Dv±dasapada½

23. Id±ni yesa½ byañjanapad±na½ atthapad±nañca vasena dv±dasa pad±ni suttanti vutta½, t±ni pad±ni niddisitu½ “akkhara½ padan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha apariyosite pade vaººo akkhara½ pariy±yavasena akkharaºato asañcaraºato. Na hi vaººassa pariy±yo vijjati, atha vaººoti kenaµµhena vaººo? Atthasa½vaººanaµµhena. Vaººo eva hi ittarakhaºat±ya apar±parabh±vena pavatto pad±dibh±vena gayham±no yath±sambandha½ ta½ ta½ attha½ vadati Ekakkhara½ v± pada½ akkhara½, keci pana “manas± desan±v±c±ya akkharaºato akkharan”ti vadanti.
Padanti pajjati attho eten±ti pada½, ta½ n±mapada½ ±khy±tapada½ upasaggapada½ nip±tapadanti catubbidha½. Tattha “phasso vedan± cittan”ti evam±dika½ satvappadh±na½ n±mapada½. “Phusati vedayati vij±n±t²”ti evam±dika½ kiriy±padh±na½ ±khy±tapada½. Kiriy±visesaggahaºanimitta½ “pa” iti evam±dika½ upasaggapada½. Kiriy±ya satvassa ca sar³pavisesappak±sanahetubh³ta½ “evan”ti evam±dika½ nip±tapada½.
Byañjananti saªkhepato vutta½ pad±bhihita½ attha½ byañjayat²ti byañjana½, v±kya½. Ta½ pana atthato padasamud±yoti daµµhabba½. Padamattasavanepi hi adhik±r±divasena labbham±nehi padantarehi anusandh±na½ katv±va atthasampaµipatti hot²ti v±kyameva attha½ byañjayati. Nirutt²ti ±k±r±bhihita½ nibbacana½ nirutti.
Niddesoti nibbacanavitth±ro niravasesadesanatt± niddeso. Padehi v±kyassa vibh±go ±k±ro. Yadi eva½ padato ±k±rassa ko visesoti? Apariyosite v±kye avibhajjam±ne v± tadavayavo pada½. Ucc±raºavasena pariyosite v±kye vibhajjam±ne v± tadavayavo ±k±roti ayametesa½ viseso. Chaµµha½ vacana½ chaµµhavacana½. ¾k±ro chaµµhavacana½ etass±ti ±k±rachaµµhavacana½, byañjanapada½. Ettha ca byañjananti imassa padassa anantara½ vattabba½ ±k±rapada½ niddesapad±nantara½ vadantena “±k±rachaµµhavacanan”ti vutta½, pad±nupubbika½ pana icchantehi ta½ byañjanapad±nantarameva k±tabba½. Tath± hi vakkhati “aparim±º± byañjan± aparim±º± ±k±r±ti, byañjanehi vivarati ±k±rehi vibhajat²”ti ca. Keci pana “±k±rapadabyañjananiruttiyo ca niddeso”ti paµhanti. Ett±va byañjana½ sabbanti y±nim±ni akkhar±d²ni niddiµµh±ni, ettakameva sabba½ byañjana½, etehi asaªgahita½ byañjana½ n±ma natth²ti attho.
24. Saªk±san±ti sa½khittena k±san±. Pak±san±ti paµhama½ k±san±, k±s²yati d²p²yat²ti attho. Imin± hi atthapadadvayena akkharapadehi vibh±viyam±no atth±k±ro gahito. Yasm± akkharehi suyyam±nehi suºant±na½ visesavidh±nassa katatt± padapariyos±ne padatthasampaµipatti hoti. Tath± hi vakkhati “tattha bhagav± akkharehi saªk±seti padehi pak±set²ti, akkharehi padehi ca uggh±µet²”ti ca.
