4. Padaµµh±nah±ravibhaŖgavaŗŗan±

22. Tattha katamo padaµµh±no h±roti-±di padaµµh±nah±ravibhaŖgo. Tattha yasm± “ida½ imassa padaµµh±na½, ida½ imassa padaµµh±nan”ti tesa½ tesa½ dhamm±na½ padaµµh±nabh³tadhammavibh±vanalakkhaŗo padaµµh±no h±ro, tasm± pavattiy± m³labh³ta½ avijja½ ±di½ katv± sabh±vadhamm±na½ padaµµh±na½ ±sannak±raŗa½ niddh±rento avijj±ya sabh±va½ niddisati “sabbadhammay±th±va-asampaµivedhalakkhaŗ± avijj±”ti. Tassattho– sabbesa½ dhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±vo na sampaµivijjh²yati eten±ti sabbadhammay±th±va-asampaµivedho. So lakkhaŗa½ etiss±ti s± tath± vutt±. Etena dhammasabh±vappaµicch±danalakkhaŗ± avijj±ti vutta½ hoti. Atha v± samm± paµivedho sampaµivedho. Tassa paµipakkho asampaµivedho. Kattha pana so sampaµivedhassa paµipakkhoti ±ha– “sabba…pe… lakkhaŗ±”ti. Yasm± pana asubhe subhanti-±divipall±se sati tattha sammoho upar³pari j±yatiyeva na h±yati, tasm± “tass± vipall±s± padaµµh±nan”ti vutta½.
Piyar³pa½ s±tar³panti piy±yitabbaj±tiya½ iµµhaj±tiyańca padaµµh±na½. “Ya½ loke piyar³pa½ s±tar³pa½ etthes± taŗh± uppajjam±n± uppajjat²”ti (d². ni. 2.400; ma. ni. 1.133; vibha. 203) hi vutta½. Adinn±d±nanti adinn±d±nacetan±. S± hi ekav±ra½ uppann±pi an±d²navadassit±ya lobhassa uppattik±raŗa½ hot²ti tassa padaµµh±na½ vutta½. Dosassa p±ŗ±tip±to padaµµh±na½, mohassa micch±paµipad± padaµµh±nanti etth±pi imin±va nayena attho veditabbo. Vaŗŗasaŗµh±nabyańjanaggahaŗalakkhaŗ±ti nimitt±nubyańjanaggahaŗalakkhaŗ±. Sukhasańń±ya phassassa upagamanalakkhaŗat± phassapaccayat±va vutt±. “Phuµµho sańj±n±t²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.93) hi vutta½ Ass±doti taŗh±. SaŖkhatalakkhaŗ±ni upp±davayańńathatt±ni. Yebhuyyena niccaggahaŗa½ vińń±ŗ±dh²nanti niccasańń±ya vińń±ŗapadaµµh±nat± vutt±. Tath± hi so bhikkhu ta½yeva vińń±ŗa½ sandh±vati sa½sarat²ti vińń±ŗavisayameva attano niccagg±ha½ pavedesi. Pańcanna½ khandh±na½ yadi aniccat± dukkhat± ca sudiµµh±, attasańń± sukhasańń± anavak±s±ti ±ha– “aniccasańń±dukkhasańń±-asamanupassanalakkhaŗ± attasańń±”ti. “Yadanicca½ ta½ dukkha½, ya½ dukkha½ tadanatt±”ti (sa½. ni. 3.15) hi vutta½.
