1. Desan±h±rasamp±tavaººan±

Eva½ suparikammakat±ya bh³miy± n±n±vaºº±ni muttapupph±ni pakiranto viya susikkhitasipp±cariyavic±ritesu surattasuvaºº±laªk±resu n±n±vidhara½sij±lasamujjal±ni vividh±ni maºiratan±ni bandhanto viya mah±pathavi½ parivattetv± pappaµakoja½ kh±d±pento viya yojanikamadhugaº¹a½ p²¼etv± sumadhurasa½ p±yento viya ca ±yasm± mah±kacc±no n±n±suttapadese ud±haranto so¼asa h±re vibhajitv± id±ni te ekasmi½yeva sutte yojetv± dassento h±rasamp±tav±ra½ ±rabhi. ¾rabhanto ca y±ya½ niddesav±re–
52. “So¼asa h±r± paµhama½, disalocanato dis± viloketv±.
Saªkhipiya aªkusena hi, nayehi t²hi niddise suttan”ti.–

G±th± vutt±. Yasm± ta½ h±ravibhaªgav±ro nappayojeti, vippakiººavisayatt±, nayavic±rassa ca antaritatt± Anekehi suttapadesehi h±r±na½ vibh±gadassanameva hi h±ravibhaªgav±ro. H±rasamp±tav±ro pana ta½ payojeti, ekasmi½yeva suttapadese so¼asa h±re yojetv±va tadanantara½ nayasamuµµh±nassa kathitatt±. Tasm± “so¼asa h±r± paµhaman”ti g±tha½ pacc±masitv± “tass± niddeso kuhi½ daµµhabbo, h±rasamp±te”ti ±ha. Tassattho– “tass± g±th±ya niddeso kattha daµµhabbo”ti. Etena suttesu h±r±na½ yojan±nayadassana½ h±rasamp±tav±roti dasseti. H±rasamp±tapadassa attho vutto eva.

Arakkhitena citten±ti cakkhudv±r±d²su sati-±rakkh±bh±vena aguttena cittena. Micch±diµµhihaten±ti sassat±dimicch±bhinivesad³sitena. Thinamiddh±bhibh³ten±ti cittassa k±yassa ca akalyat±lakkhaºehi thinamiddhehi ajjhotthaµena. Vasa½ m±rassa gacchat²ti kilesam±r±d²na½ yath±k±ma½ karaº²yo hot²ti aya½ t±va g±th±ya padattho.
Pam±danti “arakkhitena citten±”ti ida½ pada½ chasu dv±resu sativosaggalakkhaºa½ pam±da½ katheti. Ta½ maccuno padanti ta½ pamajjana½ guºam±raºato maccusaªkh±tassa m±rassa vasavattanaµµh±na½, tena “arakkhitena cittena, vasa½ m±rassa gacchat²”ti paµhamap±da½ catutthap±dena sambandhitv± dasseti. So vipall±soti ya½ aniccassa khandhapañcakassa “niccan”ti dassana½, so vipall±so vipariyesagg±ho. Tenev±ha– “vipar²tagg±halakkhaºo vipall±so”ti. Sabba½ vipall±sas±maññena gahetv± tassa adhiµµh±na½ pucchati “ki½ vipall±sayat²”ti. S±maññassa ca viseso adhiµµh±nabh±vena vohar²yat²ti ±ha– “sañña½ citta½ diµµhimit²”ti. Ta½ “vipall±sayat²”ti padena sambandhitabba½. Tesu saññ±vipall±so sabbamuduko, anicc±dikassa visayassa micch±vasena upaµµhit±k±raggahaºamatta½ migapotak±na½ tiºapurisakesu purisoti uppannasaññ± viya. Cittavipall±so tato balavataro, amaºi-±dike visaye maºi-±di-±k±rena upaµµhahante tath± sanniµµh±na½ viya nicc±dito sanniµµh±namatta½. Diµµhivipall±so pana sabbabalavataro ya½ ya½ ±rammaºa½ yath± yath± upaµµh±ti, tath± tath± na½ sassat±divasena “idameva sacca½ moghamaññan”ti abhinivisanto pavattati. Tattha saññ±vipall±so cittavipall±sassa k±raºa½, cittavipall±so diµµhivipall±sassa k±raºa½ hoti.