Vivaraº±ti vitth±raº±. Vibhajan± ca utt±n²kammañca paññatti ca vibhajanutt±n²kammapaññatti. Tattha vibhajan±ti vibh±gakaraºa½, ubhayen±pi niddisanam±ha. Idha purimanayeneva byañjan±k±rehi niddisiyam±no atth±k±ro dassitoti daµµhabba½. Utt±n²kamma½ p±kaµakaraºa½. Pak±rehi ñ±pana½ paññatti. Dvayen±pi paµiniddisana½ katheti. Etth±pi niruttiniddesasaªkh±tehi byañjanapadehi niddisiyam±no atth±k±ro vutto, yo paµiniddis²yat²ti vuccati. Eteh²ti etehi eva saªk±san±divinimuttassa desan±tthassa abh±vato. Atthoti suttattho. Kammanti ugghaµan±dikamma½. Suttatthena hi desan±ya pavattiyam±nena ugghaµitaññu-±diveneyy±na½ cittasant±nassa pabodhanakiriy±nibbatti. So ca suttattho saªk±san±di-±k±roti. Tena vutta½– “attho kammañca niddiµµhan”ti.
25. T²º²ti liªgavipall±sena vutta½, tayoti vutta½ hoti. Navahi padeh²ti navahi koµµh±sehi Attho sam±yuttoti attho samm± yutto na vin± vattati. Sabbassa hi buddhavacanassa catusaccappak±sanato atthanay±nañca catusaccayojanavasena pavattanato sabbo p±¼i-attho atthanayattayasaªgahito saªk±san±di-±k±ravisesavutti c±ti.
26. Id±ni yath±niddiµµhe desan±h±r±dike nettippakaraºassa padatthe sukhaggahaºattha½ gaºanavasena paricchinditv± dassento “atthass±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha catubb²s±ti so¼asa h±r± cha byañjanapad±ni dve kammanay±ti eva½ catubb²sa. Ubhayanti cha atthapad±ni tayo atthanay±ti ida½ navavidha½ yath±vutta½ catubb²savidhañc±ti eta½ ubhaya½. Saªkalayitv±ti sampiº¹etv±. “Saªkhepayato”tipi p±µho, ekato karontass±ti attho. Ettik±ti etappam±º±, ito vinimutto koci nettipadatth± natth²ti attho.
Eva½ tetti½sapadatth±ya nettiy± suttassa atthapariyesan±ya yo “so¼asa h±r± paµhaman”ti nayehi paµhama½ h±r± sa½vaººetabb±ti h±ranay±na½ sa½vaººan±kkamo dassito, sv±ya½ h±ranay±na½ desan±kkameneva siddho. Eva½ siddhe sati aya½ ±rambho imamattha½ d²peti– sabbepime h±r± nay± ca imin± dassitakkameneva suttesu sa½vaººan±vasena yojetabb±, na uppaµip±µiy±ti.
Ki½ panettha k±raºa½, yadete h±r± nay± ca imin±va kamena desit±ti? Yadipi n±yamanuyogo katthaci anukkame nivisati, api ca dhammadesan±ya nissayaphalatadup±yasar²rabh³t±na½ ass±d±d²na½ vibh±vanasabh±vatt± pakatiy± sabbasutt±nur³p±ti suviññeyyabh±vato paresañca sa½vaººan±vises±na½ vicayah±r±d²na½ patiµµh±bh±vato paµhama½ desan±h±ro dassito.
Padapucch±vissajjanapubb±par±nug²t²hi saddhi½ desan±h±rapadatth±na½ pavicayasabh±vat±ya tassa anantara½ vicayo. Tath± hi vakkhati “pada½ vicinati…pe… ±ºatti½ vicinati anug²ti½ vicinat²”ti.
Vicayena h±rena pavicit±na½ atth±na½ yutt±yuttivic±raº± yutt±ti yuttivic±raºabh±vato vicay±nantara½ yuttih±ro vutto. Tath± hi vakkhati– “vicayena h±rena vicinitv± yuttih±rena yojetabban”ti.
Yutt±yutt±na½yeva atth±na½ upapatti-anur³pa½ k±raºaparampar±ya niddh±raºalakkhaºa½ padaµµh±nacintana½ kattabbanti yuttih±r±nantara½ padaµµh±nah±ro dassito. Tath± hi vakkhati– “yo koci upanissayo yo koci paccayo ca, sabbo so padaµµh±nan”ti.
Yutt±yutt±na½ k±raºaparampar±ya pariggahitasabh±v±na½yeva ca dhamm±na½ avutt±nampi ekalakkhaºat±ya gahaºa½ k±tabbanti dassanattha½ padaµµh±n±nantara½ lakkhaºo h±ro vutto. Tath± hi lakkhaºah±ravibhaªge “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti-±din± paµiccasamupp±da½ dassetv± “eva½ ye dhamm± ekalakkhaº±”ti-±di vutta½.