Yebhuyyena att±bhiniveso ar³padhammes³ti ±ha– “tass± n±mak±yo padaµµh±nan”ti. Sabba½ neyyanti catt±ri sacc±ni catusaccavinimuttassa ńeyyassa abh±vato. Cittavikkhepapaµisa½haraŗa½ uddhaccavikkhambhana½. Asubh±ti asubh±nupassan±, paµibh±ganimittabh³t± asubh± eva v±, taŗh±paµipakkhatt± samathassa asubh± padaµµh±nanti vutta½. Abhijjh±ya tanukaraŗato adinn±d±n±veramaŗ² alobhassa padaµµh±nanti vutt±. Tath± by±p±dassa tanukaraŗato p±ŗ±tip±t±veramaŗ² adosassa padaµµh±nanti vutt±. Vatthu-avippaµipatti visayasabh±vapaµivedho, samm±paµipatti s²lasam±dhisampad±na½ nibbid±ń±ŗena anabhiratiń±ŗameva v± tath± pavatta½. Sabb±pi vedan± dukkhadukkhat±dibh±vato dukkhanti katv± vutta½– “dukkhasańń±ya vedan± padaµµh±nan”ti. Dhammasańń±ti dhammamattanti sańń±.
Satt±na½ k±ye av²tar±gat± pańcanna½ ajjhattik±yatan±na½ vasena hot²ti ±ha– “pańcindriy±ni r³p²ni r³par±gassa padaµµh±nan”ti. K±yo hi idha r³panti adhippeto. Visesato jh±nanissayabh³te man±yatane ca nikanti hot²ti ±ha– “chaµµh±yatana½ bhavar±gassa padaµµh±nan”ti. Edisa½ m± r³pa½ nibbattatu, m± edis² vedan±ti eva½ pavatt± r³p±di-abhinandan± nibbattabhav±nupassit±. ѱŗadassanass±ti kammassakatańń±ŗadassanassa. Yonisomanasik±ravato hi pubbeniv±s±nussati kammassakatańń±ŗassa k±raŗa½ hoti, na ayoniso ummujjantassa. Imassa ca atthassa vibh±vanattha½ mah±n±radakassapaj±taka½ (j±. 2.22.1153 ±dayo), brahmaj±le (d². ni. 1.38 ±dayo) ekaccasassatav±do ca ud±haritabbo. “Okappanalakkhaŗ±”ti-±din± saddh±pas±d±na½ visesa½ dasseti. So pana saddh±yayeva avatth±viseso daµµhabbo. Tattha okappana½ saddahanavasena ±rammaŗassa og±haŗa½ nicchayo. An±vilat± assaddhiy±pagamena cittassa ak±lussiyat±. Abhipatthiyan± saddahanameva. Aveccapas±do pańń±sahito ±yatanagato abhippas±do. Apil±pana½ asammoso nimujjitv± viya ±rammaŗassa og±haŗa½ v±, ettha ca saddh±d²na½ pas±dasaddh±sammappadh±nasatipaµµh±najh±naŖg±ni yath±kkama½ padaµµh±nanti vadantena avatth±visesavasena padaµµh±nabh±vo vuttoti daµµhabba½. Satisam±dh²na½ v± k±y±dayo satipaµµh±n±ti. Vitakk±dayo ca jh±n±n²ti padaµµh±nabh±vena vutt±.
Ass±damanasik±ro sa½yojan²yesu dhammesu ass±d±nupassit±. Punabbhavavirohaŗ±ti punabbhav±ya virohaŗ±, punabbhavanibbattan±rahat± vip±kadhammat±ti attho. Opapaccayikanibbattilakkhaŗanti upapattibhavabh±vena nibbattanasabh±va½. N±mak±yar³pak±yasaŖgh±talakkhaŗanti ar³par³pak±y±na½ sam³hiyabh±va½. Indriyavavatth±nanti cakkh±d²na½ channa½ indriy±na½ vavatthitabh±vo. Opapaccayikanti upapattikkhandhanibbattaka½. Upadh²ti attabh±vo. Attano piyassa maraŗa½ cintentassa b±lassa yebhuyyena soko uppajjat²ti maraŗa½ sokassa padaµµh±nanti vutta½. Ussukka½ cetaso sant±po. Odahananti avadahana½. Attano nissayassa santapanameva bhavass±ti vutta½ bhava½ dassetu½ “im±n²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha bhavassa aŖg±ni bhavasaŖkh±t±ni ca aŖg±ni bhavaŖg±ni. Tesu kiles± bhavassa aŖg±ni. Kammavip±kavaµµa½ bhavasaŖkh±t±ni aŖg±ni. Samagg±n²ti sabb±ni. Khandh±yatan±d²na½ apar±paruppattisa½saraŗa½ sa½s±ro. Tassa purimapurimaj±tinipphanna½ kiles±divaµµa½ k±raŗanti ±ha– “bhavo sa½s±rassa padaµµh±nan”ti. Samp±pakahetubh±va½ sandh±ya “maggo nirodhassa padaµµh±nan”ti vutta½.
