4. Paµiniddesav±ravaººan±

1. Desan±h±ravibhaªgavaººan±

5. Eva½ h±r±dayo sukhaggahaºattha½ g±th±bandhavasena sar³pato niddisitv± id±ni tesu h±re t±va paµiniddesavasena vibhajitu½ “tattha katamo desan±h±ro”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha katamoti kathetukamyat±pucch±. Desan±h±roti pucchitabbadhammanidassana½. Kiñc±pi desan±h±ro niddesav±re sar³pato dassito, paµiniddesassa pana visaya½ dassento “ass±d±d²navat±”ti g±tha½ ekadesena pacc±masati. Aya½ desan±h±ro pubb±par±pekkho. Tattha pubb±pekkhatte “katamo desan±h±ro”ti pucchitv± “ass±d±d²navat±”ti sar³pato dassitassa nigamana½ hoti. Par±pekkhatte pana “aya½ desan±h±ro ki½ desayat²”ti desan±kiriy±ya kattuniddeso hoti. Tena desan±h±rassa anvatthasaññata½ dasseti. Desayat²ti sa½vaººeti, vitth±ret²ti attho.
Id±ni anena desetabbadhamme sar³pato dassento “ass±dan”ti-±dim±ha, ta½ pubbe vuttanayatt± utt±nameva. Tasm± ito parampi avuttameva vaººayiss±ma. “Kattha pana ±gate ass±d±dike aya½ h±ro sa½vaººet²”ti anuyoga½ manasikatv± desan±h±rena sa½vaººetabbadhamma½ dassento “dhamma½ vo, bhikkhave, desess±m²”ti-±dika½ sabbapariyattidhammasaªg±haka½ bhagavato chachakkadesana½ ekadesena dasseti.
Tattha dhammanti aya½ dhamma-saddo pariyattisaccasam±dhipaññ±pakatipuññ±pattiñeyy±d²su bah³su atthesu diµµhappayogo. Tath± hi “idha, bhikkhu, dhamma½ pariy±puº±t²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 5.73) pariyattidhamme dissati. “Diµµhadhammo pattadhammo”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.299; mah±va. 18) sacce. “Eva½dhamm± te bhagavanto ahesun”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.13, 145) sam±dhimhi. “Sacca½ dhammo dhiti c±go”ti evam±d²su (j±. 1.1.57; 1.2.147-148) paññ±ya½. “J±tidhamm±na½, bhikkhave, satt±nan”ti evam±d²su (d². ni. 2.398; ma. ni. 1.131) pakatiya½ “Dhammo have rakkhati dhammac±rin”ti-±d²su (j±. 1.10.102; 1.15.385) puññe. “Catt±ro p±r±jik± dhamm±”ti evam±d²su (p±r±. 233) ±pattiya½. “Kusal± dhamm± akusal±dhamm±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. tikam±tik± 1) ñeyye. Idha pana pariyattiya½ daµµhabboti (ma. ni. aµµha. 1.m³lapariy±yasuttavaººan±; dha. sa. aµµha. cittupp±dakaº¹a 1; bu. va½. aµµha. 1.1).
Voti pana aya½ vo-saddo “handa d±ni, bhikkhave, pav±remi vo”ti (sa½. ni. 1.215) ettha upayogatthe ±gato. “Sannipatit±na½ vo, bhikkhave, dvaya½ karaº²yan”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.273) karaºatthe. “Ye hi vo ariy± parisuddhak±yakammant±”ti-±d²su padap³raºe. “¾rocay±mi vo, bhikkhave”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 7.72) sampad±natthe. Idh±pi sampad±natthe ev±ti daµµhabbo.
Bhikkhanas²lat±diguºayogena bhikkh³, bhinnakilesat±diguºayogena v±. Atha v± sa½s±re bhaya½ ikkhant²ti bhikkh³. Bhikkhaveti tesa½ ±lapana½. Tena te dhammassavane niyojento attano mukh±bhimukha½ karoti. Desess±m²ti kathess±mi. Tena n±ha½ dhammissarat±ya tumhe añña½ kiñci k±reyy±mi, an±varaºañ±ºena sabba½ ñeyyadhamma½ paccakkhak±rit±ya pana dhamma½ desess±m²ti id±ni pavattiyam±na½ dhammadesana½ paµij±n±ti. ¾dikaly±ºanti-±d²su ±dimhi kaly±ºa½ ±dikaly±ºa½, ±dikaly±ºametass±ti v± ±dikaly±ºa½. Sesapadadvayepi eseva nayo. Tattha s²lena ±dikaly±ºa½. Sam±dhin± majjhekaly±ºa½. Paññ±ya pariyos±nakaly±ºa½. Buddhasubuddhat±ya v± ±dikaly±ºa½. Dhammasudhammat±ya majjhekaly±ºa½. Saªghasuppaµipattiy± pariyos±nakaly±ºa½. Atha v± ugghaµitaññuvinayanena ±dikaly±ºa½. Vipañcitaññuvinayanena majjhekaly±ºa½ neyyapuggalavinayanena pariyos±nakaly±ºa½. Ayamevattho idh±dhippeto.