Atthato niddh±rit±nampi dhamm±na½ nibbacan±d²ni vattabb±ni, na sutte sar³pato ±gat±namev±ti dassanattha½ lakkhaº±nantara½ catuby³ho vutto. Evañhi niravasesato atth±vabodho hoti, evañca katv± “yad± hi bhikkhu atthassa ca n±ma½ j±n±ti dhammassa ca n±ma½ j±n±ti tath± tath± na½ abhiniropet²”ti anavasesapariy±d±na½ vakkhati. Tath± “punappuna½ gabbhamupet²”ti ettha “ye jar±maraºena aµµiyituk±m± bhavissanti te bhavissanti bhojane mattaññuno indriyesu guttadv±r±”ti-±din± samm±paµipatti½ adhipp±yabh±vena vakkhati.
Nibbacan±dhipp±yanid±navacanehi saddhi½ sutte padatth±na½ suttantarasa½sandanasaªkh±te pubb±paravic±re dassite tesa½ sabh±gavisabh±gadhammantar±vaµµana½ sukhena sakk± dassetunti catuby³h±nantara½ ±vaµµo vutto. Teneva hi “±rambhatha nikkamath±”ti g±th±ya½ ±rambhanikkamanabuddhas±sanayogadhunanehi v²riyasam±dhipaññindriy±ni niddh±retv± tadanuyogassa m³la½ “pam±do”ti suttantare dassito pam±do ±vaµµito.
Sabh±gavisabh±gadhamm±vaµµane niyojite s±dh±raº±s±dh±raºavasena sa½kilesavod±nadhamm±na½ padaµµh±nato bh³mito ca vibh±go sakk± sukhena yojitunti ±vaµµ±nantara½ vibhattih±ro vutto. Yato vibhattih±ravibhaªge “katame dhamm± s±dh±raº±? Dve dhamm± s±dh±raº±, n±mas±dh±raº± vatthus±dh±raº± c±”ti ±rabhitv± “micchattaniyat±na½ satt±na½ aniyat±nañca satt±na½ dassanappah±tabb± kiles± s±dh±raº±, puthujjanassa sot±pannassa ca k±mar±gaby±p±d± s±dh±raº±”ti-±din± sabh±gavisabh±gapariy±yavanteyeva dhamme vibhajissati.
S±vajj±navajjadhamm±na½ sappaµibh±g±bh±vato tesa½ vibh±ge kate sutt±gate dhamme akasirena paµipakkhato parivattetu½ sakk±ti vibhatti-anantara½ parivattanah±ro vutto. Tath± hi “samm±diµµhissa purisapuggalassa micch±diµµhi nijjiºº± bhavat²”ti paµivibhattasabh±ve eva dhamme parivattanah±ravibhaªge ud±harissati.
Paµipakkhato parivattit±pi dhamm± pariy±yavacanehi bodhetabb±, na sutte ±gat±yev±ti dassanattha½ parivattan±nantara½ vevacanah±ro vutto.
Eva½ te dhamm± pariy±yasaddatopi vibh±vit± hont²ti pariy±yato pak±sit±na½ dhamm±na½ pabhedato paññattivasena vibhajana½ sukhena sakk± ñ±tunti vevacanah±r±nantara½ paññattih±ro vutto. Tath± hi sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ pariy±yapaññattivibh±ga½ subodhanañca paññattih±ravibhaªge vakkhati.
Pabh±vapariññ±dipaññattivibh±gamukhena paµiccasamupp±dasacc±didhammavibh±ge kate sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ paµiccasamupp±d±dimukhena avadh±raºa½ sakk± dassetunti paññatti-anantara½ otaraºo h±ro vutto. Tath± hi “uddha½ adho”ti g±tha½ uddisitv± “vippamutto”ti padena asekkha½ vijja½ niddh±retv± “vijjupp±d± avijj±nirodho”ti-±din± paµiccasamupp±da½ ud±harissati.