Kammaµµh±nog±hakassa otaraŗaµµh±nat±ya bahussuto tittha½ n±ma, tassa samm±payirup±san± titthańńut±. Dhamm³pasańhita½ p±mojja½ p²ta½ n±ma, sapp±yadhammassavanena ta½ upp±detv± kammaµµh±nassa br³han± p²tańńut±, bh±van±ya thokampi lay±pattiy± uddha½pattiy± ca j±nan± pattańńut±. Attano pańcahi padh±niyaŖgehi samann±gatassa j±nan± attańńut±, tesu purim±na½ purim±na½ pacchimassa pacchimassa padaµµh±nabh±vo suvińńeyyo eva. Katapuńńasseva patir³padesav±so sambhavati na itarass±ti “pubbekatapuńńat± patir³padesav±sassa padaµµh±nan”ti vutta½. Yath±bh³tań±ŗadassana½ saha adhiµµh±nena taruŗavipassan±. Nibbid±ti balavavipassan±. Vir±goti maggo. Vimutt²ti phala½. Evanti yadida½ “tass± vipall±s± padaµµh±nan”ti-±din± avijj±d²na½ padaµµh±na½ dassita½, imin± nayena ath±pi yo koci upanissayo balavapaccayoti yo koci avasesapaccayo, sabbo so padaµµh±na½ k±raŗanti veditabba½. “Eva½ y± k±ci upanis± yogato ca paccayato c±”tipi paµhanti. Tattha upanis±ti k±raŗa½, yogatoti yuttito, paccayatoti paccayabh±vamattatoti attho veditabbo. Ya½ panettha atthato na vibhatta½, ta½ suvińńeyyameva.

Padaµµh±nah±ravibhaŖgavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.

5. Lakkhaŗah±ravibhaŖgavaŗŗan±

23. Tattha katamo lakkhaŗo h±roti-±di lakkhaŗah±ravibhaŖgo. Tattha ki½ lakkhayat²ti lakkhaŗah±rassa visaya½ pucchati. “Ye dhamm±”ti-±din± lakkhaŗah±ra½ saŖkhepato dassetv± ta½ ud±haraŗehi vibhajitu½ “cakkhun”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha “vadhakaµµhena ekalakkhaŗ±n²”ti imin± anavaµµhitabh±v±din±pi ekalakkhaŗat± vutt± ev±ti daµµhabba½.
Eva½ ±yatanavasena ekalakkhaŗata½ dassetv± id±ni khandh±divasena dassetu½ “at²te, r±dha, r³pe anapekkho hot²”ti-±di sutta½ ±bhata½. Yamakov±dasutte (sa½. ni. 3.85) vadhakaµµhena ekalakkhaŗ± vutt±ti tasmi½ sutte “vadhaka½ r³pa½ vadhaka½ r³panti yath±bh³ta½ nappaj±n±t²”ti-±din± ±gatatt± vutta½. It²ti eva½, imissa½ g±th±ya½ k±yagat±ya satiy± vutt±ya sati vedan±gat± sati cittagat± sati dhammagat± ca sati vutt± bhavati satipaµµh±nabh±vena ekalakkhaŗatt±ti adhipp±yo. Diµµhanti-±d²na½ attha½ parato vaŗŗayiss±ma.