Atthasampattiy± s±ttha½. Byañjanasampattiy± sabyañjana½. Saªk±san±dicha-atthapadasam±yogato v± s±ttha½. Akkhar±dichabyañjanapadasam±yogato sabyañjana½. Ayamevattho idh±dhippeto. Upanetabb±bh±vato ekantena paripuººanti kevalaparipuººa½. Apanetabb±bh±vato parisuddha½. S²l±dipañcadhammakkhandhap±rip³riy± v± paripuººa½. Caturoghanittharaº±ya pavattiy± lok±misanirapekkhat±ya ca parisuddha½. Brahma½ seµµha½ uttama½ brahm³na½ v± seµµh±na½ ariy±na½ cariya½ sikkhattayasaªgaha½ s±sana½ brahmacariya½ pak±sayiss±mi parid²payiss±m²ti attho.
Eva½ bhagavat± desito pak±sito ca s±sanadhammo yesa½ ass±d±d²na½ dassanavasena pavatto, te ass±d±dayo desan±h±rassa visayabh³t± yattha yattha p±µhe savisesa½ vutt±, tato tato niddh±retv± ud±haraºavasena idh±netv± dassetu½ “tattha katamo ass±do”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha k±manti man±piyar³p±di½ tebh³makadhammasaªkh±ta½ vatthuk±ma½. K±mayam±nass±ti icchantassa. Tassa ceta½ samijjhat²ti tassa k±mayam±nassa sattassa ta½ k±masaªkh±ta½ vatthu samijjhati ce, sace so ta½ labhat²ti vutta½ hoti. Addh± p²timano hot²ti eka½sena tuµµhacitto hoti. Laddh±ti labhitv±. Maccoti satto. Yadicchat²ti ya½ icchati. Ayamettha saªkhepo, vitth±ro pana niddese (mah±ni. 1) vuttanayena veditabbo. Aya½ ass±doti y±ya½ adhipp±yasamijjhan± icchital±bhe p²timanat± somanassa½, aya½ ass±detabbato ass±do.
Tassa ce k±may±nass±ti tassa puggalassa k±me iccham±nassa, k±mena v± y±yam±nassa. Chandaj±tass±ti j±tataºhassa. Jantunoti sattassa. Te k±m± parih±yant²ti te vatthuk±m± kenaci antar±yena vinassanti ce. Sallaviddhova ruppat²ti atha ayomay±din± sallena viddho viya p²¼iyat²ti attho. Aya½ ±d²navoti y±ya½ k±m±na½ vipariº±maññath±bh±v± k±may±nassa sattassa ruppan± domanassuppatti, aya½ ±d²navo.
Yo k±me parivajjet²ti yo bhikkhu yath±vutte k±me tattha chandar±gassa vikkhambhanena v± samucchindanena v± sabbabh±gena vajjeti. Yath± ki½? Sappasseva pad± siroti, yath± koci puriso j²vituk±mo kaºhasappa½ paµipathe passitv± attano p±dena tassa sira½ parivajjeti, soma½…pe… samativattat²ti so bhikkhu sabba½ loka½ visaritv± µhitatt± loke visattik±saªkh±ta½ ima½ taºha½ satim± hutv± samatikkamat²ti. Ida½ nissaraºanti yadida½ visattik±saªkh±t±ya taºh±ya nibb±n±rammaºena ariyamaggena samativattana½, ida½ nissaraºa½.
Khettanti ked±r±dikhetta½. Vatthunti gharavatthu-±divatthu½. Hirañña½ v±ti kah±paºasaªkh±ta½ suvaººasaªkh±tañca hirañña½. -saddo vikappanattho, so sabbapadesu yojetabbo. Gav±ssanti g±vo ca asse c±ti gav±ssa½. D±saporisanti d±se ca porise c±ti d±saporisa½. Thiyoti itthiyo. Bandh³ti ñ±tibandhavo. Puth³ k±meti aññepi v± man±piyar³p±dike bah³ k±maguºe. Yo naro anugijjhat²ti yo satto anu anu abhikaªkhati patthet²ti attho. Aya½ ass±doti yadida½ khett±d²na½ anugijjhana½, aya½ ass±deti vatthuk±me eten±ti ass±do.