Dh±t±yatan±d²su ot±rit±na½ sutte padatth±na½ pucch±rambhavisodhana½ sakk± sukhena samp±detunti otaraº±nantara½ sodhano h±ro vutto. Tath± hi vakkhati– “yattha eva½ suddho ±rambho, so pañho vissajjito bhavat²”ti-±di.
Visodhitesu sutte padapadatthesu tattha labbham±nas±maññavisesabh±vo sukaro hot²ti dassetu½ sodhan±nantara½ adhiµµh±no h±ro dassito. Sodhano hi adhiµµh±nassa bah³pak±ro, tato eva hi “yath± yath± v± pana pucchita½, tath± tath± vissajjayitabban”ti vakkhati.
S±maññavisesabh³tesu s±dh±raº±s±dh±raºesu dhammesu paveditesu parikkh±rasaªkh±tassa s±dh±raº±s±dh±raºar³passa paccayahetur±sissa pabhedo suviññeyyoti adhiµµh±n±nantara½ parikkh±ro vutto Tath± hi vakkhati “as±dh±raºalakkhaºo hetu, s±dh±raºalakkhaºo paccayo. Yath± ki½ bhave, yath± aªkurassa nibbattiy± b²ja½ as±dh±raºa½, pathav² ±po ca s±dh±raº±”ti-±di.
As±dh±raºe s±dh±raºe ca k±raºe dassite tassa attano phalesu k±raº±k±ro tesa½ hetuphal±na½ pabhedato desan±k±ro bh±vetabbapah±tabbadhamm±na½ bh±van±pah±n±ni ca niddh±retv± vuccam±n±ni samm± suttassa attha½ tathatt±vabodh±ya sa½vattant²ti parikkh±r±nantara½ sam±ropano h±ro dassitoti. Ida½ h±r±na½ anukkamak±raºa½.
Nay±na½ pana veneyyattayappayojitatt± atthanayattay³padesassa tadanukkameneva nandiy±vaµµ±d²na½ tiººa½ atthanay±na½ kamo veditabbo. Ugghaµitaññu-±dayo hi tayo veneyy± nandiy±vaµµ±dayo payojenti. Tasm± te uddesaniddesapaµiniddes± viya yath±kkama½ tesa½ upak±r±ya sava½ttant²ti. Tath± hi nesa½ catt±ro cha aµµha ca m³lapad± niddiµµh±. Itarassa pana nayadvayassa atthanayattayassa bh³miy± ±locana½ tassa tattha sam±nayanañc±ti imin± k±raºena uddesakkamo veditabbo. Na hi sakk± anoloketv± sam±netunti.
Etaparamat± ca h±r±na½ ettakehi pak±ravisesehi atthanayattayasahitehi suttassa attho niddh±riyam±no veneyy±na½ alamanuttar±ya paµham±ya bh³miy± samadhigam±y±ti veditabbo. Dassanabh³misamanuppatti-atth± hi nettippakaraºadesan±ti. Atha v± etadantogadhatt± sabbesa½ suttassa sa½vaººan±vises±na½ ett±vat± h±r±na½ daµµhabb±. Yattak± hi suttassa sa½vaººan±vises±, sabbe te netti-upades±yatt±ti vuttov±yamattho.
Tath± hi ye keci suttassa sa½vaººan±pak±r± niddis²yanti. Seyyathida½– suttassa samuµµh±na½ vattabba½, adhipp±yo vibh±vetabbo, anekadh± padattho sa½vaººetabbo, vidhi anuv±do ca veditabbo, virodho sam±dh±tabbo, anusandhiy± anur³pa½ nigametabbanti. Tath± suttassa payojana½ piº¹attho padattho anusandhi codan± parih±ro ca attha½ vadantena vattabb±ti. Tath± upoggh±µapadaviggahapadatthac±lan±paccupaµµh±n±ni vattabb±n²ti.
Tath± tisso kath± ekan±¼ik± caturass± nisinnavattik±. Tattha p±¼i½ vatv± ekekapadassa atthakathana½ ekan±¼ik± n±ma.
Paµipakkha½ dassetv± paµipakkhassa upama½ dassetv± sapakkha½ dassetv± sapakkhassa upama½ dassetv± kathana½ caturass± n±ma.
Visabh±gadhammavaseneva pariyos±na½ gantv± puna sabh±gadhammavaseneva pariyos±nagamana½ nisinnavattik± n±ma.