K±ye k±y±nupass² vihar±h²ti ettha k±yeti r³pak±ye. R³pak±yo hi idha aŖgapaccaŖg±na½ kes±d²nańca sam³haµµhena k±yoti adhippeto. Yath± ca sam³haµµhena, eva½ kucchit±na½ ±yaµµhena. Kucchit±nańhi paramajegucch±na½ so ±yotipi k±yo, ±yoti uppattideso. Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– ±yanti tatoti ±yo. Ke ±yanti? Kucchit± kes±dayo, iti kucchit±na½ ±yoti k±yo.
K±y±nupass²ti k±ya½ anupassanas²lo, k±ya½ v± anupassam±no. “K±ye”ti ca vatv± puna “k±y±nupass²”ti dutiya½ k±yaggahaŗa½ asammissato vavatth±naghanavinibbhog±didassanattha½. Tena na k±ye vedan±nupass² cittadhamm±nupass² v±, atha kho k±y±nupass² ev±ti k±yasaŖkh±te vatthusmi½ k±y±nupassan±k±rasseva dassanena asammissato vavatth±na½ dassita½ hoti. Tath± na k±ye aŖgapaccaŖgavinimutta-ekadhamm±nupass², n±pi kesalom±divinimutta-itthipuris±nupass².
Yopi cettha kesalom±diko bh³tup±d±yasam³hasaŖkh±to k±yo, tatthapi na bh³tup±d±yavinimutta-ekadhamm±nupass² atha kho rathasambh±r±nupassako viya aŖgapaccaŖgasam³h±nupass², nagar±vayav±nupassako viya kesalom±disam³h±nupass², kadalikkhandhapattavaµµivinibbhujjako viya rittamuµµhiviniveµhako viya ca bh³tup±d±yasam³h±nupass² ev±ti n±nappak±rato sam³havaseneva k±yasaŖkh±tassa vatthuno dassanena ghanavinibbhogo dassito hoti. Na hettha yath±vuttasam³havinimutto k±yo v± ańńo v± koci dhammo dissati, yath±vuttadhammasam³hamatte eva pana tath± tath± satt± micch±bhinivesa½ karonti. Ten±hu por±ŗ±–
“Ya½ passati na ta½ diµµha½, ya½ diµµha½ ta½ na passati;
apassa½ bajjhate m³¼ho, bajjham±no na muccat²”ti. (D². ni. aµµha. 2.373; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.106; paµi. ma. aµµha. 1.1.36; mah±ni. aµµha. 3).
Ghanavinibbhog±didassanatthanti ±disaddena ayamattho veditabbo. Ayańhi etasmi½ k±ye k±y±nupass²yeva, na ańńadhamm±nupass².
Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yath± anudakabh³t±yapi mar²ciy± udak±nupassino honti, na eva½ aniccadukkh±natta-asubhabh³te eva imasmi½ k±ye niccasukha-attasubhabh±v±nupass² atha kho k±y±nupass² aniccadukkha-anatta-asubh±k±rasam³h±nupass²ti attho. Atha v± yv±ya½ mah±satipaµµh±ne (d². ni. 2.374 ±dayo) ass±sapass±s±dicuŗŗikaj±ta-aµµhikapariyos±no k±yo vutto, yo ca “idhekacco pathav²k±ya½ aniccato anupassati, ±pok±ya½ tejok±ya½ v±yok±ya½ kesak±ya½…pe… aµµhimińjak±yan”ti paµisambhid±ya½ (paµi. ma. 3.34 ±dayo) k±yo vutto, tassa sabbassa imasmi½yeva k±ye anupassanato k±ye k±y±nupass²ti evampettha attho daµµhabbo.
Atha v± k±ye ahanti v± mamanti v± gahetabbassa kassaci ananupassanato, tassa pana kesalom±dikassa n±n±dhammasam³hassa anupassanato k±ye kes±didhammasam³hasaŖkh±te k±y±nupass²ti attho daµµhabbo. Api ca “imasmi½ k±ye aniccato anupassati no niccato”ti-±din± anukkamena paµisambhid±ya½ (paµi. ma. 3.34 ±dayo) ±gatanayassa sabbasseva aniccalakkhaŗ±dikassa ±k±rasam³hasaŖkh±tassa k±yassa anupassanato k±ye k±y±nupass²ti attho.