Id±ni vipall±s±na½ pavattiµµh±na½ visaya½ dassetu½ “so kuhi½ vipall±sayati, cat³su attabh±vavatth³s³”ti ±ha. Tattha attabh±vavatth³s³ti pañcasu up±d±nakkhandhesu. Te hi ±hito aha½ m±no etth±ti att±, “att±”ti bhavati ettha buddhi voh±ro c±ti attabh±vo, so eva subh±d²na½ vipall±sassa ca adhiµµh±nabh±vato vatthu c±ti “attabh±vavatth³”ti vuccati. “R³pa½ attato samanupassat²”ti-±din± tesa½ sabbavipall±sam³labh³t±ya sakk±yadiµµhiy± pavattiµµh±nabh±vena attabh±vavatthuta½ dassetv± puna vipall±s±na½ pavatti-±k±rena saddhi½ visaya½ vibhajitv± dassetu½ “r³pa½ paµhama½ vipall±savatthu asubhe subhan”ti vutta½. Ta½ sabba½ suviññeyya½. Puna m³lak±raºavasena vipall±se vibhajitv± dassetu½ “dve dhamm± cittassa sa½kiles±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha kiñc±pi avijj±rahit± taºh± natthi, avijj± ca subhasukhasaññ±nampi paccayo eva, tath±pi taºh± et±sa½ s±tisaya½ paccayoti dassetu½ “taºh±nivuta½…pe… dukkhe sukhan”ti vutta½. Diµµhinivutanti diµµhis²sena avijj± vutt±ti avijj±nivutanti attho. K±mañcettha taºh±rahit± diµµhi natthi, taºh±pi diµµhiy± paccayo eva. Taºh±pi “nicca½ att±”ti ayoniso ummujjant±na½ tath±pavattamicch±bhinivesassa moho visesapaccayoti dassetu½ “diµµhinivuta½…pe… att±”ti vutta½.
Yo diµµhivipall±soti “anicce nicca½, anattani att±”ti pavattampi vipall±sadvaya½ sandh±y±ha– “so at²ta½ r³pa½…pe… at²ta½ viññ±ºa½ attato samanupassat²”ti. Etena aµµh±rasavidhopi pubbant±nukappikav±do pacchim±na½ dvinna½ vipall±s±na½ vasena hot²ti dasseti. Taºh±vipall±soti taºh±m³lako vipall±so. “Asubhe subha½, dukkhe sukhan”ti eta½ vipall±sadvaya½ sandh±ya vadati. An±gata½ r³pa½ abhinandat²ti an±gata½ r³pa½ diµµh±bhinandanavasena abhinandati. An±gata½ vedana½, sañña½, saªkh±re, viññ±ºa½ abhinandat²ti etth±pi eseva nayo. Etena catucatt±l²savidhopi aparant±nukappikav±do yebhuyyena purim±na½ dvinna½ vipall±s±na½ vasena hot²ti dasseti. Dve dhamm± cittassa upakkiles±ti eva½ paramas±vajjassa vipall±sassa m³lak±raºanti visesato dve dhamm± cittassa upakkiles± taºh± ca avijj± c±ti te sar³pato dasseti. T±hi visujjhanta½ citta½ visujjhat²ti paµipakkhavasenapi t±sa½ upakkilesabh±va½yeva vibh±veti, na hi taºh±-avijj±su pah²n±su koci sa½kilesadhammo na pah²yat²ti. Yath± ca vipall±s±na½ m³lak±raºa½ taºh±vijj±, eva½ sakalass±pi vaµµassa m³lak±raºanti yath±nusandhin±va g±tha½ niµµhapetu½ “tesan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tesanti yesa½ arakkhita½ citta½ micch±diµµhihatañca, tesa½. “Avijj±n²varaº±nan”ti-±din± m±rassa vasagamanena an±dimatisa½s±re sa½saraºanti dasseti.
Thinamiddh±bhibh³ten±ti ettha “thina½ n±m±”ti-±din± thinamiddh±na½ sar³pa½ dasseti. Tehi cittassa abhibh³tat± suviññeyy±v±ti ta½ an±masitv± kilesam±raggahaºeneva ta½nimitt± abhisaªkh±ram±rakhandham±ramaccum±r± gahit± ev±ti “kilesam±rassa ca sattam±rassa c±”ti ca-saddena v± tesampi gahaºa½ katanti daµµhabba½. So hi nivuto sa½s±r±bhimukhoti so m±ravasa½ gato, tato eva nivuto kilesehi y±va na m±rabandhana½ chijjati, t±va sa½s±r±bhimukhova hoti, na visaªkh±r±bhimukhoti adhipp±yo. Im±ni bhagavat± dve sacc±ni desit±ni. Katha½ desit±ni?
