11. Paññattih±ravibhaªgavaººan±

39. Tattha katamo paññattih±roti paññattih±ravibhaªgo. Tattha k± pan±ya½ paññatt²ti? ¾ha “y± pakatikath±ya desan±”ti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– y± desan±h±r±dayo viya ass±d±dipadatthavisesaniddh±raºa½ akatv± bhagavato s±bh±vikadhammakath±ya desan±. Y± tass± paññ±pan±, aya½ paññattih±ro. Yasm± pana s± bhagavato tath± tath± veneyyasant±ne yath±dhippetamattha½ nikkhipat²ti nikkhepo. Tassa c±ya½ h±ro dukkh±disaªkh±te bh±ge pak±rehi ñ±peti, asaªkarato v± µhapeti, tasm± “nikkhepapaññatt²”ti vutto. Iti pakatikath±ya desan±ti saªkhepena vuttamattha½ vitth±rena vibhajitu½ “k± ca pakatikath±ya desan±”ti pucchitv± “catt±ri sacc±n²”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha ida½ dukkhanti aya½ paññatt²ti kakkha¼aphusan±disabh±ve r³p±r³padhamme at²t±divasena anekabhedabhinne abhinditv± p²¼anasaªkhatasant±pavipariº±maµµhat±s±maññena y± kucchitabh±v±dimukhena ekajjha½ gahaºassa k±raºabh³t± paññatti, k± pana s±ti? N±mapaññattinibandhan± tajj±paññatti. “Viññattivik±rasahito saddo ev±”ti apare. Imin± nayena tattha tattha paññatti-attho veditabbo. “Pañcanna½ khandh±nan”ti-±din± tass± paññattiy± up±d±na½ dasseti. Dasanna½ indriy±nanti aµµha r³pindriy±ni manindriya½ vedanindriyanti eva½ dasanna½. Anubhavanas±maññena hi vedan± ekamindriya½ kat±, tath± saddh±dayo ca maggapakkhiy±ti.
Kaba¼a½ kar²yat²ti kaba¼²k±roti vatthuvasena aya½ niddeso. Y±ya oj±ya satt± y±penti, tass±yeta½ adhivacana½. S± hi ojaµµhamakassa r³passa ±haraºato ±h±ro. Atth²ti maggena asamucchinnat±ya vijjati. R±goti rañjanaµµhena r±go. Nandanaµµhena nand². Taºh±yanaµµhena taºh±. Sabb±net±ni lobhasseva n±m±ni. Patiµµhita½ tattha viññ±ºa½ viru¼hanti kamma½ jav±petv± paµisandhi-±ka¹¹hanasamatthat±ya patiµµhitañceva viññ±ºa½ viru¼hañca. Yatth±ti tebh³makavaµµe bhumma½, sabbattha v± purimapurimapade eta½ bhumma½. Atthi tattha saªkh±r±na½ vuddh²ti ye imasmi½ vip±kavaµµe µhitassa ±yati½ va¹¹hanahetuk± saªkh±r±, te sandh±ya vutta½– “yattha atthi ±yati½ punabbhav±bhinibbatt²”ti yasmi½ µh±ne ±yati½ punabbhav±bhinibbatti atthi. Atthi tattha ±yati½ j±tijar±maraºanti yattha paµisandhiggahaºa½, tattha khandh±na½ abhinibbattilakkhaº± j±ti, parip±kalakkhaº± jar±, bhedanalakkhaºa½ maraºañca atthi. Aya½ pabh±vapaññatti dukkhassa ca samudayassa c±ti aya½ yath±vutt± desan± dukkhasaccassa samudayasaccassa ca samuµµh±napaññatti, vip±kavaµµassa saªkh±r±nañca taºh±paccayaniddesatoti adhipp±yo.
Natthi r±goti aggamaggabh±van±ya samucchinnatt± natthi ce r±go. Appatiµµhita½ tattha viññ±ºa½ aviru¼hanti kamma½ jav±petv± paµisandhi-±ka¹¹hanasamatthat±y±bh±vena appatiµµhitañceva aviru¼hañc±ti vuttapaµipakkhanayena attho veditabbo.