Bhedakath±ya tatvakath±ya pariy±yavacanehi ca sutta½ sa½vaººetabbanti ca evam±dayo. Tesampi ettheva avarodho, yasm± te idha katipayah±rasaªgahit±ti.
Nay±na½ pana yasm± ugghaµitaññu-±dayo tayo eva veneyy± sacc±bhisamayabh±gino tadatth±ya ca atthanayadesan±, tasm± satipi sa½kilesavod±nadhamm±na½ yath±vuttam³lapadabhedato va¹¹hetv± vibhajitabbappak±re tath± m³lapad±ni ava¹¹hetv± veneyyattayavaseneva etaparamat± vutt±. Navasu navasu eva hi m³lapadesu sabbesa½ sa½kilesavod±nadhamm±na½ antogadhabh±vato na t±ni va¹¹hetabb±ni veneyyattay±dhik±rato na h±petabb±n²ti nay±na½ etaparamat± daµµhabb±.
Kammanay±na½ pana ±locanasam±nayanato aññassa pak±rantarassa asambhavato etaparamat±. Hetv±d²ti ettha ±disaddena phalabh³mi-upanis±sabh±gavisabh±galakkhaºanay±dayo pariggahit±. Tesu het³ti k±raºa½, yo dhammotipi vuccati, so pana paccayabh±vena ekavidho. K±rako samp±pakoti duvidho. Puna k±rako ñ±pako samp±pakoti tividho. Hetuhetu paccayahetu uttamahetu s±dh±raºahet³ti catubbidho. Paccayadhammo kusalo akusalo saddo ariyamaggoti pañcavidho. Tath± sabh±gahetu asabh±gahetu ajjhattikahetu b±hirahetu janakahetu parigg±hakahetu s±dh±raºahetu as±dh±raºahetu samanantarahetu paramparahetu sahaj±tahetu asahaj±tahetu s±savahetu an±savahet³ti-±din± anekavidho c±ti veditabbo.
Phalampi paccayuppannabh±vena ekavidha½. Adhigantabbatopi samp±pakahetuvasena phalapariy±yo labbhat²ti nibbattetabba-adhigantabbabh±vato duvidha½. ѱpetabbanibbattetabbapattabbato tividha½. Paccayuppannavip±kakiriy±vacanatthanibb±navasena pañcavidha½. Sabh±gahetunibbatta½ asabh±gahetunibbattanti evam±divasena anekavidhañc±ti veditabba½. Tath± lokiya½ lokuttaranti. Tattha lokuttara½ catt±ri s±maññaphal±ni. Lokiyaphala½ duvidha½ k±yika½ m±nasañca Tattha k±yika½ pañcadv±rika½, avasiµµha½ m±nasa½. Yañca t±ya t±ya suttadesan±ya s±dhetabba½, tadapi phalanti.
Bh³m²ti s±savabh³mi an±savabh³mi saªkhatabh³mi asaªkhatabh³mi dassanabh³mi bh±van±bh³mi puthujjanabh³mi sekkhabh³mi asekkhabh³mi s±vakabh³mi paccekabuddhabh³mi samm±sambuddhabh³mi jh±nabh³mi asam±hitabh³mi paµipajjam±nabh³mi paµipannabh³mi paµham±bh³mi y±va catutth²bh³mi k±m±vacarabh³mi y±va lokuttarabh³m²ti bahuvidh±. Tattha s±savabh³mi parittamahaggat± dhamm±. An±savabh³mi appam±º± dhamm±. Saªkhatabh³mi nibb±navajj± sabbe sabh±vadhamm±. Asaªkhatabh³mi appaccay± dhamm±. Dassanabh³mi paµhamamaggaphaladhamm±. Bh±van±bh³mi avasiµµhamaggaphaladhamm±. Puthujjanabh³mi h²namajjhim± dhamm±. Sekkhabh³mi catt±ro ariyamaggadhamm± heµµhim± ca tayo phaladhamm±. Asekkhabh³mi aggaphaladhamm±. S±vakapaccekabuddhabuddhadhamm± s±vak±dibh³miyo. Jh±nabh³mi jh±nadhamm±. Asam±hitabh³mi jh±navajjit± dhamm±. Paµipajjam±nabh³mi maggadhamm±. Paµipannabh³mi phaladhamm±. Paµham±dibh³miyo saha phalena catt±ro magg± apariy±pann± dhamm± “paµham±ya bh³miy± pattiy±”ti-±divacanato. K±m±vacar±dibh³miyo k±m±vacar±didhamm±. Ye ca dhamm± tesa½ tesa½ h±ranay±na½ patiµµh±nabh±vena suttesu niddh±r²yanti, tepi bh³miyoti viññ±tabb±.