Vihar±h²ti vatt±hi. ¾t±p²ti t²su bhavesu kilese ±t±pet²ti ±t±po, so assa atth²ti ±t±p². Sampaj±noti sampajańńasaŖkh±tena ń±ŗena samann±gato. Satim±ti k±yaparigg±hik±ya satiy± samann±gato. Aya½ pana yasm± satiy± ±rammaŗa½ pariggahetv± pańń±ya anupassati, na hi sativirahit± anupassan± atthi, tenev±ha– “satińca khv±ha½, bhikkhave, sabbatthika½ vad±m²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.234). An±t±pino ca anto saŖkoco antar±yakaro hoti, kammaµµh±na½ na sampajjati. Tasm± yesa½ dhamm±na½ ±nubh±vena ta½ sampajjati, ta½ dassanattha½ “±t±p²”ti-±di vutta½.
Tattha vineyy±ti tadaŖgavinayena v± vikkhambhanavinayena v± vinayitv±. Loketi tasmi½yeva k±ye. K±yo hi idha lujjanapalujjanaµµhena lokoti adhippeto. Abhijjh±ggahaŗena cettha k±macchando, domanassaggahaŗena by±p±do gahitoti n²varaŗesu balavadhammadvayappah±nadassanena n²varaŗappah±na½ vuttanti k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±nassa pah±naŖga½ dassita½. “¾t±p²”ti-±din± pana sampayogaŖga½ dassitanti imamattha½ dassetu½ “±t±p²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha abhijjh±domanass±na½ samatho ujupaµipakkhoti abhijjh±domanassavinayo vuccam±no sam±dhindriya½ d²pet²ti ±ha– “vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassanti sam±dhindriyan”ti (sa½. ni. aµµha. 3.5.367). Ekalakkhaŗatt± catunna½ indriy±nanti yath± v²riyapańń±sam±dhindriyehi k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ ijjhati, eva½ vedan±cittadhamm±nupassan±satipaµµh±n±nipi tehi ijjhant²ti catusatipaµµh±nas±dhane imesa½ indriy±na½ sabh±vabhed±bh±vato sam±nalakkhaŗatt± itar±ni satipaµµh±n±nipi vutt±ni eva hont²ti attho.
24. Id±ni satipaµµh±nesu gahitesu sabbesa½ bodhipakkhiyadhamm±na½ gahitabh±va½ dassetu½ “cat³su satipaµµh±nes³”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha bodhaŖgam±ti bodha½ ariyamaggań±ŗa½ gacchant²ti bodhaŖgam±. Yath±vuttassa bodhassa pakkhe bhav±ti bodhipakkhiy±. Neyy±nikalakkhaŗen±ti ettha nimittato pavattato ca vuµµh±na½ niyy±na½, niyy±ne niyutt±ti neyy±nik±, yath± dov±rikoti. Niyy±nasaŖkh±ta½ v± phala½ arahant²ti neyy±nik±. Niyy±na½ payojana½ etesanti v± neyy±nik±. “Niyy±nik±”tipi p±µho, tattha niyy±na½ etesa½ atth²ti niyy±nik±ti attho. “Niyy±niy±”tipi p±µho, tassa niyyant²ti niyy±niy±ti attho daµµhabbo. Niyy±nikalakkhaŗen±ti niyy±nikasabh±vena.