“Aya½ pariññ±paññatt²”ti-±din± ek±bhisamayavaseneva maggasamm±diµµhi cat³su ariyasaccesu pavattat²ti dasseti. Aya½ bh±van±paññatt²ti aya½ dv±r±rammaºehi chadv±rappavattanadhamm±na½ anicc±nupassan± maggassa bh±van±paññatti. Nirodhapaññatti nirodhass±ti rodhasaªkh±t±ya taºh±ya maggena anavasesanirodhapaññatti. Upp±dapaññatt²ti uppannassa paññ±pan±. Ok±sapaññatt²ti µh±nassa paññ±pan±. ¾haµan±paññatt²ti n²haraºapaññatti. ¾s±µik±nanti gunna½ vaºesu n²lamakkhik±hi µhapita-aº¹ak± ±s±µik± n±ma. Ettha yassa uppann±, tassa sattassa anayabyasanahetut±ya ±s±µik± viy±ti ±s±µik±, kiles±, tesa½ ±s±µik±na½. Abhinigh±tapaññatt²ti samuggh±tapaññatti.
41. Eva½ vaµµavivaµµamukhena sammasana-up±d±nakkhandhamukheneva saccesu paññattivibh±ga½ dassetv± id±ni teparivaµµavasena dassetu½ “ida½ ‘dukkhan’ti me, bhikkhave”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha dassanaµµhena cakkhu. Yath±sabh±vato j±nanaµµhena ñ±ºa½. Paµivijjhanaµµhena paññ±. Viditakaraºaµµhena vijj±. Obh±sanaµµhena ±loko. Sabba½ paññ±vevacanameva. Aya½ vevacanapaññatti. Sacchikiriy±paññatt²ti paccakkhakaraºapaññatti.
Tulamatulañc±ti g±th±ya pacurajan±na½ paccakkhabh±vato tulita½ paricchinnanti tula½, k±m±vacara½. Na tulanti atula½, tula½ v± sadisamassa añña½ lokiyakamma½ natth²ti atula½, mahaggatakamma½. K±m±vacarar³p±vacarakamma½ v± tula½, ar³p±vacara½ atula½, appavip±ka½ v± tula½. Bahuvip±ka½ atula½. Sambhavati eten±ti sambhava½, sambhavahetubh³ta½. Bhavasaªkh±ra½ punabbhavasaªkharaºaka½. Avassaj²ti vissajjesi. Mun²ti buddhamuni. Ajjhattaratoti niyakajjhattarato Sam±hitoti upac±rappan±sam±dhivasena sam±hito. Abhindi kavacamiv±ti kavaca½ viya bhindi. Attasambhavanti attani sañj±ta½ kilesa½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– savip±kaµµhena sambhava½ bhav±bhisaªkharaºaµµhena bhavasaªkh±ranti ca laddhan±ma½ tul±tulasaªkh±ta½ lokiyakammañca ossaji, saªg±mas²se mah±yodho kavaca½ viya attasambhava½ kilesañca ajjhattarato sam±hito hutv± abhind²ti.
Atha v± tulanti tulayanto t²rento. Atulañca sambhavanti nibb±nañceva sambhavañca. Bhavasaªkh±ranti bhavag±mikamma½. Avassaji mun²ti “pañcakkhandh± anicc±, tesa½ nirodho nibb±na½ niccan”ti-±din± (paµi. ma. 3.38 atthato sam±na½) nayena tulayanto buddhamuni bhave ±d²nava½ nibb±ne ±nisa½sañca disv± ta½ khandh±na½ m³labh³ta½ bhavasaªkh±ra½ kammakkhayakarena ariyamaggena avassaji. Katha½? Ajjhattarato. So hi vipassan±vasena ajjhattarato samathavasena sam±hito kavacamiva attabh±va½ pariyonandhitv± µhita½ attani sambhavatt± “attasambhavan”ti laddhan±ma½ sabba½ kilesaj±ta½ abhindi, kiles±bh±ve kamma½ appaµisandhikatt± avassaµµha½ n±ma hoti, kiles±bh±vena kamma½ jah²ti attho (d². ni. aµµha. 2.169; ud±. aµµha. 51).
