bodhipakkhiyabh±v±di½ saªgaºh±ti. Khepetabbabh±ven±ti pah±tabbabh±vena.
Averatanti asapattata½. Kusaladhammeh²ti anavajjadhammehi, phalanibb±neh²ti adhipp±yo. D±nassa mahapphalat±, s²l±diguºehi satthu anuttaradakkhiºeyyabh±vo, anup±d±parinibb±nanti imesa½ paccavekkhaº± imassa d±nassa nid±nanti ayamattho p±¼iya½ niru¼hova. Nibbacananid±nasandhayo suviññeyy±v±ti ±ha “nibbacananid±nasandhayo vattabb±”ti.
Paµipakkhaniddesena samudayoti desanattha½ paµipakkhaniddesanena niddh±rito aya½ macchariy±disa½kilesapakkhiko samudayo. Alobhena…pe… d±n±d²h²ti yehi alobh±d²hi d±n±dayo dhamm± sambhavanti, t±ni d±n±diggahaºeneva gahit±n²ti kusalam³l±ni niddh±reti “im±ni t²ºi kusal±n²”ti. Tesanti kusalam³l±na½.
Bhayahetu deti paºº±k±r±divasena. R±gahetu deti sabh±gavatthussa. ¾misakiñcikkhahetu deti lañj±divasena. Anukampanto v± karuº±khette. Apacayam±no guºakhette, upak±rakhette v±. Bhay³paratoti bhayena orato. Tena tath±r³pena sa½yamena vera½ na ciyateva. Eva½ sabbassa akusalassa p±pako vip±koti yojan±.
“Dadato”ti-±din± yath± d±napaµikkhepena parivattana½ dassita½, eva½ pah±napaµikkhepenapi parivattana½ dassetabbanti vutta½ “akusalo pana na jah±t²”ti.
Kammaphala½ saddahanto d±nakiriy±ya½ padahanto yena vidhin± d±na½ d±tabba½, tattha sati½ upaµµhapento citta½ sam±dahanto samm±diµµhi½ purakkharonto d±ne samm±paµipanno hot²ti ±ha “d±na½ n±ma…pe… hot²”ti.
Bh±van±pah±nasam±ropan±ni p±¼iya½ sar³pato viññ±yant²ti padaµµh±navevacanasam±ropan±ni dassetu½ “ta½ s²lassa padaµµh±nan”ti-±di vutta½, ta½ suviññeyya½. Aññañca yadettha atthato na vibhatta½, ta½ vuttanayatt±, utt±natthatt± c±ti veditabba½.

H±rasamp±tav±ravaººan± niµµhit±.