Tattha duvidh± kath± abhidhammanissit± ca suttantanissit± ca. T±su abhidhammanissit± n±ma arakkhitena citten±ti rattampi citta½ arakkhita½, duµµhampi citta½ arakkhita½, m³¼hampi citta½ arakkhita½. Tattha ratta½ citta½ aµµhanna½ lobhasahagatacittupp±d±na½ vasena veditabba½, duµµha½ citta½ dvinna½ paµighacittupp±d±na½ vasena veditabba½, m³¼ha½ citta½ dvinna½ mom³hacittupp±d±na½ vasena veditabba½. Y±va imesa½ cittupp±d±na½ vasena indriy±na½ agutti agop±yan± ap±lan± an±rakkh± sativosaggo pam±do cittassa asa½varo, eva½ arakkhita½ citta½ hoti. Micch±diµµhihata½ n±ma citta½ catunna½ diµµhisampayuttacittupp±d±na½ vasena veditabba½, thinamiddh±bhibh³ta½ n±ma citta½ pañcanna½ sasaªkh±rik±kusalacittupp±d±na½ vasena veditabba½. Eva½ sabbepi aggahitaggahaºena dv±dasa akusalacittupp±d± honti. Te “katame dhamm± akusal±? Yasmi½ samaye akusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hot²”ti-±din± cittupp±dakaº¹e (dha. sa. 365) akusalacittupp±dadesan±vasena vitth±rato vattabb±. M±rass±ti ettha pañca m±r±. Tesu kilesam±rassa catunna½ ±sav±na½ catunna½ ogh±na½ catunna½ yog±na½ catunna½ ganth±na½ catunna½ up±d±n±na½ aµµhanna½ n²varaº±na½ dasanna½ kilesavatth³na½ vasena ±savagocchak±d²su (dha. sa. dukam±tik± 14-19, 1102) vuttanayena, tath± “j±timado gottamado ±rogyamado”ti-±din± khuddakavatthuvibhaªge (vibha. 832) ±gat±na½ sattanna½ kiles±nañca vasena vibh±go vattabbo. Aya½ t±vettha abhidhammanissit± kath±.
Suttantanissit± (ma. ni. 1.347; a. ni. 11.17) pana arakkhitena citten±ti cakkhun± r³pa½ disv± nimittagg±h² hoti anubyañjanagg±h², yatv±dhikaraºamena½ cakkhundriya½ asa½vuta½ viharanta½ abhijjh±domanass± p±pak± akusal± dhamm± anv±ssaveyyu½, tassa sa½var±ya na paµipajjati, na rakkhati cakkhundriya½, cakkhundriye na sa½vara½ ±pajjati. Sotena …pe… gh±nena… jivh±ya… k±yena… manas±…pe… manindriyena sa½vara½ ±pajjati (ma. ni. 1.347, 411, 421; 2.419; 3.15, 75). Eva½ arakkhita½ citta½ hoti. Micch±diµµhihatena c±ti micch±diµµhihata½ n±ma citta½ pubbantakappanavasena v± aparantakappanavasena v± pubbant±parantakappanavasena v± micch±bhinivisantassa ayoniso ummujjantassa “sassato lokoti v±…pe… neva hoti na na hoti tath±gato para½ maraº±”ti (vibha. 937; paµi. ma. 1.140) v± y± diµµhi, t±ya hata½ upahata½. Y± ca kho “im± catt±ro sassatav±d±…pe… pañca paramadiµµhadhammanibb±nav±d±”ti brahmaj±le (d². ni. 1.30 ±dayo) pañcattaye (ma. ni. 3.21 ±dayo) ca ±gat± dv±saµµhi diµµhiyo, t±sa½ vasena cittassa micch±diµµhihatabh±vo kathetabbo.
