Eva½ visu½ visu½ suttesu ±gat± phal³p±y±ºattiyo ud±haraºabh±vena dassetv± id±ni t± ekato ±gat± dassetu½ “suññato”ti g±tham±ha.
Tattha suññato loka½ avekkhassu, moghar±j±ti ±ºatt²ti “moghar±ja, sabbampi saªkh±raloka½ avasavattit±sallakkhaºavasena v± tucchabh±vasamanupassanavasena v± suññoti pass±”ti ida½ dhammar±jassa vacana½ vidh±nabh±vato ±ºatti. Sabbad± satikiriy±ya ta½suññat±dassana½ sampajjat²ti “sad± satoti up±yo”ti vutta½. Att±nudiµµhi½ ³hacc±ti v²sativatthuka½ sakk±yadassana½ uddharitv± samucchinditv±. Eva½ maccutaro siy±ti. Ida½ phalanti ya½ eva½ vuttena vidhin± maccutaraºa½ maccuno visay±tikkamana½ tassa ya½ pubbabh±gapaµipad±paµipajjana½, ida½ desan±ya phalanti attho. Yath± pana ass±d±dayo sutte katthaci sar³pato katthaci niddh±retabbat±ya katthaci visu½ visu½ katthaci ekato dassit±, na eva½ phal±dayo. Phal±dayo pana sabbattha sutte g±th±su v± ekato dassetabb±ti imassa nayassa dassanattha½ visu½ visu½ ud±haritv±pi puna “suññato lokan”ti-±din± ekato ud±haraºa½ katanti daµµhabba½.
6. Eva½ ass±d±dayo ud±haraºavasena sar³pato dassetv± id±ni tattha puggalavibh±gena desan±vibh±ga½ dassetu½ “tattha bhagav±”ti-±di vutta½.
Tattha ugghaµita½ ghaµitamatta½ uddiµµhamatta½ yassa niddesapaµiniddes± na kat±, ta½ j±n±t²ti ugghaµitaññ³. Uddesamattena sappabheda½ savitth±ramattha½ paµivijjhat²ti attho, ugghaµita½ v± uccalita½ uµµhapitanti attho, ta½ j±n±t²ti ugghaµitaññ³. Dhammo hi desiyam±no desakato desan±bh±jana½ saªkamanto viya hoti, tamesa uccalitameva j±n±t²ti attho, calitameva v± ugghaµita½. Sassat±di-±k±rassa hi veneyy±na½ ±sayassa buddh±veºik± dhammadesan± taªkhaºapatit± eva calan±ya hoti, tato parampar±nuvattiy±, tatth±ya½ ugghaµite calitamatteyeva ±saye dhamma½ j±n±ti avabujjhat²ti ugghaµitaññ³, tassa ugghaµitaññussa nissaraºa½ desayati, tattakeneva tassa atthasiddhito. Vipañcita½ vitth±rita½ niddiµµha½ j±n±t²ti vipañcitaññ³, vipañcita½ v± manda½ saºika½ dhamma½ j±n±t²ti vipañcitaññ³, tassa vipañcitaññussa ±d²navañca nissaraºañca desayati, n±tisaªkhepavitth±r±ya desan±ya tassa atthasiddhito. Netabbo dhammassa paµiniddisena attha½ p±petabboti neyyo, mudindriyat±ya v± paµilomaggahaºato netabbo anunetabboti neyyo, tassa neyyassa ass±da½ ±d²nava½ nissaraºañca desayati, anavasesetv±va desanena tassa atthasiddhito. Tatth±ya½ p±¼i–
“Katamo ca puggalo ugghaµitaññ³? Yassa puggalassa saha ud±haµavel±ya dhamm±bhisamayo hoti. Aya½ vuccati puggalo ugghaµitaññ³.
“Katamo ca puggalo vipañcitaññ³? Yassa puggalassa sa½khittena bh±sitassa vitth±rena atthe vibhajiyam±ne dhamm±bhisamayo hoti. Aya½ vuccati puggalo vipañcitaññ³.
“Katamo ca puggalo neyyo? Yassa puggalassa uddesato paripucchato yonisomanasikaroto kaly±ºamitte sevato bhajato payirup±sato eva½ anupubbena dhamm±bhisamayo hoti. Aya½ vuccati puggalo neyyo”ti (pu. pa. 148-150).
Padaparamo panettha nettiya½ paµivedhassa abh±jananti na gahitoti daµµhabba½. Ettha ca ass±do, ±d²navo, nissaraºa½, ass±do ca ±d²navo ca, ass±do ca nissaraºañca, ±d²navo ca nissaraºañca, ass±do ca ±d²navo ca nissaraºañc±ti ete satta paµµh±nanay±.