Abal± na½ bal²yant²ti khett±dibhede k±me anugijjhanta½ ta½ puggala½ kusalehi pah±tabbatt± abalasaªkh±t± kiles± bal²yanti abhibhavanti, saddh±bal±divirahena v± abala½ ta½ puggala½ abal± kiles± bal²yanti, abalatt± abhibhavant²ti attho. Maddantena½ parissay±ti ena½ k±magiddha½ k±me pariyesanta½ rakkhantañca s²h±dayo ca p±kaµaparissay± k±yaduccarit±dayo ca ap±kaµaparissay± maddanti. Tato na½…pe… dakanti tato tehi p±kaµ±p±kaµaparissayehi abhibh³ta½ ta½ puggala½ j±ti-±didukkha½ samudde bhinnan±va½ udaka½ viya anveti anugacchat²ti attho. Aya½ ±d²navoti yv±ya½ taºh±duccaritasa½kilesahetuko j±ti-±didukkh±nubandho, aya½ ±d²navo.
Tasm±ti yasm± k±magiddhassa vuttanayena dukkh±nubandho vijjati, tasm±. Jant³ti satto. Sad± satoti pubbaratt±pararatta½ j±gariy±nuyogena sato hutv±. K±m±ni parivajjayeti vikkhambhanavasena samucchedavasena ca r³p±d²su vatthuk±mesu sabbappak±ra½ kilesak±ma½ anupp±dento k±m±ni parivajjaye pajaheyya. Te pah±ya tare oghanti eva½ te k±me pah±ya tappah±nakara-ariyamaggeneva catubbidhampi ogha½ tareyya, taritu½ sakkuºeyy±ti attho. N±va½ sitv±va p±rag³ti yath± puriso udakaggahaºena garubh±ra½ n±va½ udaka½ bahi siñcitv± lahuk±ya n±v±ya appakasireneva p±rag³ bhaveyya, p±ra½ gaccheyya, evameva attabh±van±va½ kiles³dakagaruka½ siñcitv± lahukena attabh±vena p±rag³ bhaveyya, p±ra½ nibb±na½ arahattappattiy± gaccheyya anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±nen±ti attho. Ida½ nissaraºanti ya½ k±mappah±namukhena caturogha½ taritv± anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± nibb±na½, ida½ sabbasaªkhatanissaraºato nissaraºanti.
Dhammoti d±n±dipuññadhammo. Haveti nip±tamatta½. Rakkhati dhammac±rinti yo ta½ dhamma½ appamatto carati, ta½ dhammac±ri½ diµµhadhammikasampar±yikabhedena duvidhatopi anatthato rakkhati p±leti. Chatta½ mahanta½ yatha vassak±leti vassak±le deve vassante yath± mahanta½ chatta½ kusalena purisena dh±rita½ ta½ vassatemanato rakkhati. Tattha yath± ta½ chatta½ appamatto hutv± att±na½ rakkhanta½ ch±dentañca vass±dito rakkhati, eva½ dhammopi attasamm±paºidh±nena appamatto hutv± dhammacariy±ya att±na½ rakkhanta½yeva rakkhat²ti adhipp±yo. Es±…pe… c±r²ti etena vuttamevattha½ p±kaµatara½ karoti, ta½ suviññeyyameva. Ida½ phalanti diµµhadhammikehi sampar±yikehi ca anatthehi yadida½ dhammassa rakkhaºa½ vutta½ rakkh±vas±nassa ca abbhudayassa nipph±dana½, ida½ nissaraºa½ an±masitv± desan±ya nibbattetabbat±ya phalanti.
Sabbe dhamm±ti sabbe saªkhat± dhamm±. Anatt±ti natthi etesa½ att± k±rakavedakasabh±vo, saya½ v± na att±ti anatt±ti. It²ti eva½. Yad± paññ±ya passat²ti yasmi½ k±le vipassana½ ussukk±pento anatt±nupassan±saªkh±t±ya paññ±ya passati. Atha nibbindati dukkheti atha anatt±nupassan±ya pubbe eva aniccat±dukkhat±na½ suparidiµµhatt± nibbid±nupassan±vasena vipassan±gocarabh³te pañcakkhandhadukkhe nibbindati nibbeda½ ±pajjati. Esa maggo visuddhiy±ti y± vuttalakkhaº± nibbid±nupassan± sabbakilesavisujjhanato visuddhisaªkh±tassa ariyamaggassa accantavisuddhiy± v± amatadh±tuy± maggo up±yo. Aya½ up±yoti yadida½ anatt±nupassan±mukhena sabbasmi½ vaµµasmi½ nibbindana½ vutta½, ta½ visuddhiy± adhigamahetubh±vato up±yo.
“Cakkhum±…pe… parivajjaye”ti imiss± g±th±ya aya½ saªkhepattho– yath± cakkhum± puriso sar²re vahante visam±ni bh³mippades±ni caº¹at±ya v± visame hatthi-±dayo parivajjeti, eva½ loke sappañño puriso sappaññat±ya hit±hita½ j±nanto p±p±ni l±mak±ni duccarit±ni parivajjeyy±ti. Aya½ ±ºatt²ti y± aya½ “p±p±ni parivajjetabb±n²”ti dhammar±jassa bhagavato ±º±, aya½ ±ºatt²ti.