Saªkhat±saªkhatadh±tuvinimuttassa abhiññeyyassa abh±vato vutta½ “tula…pe… dhamm±nan”ti. Tena dhammapaµisambhid± vutt± hot²ti ±ha– “nikkhepapaññatti dhammapaµisambhid±y±”ti. Bhavasaªkh±re samudayapakkhiya½ sandh±y±ha “paricc±gapaññatt²”ti. Dukkhasaccapakkhiyavasena “pariññ±paññatt²”ti. Sam±dh±navisiµµhassa ajjhattaratabh±vassa vasena “bh±van±paññatti k±yagat±ya satiy±”ti vutta½. Ajjhattaratat±visiµµhassa pana sam±dh±nassa vasena “µhitipaññatti cittekaggat±y±”ti vuttanti daµµhabba½. Abhinibbid±paññatti cittass±ti ±yusaªkh±rossajjanavasena cittassa abhin²haraºapaññatti. Up±d±napaññatt²ti gahaºapaññatti. Sabbaññut±y±ti samm±sambuddhabh±vassa. Etena asamm±sambuddhassa ±yusaªkh±rossajjana½ natth²ti dasseti. Kiles±bh±vena bhagav± kamma½ jahat²ti dassento “pad±lan±paññatti avijjaº¹akos±nan”ti ±ha.
Yo dukkhamaddakkhi yatonid±nanti yo ±raddhavipassako sabba½ tebh³maka½ dukkha½ adakkhi passi, tañca yatonid±na½ ya½ hetuka½, tampissa k±raºabh±vena taºha½ passi. K±mesu so jantu katha½ nameyy±ti so eva½ paµipanno puriso savatthuk±mesu kilesak±mesu yena pak±rena nameyya abhinameyya, so pak±ro natthi. Kasm±? K±m± hi loke saªgoti ñatv±. Yasm± imasmi½ loke k±masadisa½ bandhana½ natthi. Vuttañceta½ bhagavat± “na ta½ da¼ha½ bandhanam±hu dh²r±”ti-±di (dha. pa. 345; sa½. ni. 1.121; netti. 106; peµako 15), tasm± saªkh±re ±sajjanaµµhena saªgoti viditv±. Tesa½ sat²m± vinay±ya sikkheti k±yagat±satiyogena satim± tesa½ k±m±na½ v³pasam±ya t²supi sikkh±su appamatto sikkheyy±ti attho.
Vevacanapaññatt²ti khandh±d²na½ vevacanapaññatti. Adakkh²ti pana padena sambandhatt± vutta½– “dukkhassa pariññ±paññatti c±”ti. Paccatthikato dassanapaññatt²ti anatthajananato paccatthikato dassanapaññatti. P±vakakapp±ti jalita-aggikkhandhasadis±. Pap±ta-uragopam±ti pap±t³pam±-uragopam± ca.
Mohasambandhano lokoti aya½ loko avijj±hetukehi sa½yojanehi bandho. Bhabbar³pova dissat²ti vipannajjh±sayopi m±y±ya s±µheyyena ca paµicch±ditasabh±vo bhabbaj±tika½ viya att±na½ dasseti. Upadhibandhano b±lo, tamas± pariv±ritoti tassa pana b±lassa tath± dassane sammohatamas± pariv±ritatt± k±maguºesu an±d²navadassit±ya kiles±bhisaªkh±rehi bandhatt±. Tath± bh³to c±ya½ b±lo paº¹it±na½ assir² viya kh±yati alakkhiko eva hutv± upaµµh±ti. Tayida½ sabba½ b±lassa sato r±g±dikiñcanato. Paº¹itassa pana paññ±cakkhun± passato natthi kiñcananti aya½ saªkhepattho. Mohas²sena vipall±s± gahit±ti ±ha– “desan±paññatti vipall±s±nan”ti. Vipar²tapaññatt²ti vipar²t±k±rena upaµµhaham±nassa paññ±pan±.