Eva½ akusal±pi dhamm±ti yath± kusal± dhamm± ekalakkhaŗabh±vena niddh±rit±, eva½ akusal±pi dhamm± ekalakkhaŗaµµhena niddh±retabb±. Katha½? Pah±nekaµµhat±vasen±ti dassento “pah±na½ abbhattha½ gacchant²”ti ±ha. Id±ni ta½ pah±na½ dassetu½ “cat³su satipaµµh±nes³”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha k±y±nupassan±d²su cat³su satipaµµh±nesu bh±viyam±nesu asubhe subhanti-±dayo catt±ro vipall±s± pah²yanti, kaba¼²k±r±h±r±dayo catt±ro ±h±r± cassa parińńa½ gacchanti, tesa½ parij±nanassa paribandhino k±mar±g±dayo byant²kat± hont²ti attho, kasm±? Tehi pah±tabbabh±vena ekalakkhaŗatt±ti. Eva½ sabbattha attho yojetabbo. Tenev±ha– “eva½ akusal±pi dhamm± ekalakkhaŗatt± pah±na½ abbhattha½ gacchant²”ti.
Id±ni ańńenapi pariy±yena lakkhaŗah±rassa ud±haraŗ±ni dassetu½ “yattha v± pan±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha yatth±ti yassa½ desan±ya½. -saddo vikappattho. Pan±ti padap³raŗo. R³pindriyanti ruppanasabh±va½ aµµhavidha½ indriya½. Tatth±ti tassa½ desan±ya½. R³padh±t³ti ruppanasabh±v± dasa dh±tuyo. R³p±yatananti ruppanasabh±va½ das±yatana½, r³p²ni das±yatan±n²ti attho. Ruppanalakkhaŗena ekalakkhaŗatt± im±ni desit±n²ti adhipp±yo. Desita½ tattha sukhindriya½ somanassindriya½ sukhavedan±bh±vena ekalakkhaŗatt±ti adhipp±yo.
Dukkhasamudayo ca ariyasaccanti ida½ akusalassa somanassassa vasena vutta½, s±savakusalass±pi vasena yujjati eva. Sabbo ca paµiccasamupp±do desitoti sambandho. Avijj±nusayitatt± adukkhamasukh±ya vedan±ya. Vuttańheta½– “adukkhamasukh±ya vedan±ya avijj±nusayo anuset²”ti (ma. ni. 1.465). Tath± ca vutta½ “adukkhamasukh±ya hi vedan±ya avijj± anuset²”ti. Etena adukkhamasukh±vedan±ggahaŗena avijj± gahit±ti dasseti. Sati ca avijj±ggahaŗe sabbo paµiccasamupp±do desitoti dassetu½ “avijj±paccay± saŖkh±r±”ti-±di vutta½. So c±ti ettha ca-saddo byatirekattho, tena so paµiccasamupp±do anulomapaµilomavasena duvidhoti ima½ vakkham±navisesa½ joteti. Tesu anulomato paµiccasamupp±do yath±dassito sar±gasadosasamohasa½kilesapakkhena h±tabboti vutto, paµilomato pana paµiccasamupp±do yo “avijj±yatveva asesavir±ganirodh±”ti-±din± p±¼iya½ (ma. ni. 3.126; mah±va. 1) vutto, ta½ sandh±ya “v²tar±gav²tadosav²tamoha-ariyadhammehi h±tabbo”ti vutta½.
Id±ni ekalakkhaŗat±vibh±vanena lakkhaŗah±rayojan±ya naya½ dassetu½ “eva½ ye dhamm±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha kiccatoti pathav²-±d²na½ phass±d²nańca r³p±r³padhamm±na½ sandh±raŗasaŖghaµµan±dikiccato, tesa½ tesa½ v± paccayadhamm±na½ ta½ta½paccayuppannadhammassa paccayabh±vasaŖkh±takiccato. Lakkhaŗatoti kakkha¼aphusan±disabh±vato. S±mańńatoti ruppananaman±dito aniccat±dito khandh±yatan±dito ca. Cut³pap±tatoti saŖkhatadhamm±na½ bhaŖgato upp±dato ca, sam±nanirodhato sam±nupp±dato c±ti attho. Ettha ca sahacaraŗa½ sam±nahetut± sam±naphalat± sam±nabh³mit± sam±navisayat± sam±n±rammaŗat±ti evam±dayopi ca-saddena saŖgahit±ti daµµhabba½. Sesa½ utt±natthameva.

Lakkhaŗah±ravibhaŖgavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.