Tesu tatiyachaµµhasattam± veneyyattayavinayane samatthat±ya gahit±, itare catt±ro na gahit±. Na hi kevalena ass±dena ±d²navena tadubhayena v± kathitena veneyyavinayana½ sambhavati, kiles±na½ pah±n±vacanato. Pañcamopi ±d²nav±vacanato nissaraºassa anup±yo eva. Na hi vimuttiras± bhagavato desan± vimutti½ tadup±yañca an±masant² pavattati. Tasm± ete catt±ro nay± anuddhaµ±. Sace pana padaparamassa puggalassa vasena pavatta½ sa½kilesabh±giya½ v±san±bh±giya½ tadubhayabh±ge µhita½ desana½ suttekadesa½ g±tha½ v± t±disa½ etesa½ nay±na½ ud±haraºabh±vena uddharati, eva½ sati sattannampi nay±na½ gahaºa½ bhaveyya. Veneyyavinayana½ pana tesa½ sant±ne ariyamaggassa upp±dana½. Ta½ yath±vuttehi eva nayeti, n±vaseseh²ti itare idha na vutt±. Yasm± pana peµake (peµako. 23)–
“Tattha katamo ass±do ca ±d²navo ca?
Y±ni karoti puriso, t±ni attani passati;
kaly±ºak±r² kaly±ºa½, p±pak±r² ca p±pakan”ti.
Tattha ya½ kaly±ºak±r² kaly±ºa½ paccanubhoti, aya½ ass±do. Ya½ p±pak±r² p±pa½ paccanubhoti, aya½ ±d²navo.
Aµµhime bhikkhave, lokadhamm±. Katame aµµha? L±bhoti-±di (a. ni. 8.6). Tattha l±bho yaso sukha½ pasa½s±, aya½ ass±do. Al±bho ayaso dukkha½ nind±, aya½ ±d²navo.
Tattha katamo ass±do ca nissaraºañca?
“Sukho vip±ko puññ±na½, adhipp±yo ca ijjhati;
khippañca parama½ santi½, nibb±namadhigacchat²”ti. (Peµako. 23).
Aya½ ass±do ca nissaraºañca.
Dvatti½sim±ni, bhikkhave, mah±purisassa mah±purisalakkhaº±ni, yehi samann±gatassa mah±purisassa dveva gatiyo bhavanti anaññ±…pe… vivaµacchadoti sabba½ lakkhaºasutta½, (d². ni. 3.199) aya½ ass±do ca nissaraºañca.
Tattha katamo ±d²navo ca nissaraºañca?
“Bh±r± have pañcakkhandh±, bh±rah±ro ca puggalo;
bh±r±d±na½ dukha½ loke, bh±ranikkhepana½ sukha½.
“Nikkhipitv± garu½ bh±ra½, añña½ bh±ra½ an±diya;
sam³la½ taºhamabbuyha, nicch±to parinibbuto”ti. (Sa½. ni. 3.22).
Aya½ ±d²navo ca nissaraºañca.
Tattha katamo ass±do ca ±d²navo ca nissaraºañca?
“K±m± hi citr± madhur± manoram±, vir³par³pena mathenti citta½;
tasm± aha½ pabbajitomhi r±ja, apaººaka½ s±maññameva seyyoti. (Ma. ni. 2.307; therag±. 787-788; peµako. 23).
Aya½ ass±do ca ±d²navo ca nissaraºañc±”ti vutta½. Tasm± tepi nay± idha niddh±retv± veditabb±. Phal±d²supi aya½ nayo labbhati eva. Yasm± peµake (peµako. 22) “tattha katama½ phalañca up±yo ca? S²le patiµµh±ya naro sapañño”ti g±th± (sa½. ni. 1.23), ida½ phalañca up±yo ca.
Tattha katama½ phalañca ±ºatti ca?
“Sace bh±yatha dukkhassa, sace vo dukkhamappiya½;
m±kattha p±paka½ kamma½, ±vi v± yadi v± rahoti. (Ud±. 44).
Ida½ phalañca ±ºatti ca.
Tattha katamo up±yo ca ±ºatti ca?
“Kumbh³pama½ k±yamima½ viditv±, nagar³pama½ cittamida½ µhapetv±;
yodhetha m±ra½ paññ±vudhena, jitañca rakkhe anivesano siy±”ti. (Dha. pa. 40).
Aya½ up±yo ca ±ºatti ca. Eva½ phal±d²na½ dukavasenapi ud±haraºa½ veditabba½. Ettha ca yo nissaraºadesan±ya vinetabbo, so ugghaµitaññ³ti-±din± yath± desan±vibh±gena puggalavibh±gasiddhi hoti, eva½ ugghaµitaññussa bhagav± nissaraºa½ deset²ti-±din± puggalavibh±gena desan±vibh±go sambhavat²ti so tath± dassito.
Eva½ yesa½ puggal±na½ vasena desan±vibh±go dassito, te puggale paµipad±vibh±gena vibhajitv± dassetu½ “catasso paµipad±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha paµipad±bhiññ±kato vibh±go paµipad±kato hot²ti ±ha– “catasso paµipad±”ti. T± panet± ca samathavipassan±paµipattivasena duvidh± honti. Katha½? Samathapakkhe t±va paµhamasamann±h±rato paµµh±ya y±va tassa tassa jh±nassa upac±ra½ uppajjati, t±va pavatt± samathabh±van± “paµipad±”ti vuccati. Upac±rato pana paµµh±ya y±va appan± t±va pavatt± paññ± “abhiññ±”ti vuccati.