Atthi nibb±nanti samaºabr±hmaº±na½ v±c±vatthumattameva. Natthi nibb±nanti paramatthato alabbham±nasabh±vatt±ti vippaµipann±na½ micch±v±da½ bhañjitu½ bhagavat± vutta½– “atthi, bhikkhave, aj±ta½ abh³ta½ akata½ asaªkhatan”ti. Tattha hetu½ dassetu½ “no ceta½, bhikkhave”ti-±di vutta½. Tassattho– bhikkhave, yadi asaªkhat± dh±tu na abhavissa, na idha sabbassa saªkhatassa nissaraºa½ siy±. Nibb±nañhi ±rammaºa½ katv± pavattam±n± samm±diµµhi-±dayo maggadhamm± anavasesakilese samucchindanti, tato tividhassapi vaµµassa appavatt²ti.
Tatth±yamadhipp±yo yath± pariññeyyat±ya sa-uttar±na½ k±m±na½ r³p±nañca paµipakkhabh³ta½ tabbidhurasabh±va½ nissaraºa½ paññ±yati, eva½ ta½sabh±v±na½ saªkhabhadhamm±na½ paµipakkhabh³tena tabbidhurat±sabh±vena nissaraºena bhavitabba½, yañca ta½ nissaraºa½. S± asaªkhat± dh±tu. Kiñca bhiyyo? Saªkhatadhamm±rammaºa½ vipassan±ñ±ºa½. Api ca anulomañ±ºa½ kilese na samucchedavasena pajahitu½ sakkoti. Sammutisacc±rammaºampi paµhamajjh±n±d²su ñ±ºa½ vikkhambhanamattameva karoti, kiles±na½ na samuccheda½, samucchedappah±nakarañca ariyamaggañ±ºa½, tassa saªkhatadhammasammutisaccavipar²tena ±rammaºena bhavitabba½, s± asaªkhat± dh±tu. Tath± nibb±na-saddo katthaci visaye avipar²tattho veditabbo, upac±ravuttisabbh±vato, yath± ta½ “s²hasaddo”ti.
Atha v± “atthi, bhikkhave, aj±ta½ abh³ta½ akata½ asaªkhatan”ti (ud±. 73) vacana½ avipar²tattha½, bhagavat± bh±sitatt±. Yañhi bhagavat± bh±sita½, ta½ avipar²tattha½. Yath± ta½ “sabbe saªkh±r± anicc±, sabbe saªkh±r± dukkh±, sabbe dhamm± anatt±”ti (ma. ni. 1.353, 356; kath±. 753; c³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa 4; paµi. ma. 1.31; netti. 5; dha. pa. 277-279), evampi yuttivasena asaªkhat±ya dh±tuy± paramatthato sabbh±vo veditabbo. Ki½ v± et±ya yutticint±ya? Yasm± bhagavat± “atthi, bhikkhave, aj±ta½ abh³ta½ akata½ asaªkhatanti (ud±. 73), appaccay± dhamm± asaªkhat± dhamm±ti (dha. sa. dukam±tik± 7-8) ca, asaªkhatañca vo, bhikkhave, dhamma½ desess±mi asaªkhatag±miniñca paµipadan”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 4.366-367, 377) ca anekehi suttapadehi nibb±nadh±tuy± paramatthato sabbh±vo desitoti. Tattha upanayanapaññatt²ti paµipakkhato hetu-upanayanassa paññ±pan±. Jotan±paññatt²ti paµiññ±tassa atthassa siddhiy± pak±san±paññatti. Sesa½ sabba½ suviññeyyameva.

Paññattih±ravibhaªgavaººan± niµµhit±.