Thinamiddh±bhibh³ten±ti thina½ n±ma cittassa akammaññat±. Middha½ n±ma vedan±dikkhandhattayassa akammaññat±. Tath± thina½ anuss±hasa½hanana½. Middha½ asattivigh±to. Iti thinena middhena ca citta½ abhibh³ta½ ajjhotthaµa½ upadduta½ saªkocanappatta½ lay±panna½. Vasa½ m±rassa gacchat²ti vaso n±ma icch± lobho adhipp±yo ruci ±kaªkh± ±º± ±ºatti. M±roti pañca m±r±– khandham±ro abhisaªkh±ram±ro maccum±ro devaputtam±ro kilesam±roti. Gacchat²ti tesa½ vasa½ iccha½…pe… ±ºatti½ gacchati upagacchati upeti vattati anuvattati n±tikkamat²ti. Tena vuccati– “vasa½ m±rassa gacchat²”ti.
Tattha yath±vutt± akusal± dhamm±, taºh±vijj± eva v± samudayasacca½. Yo so “vasa½ m±rassa gacchat²”ti vutto, so ye pañcup±d±nakkhandhe up±d±ya paññatto, te pañcakkhandh± dukkhasacca½. Eva½ bhagavat± idha dve sacc±ni desit±ni. Tenev±ha– “dukkha½ samudayo c±”ti. Tesa½ bhagav± pariññ±ya ca pah±n±ya ca dhamma½ deset²ti vuttamevattha½ p±kaµatara½ k±tu½ “dukkhassa pariññ±ya samudayassa pah±n±y±”ti vutta½. Katha½ deset²ti ce–
“Tasm± rakkhitacittassa, samm±saªkappagocaro;
samm±diµµhi½ purakkhatv±, ñatv±na udayabbaya½;
thinamiddh±bhibh³ bhikkhu, sabb± duggatiyo jahe”ti. (Ud±. 32)–

G±th±ya Tassattho– yasm± arakkhitena cittena vasa½ m±rassa gacchati, tasm± satisa½varena manacchaµµh±na½ indriy±na½ rakkhaºena rakkhitacitto assa. Samm±saªkappagocaroti yasm± k±masaªkapp±dimicch±saªkappagocaro tath± tath± ayoniso vikappetv± n±n±vidh±ni micch±dassan±ni gaºh±ti. Tato eva ca micch±diµµhihatena cittena vasa½ m±rassa gacchati, tasm± yonisomanasik±rena kamma½ karonto nekkhammasaªkapp±disamm±saªkappagocaro assa. Samm±diµµhi½ purakkhatv±ti samm±saªkappagocarat±ya vidhutamicch±dassano kammassakat±lakkhaºa½ yath±bh³tañ±ºalakkhaºañca samm±diµµhi½ pubbaªgama½ katv± s²lasam±dh²su yuttappayutto. Tato eva ca ñatv±na udayabbaya½ pañcasu up±d±nakkhandhesu samapaññ±s±ya ±k±rehi upp±da½ nirodhañca ñatv± vipassana½ ussukk±petv± anukkamena ariyamagge gaºhanto aggamaggena thinamiddh±bhibh³ bhikkhu sabb± duggatiyo jaheti eva½ sabbaso bhinnakilesatt± bhikkhu kh²º±savo yath±sambhava½ tividhadukkhat±yogena duggatisaªkh±t± sabb±pi gatiyo jaheyya, t±sa½ parabh±ge nibb±ne tiµµheyy±ti attho.

Ya½ taºh±ya avijj±ya ca pah±na½, aya½ nirodhoti pah±nassa nirodhassa paccayabh±vato asaªkhatadh±tu pah±na½ nirodhoti ca vutt±. Im±ni catt±ri sacc±n²ti purimag±th±ya purim±ni dve, pacchimag±th±ya pacchim±ni dveti dv²hi g±th±hi bh±sit±ni im±ni catt±ri ariyasacc±ni. Tesu samudayena ass±do, dukkhena ±d²navo, magganirodhehi nissaraºa½, sabbagatijahana½ phala½, rakkhitacittat±diko up±yo, arakkhitacittat±dinisedhanamukhena rakkhitacittat±d²su niyojana½ bhagavato ±ºatt²ti. Eva½ desan±h±rapadatth± ass±d±dayo niddh±retabb±. Tenev±ha– “niyutto desan±h±rasamp±to”ti.

Desan±h±rasamp±tavaººan± niµµhit±.