S± pan±ya½ paµipad± ekaccassa dukkh± hoti n²varaº±dipaccan²kadhammasamud±c±ragahaºat±ya kicch± asukhasevan±ti attho, ekaccassa tadabh±vena sukh±. Abhiññ±pi ekaccassa dandh± hoti mand± as²ghappavatti, ekaccassa khipp± amand± s²ghappavatti. Tasm± yo ±dito kilese vikkhambhento dukkhena sasaªkh±rena sappayogena kilamanto vikkhambheti, tassa dukkh± paµipad± hoti. Yo pana vikkhambhitakileso appan±pariv±sa½ vasanto cirena aªgap±tubh±va½ p±puº±ti, tassa dandh±bhiññ± n±ma hoti. Yo khippa½ aªgap±tubh±va½ p±puº±ti, tassa khipp±bhiññ± n±ma hoti. Yo kilese vikkhambhento sukhena akilamanto vikkhambheti, tassa sukh± paµipad± n±ma hoti.
Vipassan±pakkhe pana yo r³p±r³pamukhena vipassana½ abhinivisanto catt±ri mah±bh³t±ni pariggahetv± up±d±r³pa½ pariggaºh±ti ar³pa½ pariggaºh±ti, r³p±r³pa½ pana pariggaºhanto dukkhena kasirena kilamanto pariggahetu½ sakkoti, tassa dukkh± paµipad± n±ma hoti. Pariggahitar³p±r³passa pana vipassan±pariv±se maggap±tubh±vadandhat±ya dandh±bhiññ± n±ma hoti. Yopi r³p±r³pa½ pariggahetv± n±mar³pa½ vavatthapento dukkhena kasirena kilamanto vavatthapeti, vavatthapite ca n±mar³pe vipassan±pariv±sa½ vasanto cirena magga½ upp±detu½ sakkoti. Tass±pi dukkh± paµipad± dandh±bhiññ± n±ma hoti.
Aparo n±mar³pampi vavatthapetv± paccaye pariggaºhanto dukkhena kasirena kilamanto pariggaºh±ti, paccaye ca pariggahetv± vipassan±pariv±sa½ vasanto cirena magga½ upp±deti. Evampi dukkh± paµipad± dandh±bhiññ± n±ma hoti.
Aparo paccayepi pariggahetv± lakkhaº±ni paµivijjhanto dukkhena kasirena kilamanto paµivijjhati, paµividdhalakkhaºo ca vipassan±pariv±sa½ vasanto cirena magga½ upp±deti. Evampi dukkh± paµipad± dandh±bhiññ± n±ma hoti.
Aparo lakkhaº±nipi paµivijjhitv± vipassan±ñ±ºe tikkhe s³re suppasanne vahante uppanna½ vipassan±nikanti½ pariy±diyam±no dukkhena kasirena kilamanto pariy±diyati, nikantiñca pariy±diyitv± vipassan±pariv±sa½ vasanto cirena magga½ upp±deti. Evampi dukkh± paµipad± dandh±bhiññ± n±ma hoti. Imin±vup±yena itar±pi tisso paµipad± veditabb±. Vipassan±pakkhik± eva panettha catasso paµipad± daµµhabb±.
Catt±ro puggal±ti yath±vuttapaµipad±vibh±gena catt±ro paµipannakapuggal±. Ta½ pana paµipad±vibh±ga½ saddhi½ hetup±yaphalehi dassetu½ “taºh±carito”ti-±di vutta½.
Tattha caritanti cariy±, vutt²ti attho. Taºh±ya nibbattita½ carita½ etass±ti taºh±carito, taºh±ya v± pavattito carito taºh±carito, lobhajjh±sayoti attho. Diµµhicaritoti etth±pi eseva nayo. Mandoti mandiya½ vuccati avijj±, t±ya samann±gato mando, moh±dhikoti attho.
Satindriyen±ti satiy± ±dhipacca½ kurum±n±ya. Satindriyameva hissa visada½ hoti. Yasm± taºh±caritat±ya pubbabh±ge kosajj±bhibhavena na v²riya½ balava½ hoti, moh±dhikat±ya na paññ± balavat². Tadubhayen±pi na sam±dhi balav± hoti, tasm± “satindriyameva hissa visada½ hot²”ti vutta½. Tenev±ha– “satipaµµh±nehi nissayeh²”ti. Taºh±caritat±ya cassa kilesavikkhambhana½ na sukaranti dukkh± paµipad±, avisadañ±ºat±ya dandh±bhiññ±ti pubbe vuttanaya½ ±netv± yojetabba½. Niyy±t²ti ariyamaggena vaµµadukkhato niggacchati.