Upanis±ti balavak±raºa½, yo upanissayapaccayoti vuccati. Yañca sandh±ya sutte “dukkh³panis± saddh± saddh³panisa½ ‘s²lan’ti y±va vimutt³panisa½ vimuttiñ±ºadassanan”ti vutta½. Api ca upanis±ti tasmi½ tasmi½ samaye siddhante hadayabh³ta½ abbhantara½ vuccati. Idh±pi nettihadaya½, ya½ samm± pariggaºhant± dhammakathik± tasmi½ tasmi½ sutte ±gatadhammamukhena sabbah±ranayayojan±ya samatth± honti. Ki½ paneta½ nettihadaya½? Yadida½ etasseva tetti½savidhassa pakaraºapadatthaso¼asassa aµµhav²satividhapaµµh±navibhaªgasahitassa visayo saha nimittavibh±gena asaªkarato vavatthito.
Seyyathida½– desan±h±rassa ass±d±dayo visayo, tassa ass±d±divibh±vanalakkhaºatt±. Tassa ass±do sukha½ somanassanti evam±divibh±go, tassa nimitta½ iµµh±rammaº±di, ayañca attho desan±h±ravicayah±raniddesavaººan±ya½ vitth±rato pak±sito eva. Sutte ±gatadhammassa sabh±gavisabh±gadhamm±vaµµanavisayo ±vaµµah±ro, tadubhaya-±vaµµanalakkhaºatt±. Sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ paccan²kadhammavisayo parivattanah±ro, paµipakkhadhammaparivattanalakkhaºatt±. Padaµµh±naparikkh±resu ±sannak±raºa½ upanissayak±raºañca padaµµh±na½, hetu parikkh±roti ayametesa½ viseso.
Sabh±gavisabh±gadhamm± ca tesa½ tesa½ dhamm±na½ anuk³lapaµik³ladhamm± yath±kkama½ veditabb±. Yath±– samm±diµµhiy± samm±saªkappo sabh±go, micch±saªkappo visabh±goti imin± nayena sabba½ sabh±gavisabh±gato veditabba½.
Lakkhaºanti sabh±vo. So h±ranay±na½ niddese vibh±vito eva.
Ya½ paneta½ hetu-±divisesavinimutta½ h±ranay±na½ yojan±nibandhana½, so nayo. Yath±ha– lakkhaºah±re “eva½ ye dhamm± ekalakkhaº± kiccato ca lakkhaºato ca s±maññato c±”ti-±di. Tath± vicayena h±rena vicinitv± yuttih±rena yojetabb±ti. Tath± sodhanah±r±d²su suddho ±rambho hoti, so pañho vissajjito bhavat²ti evam±di. Ekatt±dayopi nay± idha nayoti gahetabb±.
Eva½ hetuphal±d²ni upadh±retv± nesa½ vasena tattha tattha sutte labbham±napadatthaniddh±raºamukhena yath±lakkhaºa½ ete h±r± nay± ca yojetabb±. Visesato pana padaµµh±naparikkh±r± hetuvasena. Desan±vicayacatuby³hasam±ropan± hetuphalavasena. Tath± vevacanapaññatti-otaraºasodhan± phalavasenev±ti keci. Vibhatti hetubh³mivasena. Parivatto visabh±gavasena. ¾vaµµo sabh±gavisabh±gavasena. Lakkhaºayutti-adhiµµh±n± nayavasena yojetabb±ti. Ett±vat± ca ya½ vutta½–
“S±maññato visesena, padattho lakkhaºa½ kamo;
ett±vat± ca hetv±d², veditabb± hi viññun±”ti.

Aya½ g±th± vuttatth± hoti.

Niddesav±ravaººan± niµµhit±.