3. Yuttih±ravibhaªgavaººan±

18. Tattha katamo yuttih±roti-±di yuttih±ravibhaªgo. Tattha ki½ yojayat²ti yuttih±rassa visaya½ pucchati. Ko panetassa visayo? Atath±k±rena gayham±n± suttatth± visayo, te hi tena s±tisaya½ y±th±vato yuttiniddh±raºena yojetabb±. Itaresupi aya½ h±ro icchito eva. Ta½ pana bh³takathanamatta½ hoti. Yasm± pan±ya½ yuttigavesan± n±ma na mah±padesena vin±, tasm± yuttih±ra½ vibhajanto tassa lakkhaºa½ t±va upadisitu½ “catt±ro mah±pades±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha mah±pades±ti mah±-apades±, buddh±dayo mahante apadisitv± vutt±ni mah±k±raº±n²ti attho. Atha v± mah±pades±ti mah±-ok±s±, mahant±ni dhammassa patiµµh±n±n²ti vutta½ hoti. Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– apadissat²ti apadeso, buddho apadeso etass±ti buddh±padeso. Esa nayo sesesupi. “Sammukh± meta½ bhagavato sutan”ti-±din± kenaci ±bhatassa ganthassa dhammoti v± adhammoti v± vinicchayane k±raºa½. Ki½ pana tanti? Tassa tath± ±bhatassa suttotaraº±di eva. Yadi eva½ katha½ catt±roti? Apadisitappabhedato. Dhammassa hi dve sampad±yo bhagav± s±vak± ca. Tesu s±vak± saªghagaºapuggalavasena tividh±. “Evamamumh± may±ya½ dhammo paµiggahito”ti apadisitabb±na½ bhedena catt±ro. Ten±ha– “buddh±padeso…pe… ekatther±padeso”ti. T±ni padabyañjan±n²ti kenaci ±bhatasuttassa pad±ni byañjan±ni ca, atthapad±ni ceva byañjanapad±ni c±ti attho. Sa½vaººakena v± sa½vaººan±vasena ±hariyam±n±ni padabyañjan±ni. Sutte ot±rayitabb±n²ti sutte anuppavesitabb±ni. Sandassayitabb±n²ti sa½sandetabb±ni. Upanikkhipitabb±n²ti pakkhipitabb±ni.
Sutt±d²ni dassetu½ “katamasmin”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha yasm± bhagavato vacana½ ekag±th±mattampi saccavinimutta½ natthi, tasm± sutteti padassa attha½ dassetu½ “cat³su ariyasacces³”ti vutta½. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana t²ºi piµak±ni suttanti vutta½, ta½ imin± nettivacanena aññadatthu sa½sandati ceva sameti c±ti daµµhabba½. Y±vadeva anup±d±parinibb±natth± bhagavato desan±, s± ekantena r±g±dikilesav³pasama½ vadat²ti vinayetipadassa attha½ dassento “r±gavinaye”ti-±dim±ha. Vinayoti hi k±raºa½ r±g±div³pasamanimitta½ idh±dhippeta½. Yath±ha–
“Ye kho tva½, gotami, dhamme j±neyy±si, ime dhamm± sar±g±ya sa½vattanti no vir±g±ya, saññog±ya sa½vattanti no visaññog±ya, ±cay±ya sa½vattanti no apacay±ya, mahicchat±ya sa½vattanti no appicchat±ya, asantuµµhiy± sa½vattanti no santuµµhiy±, saªgaºik±ya sa½vattanti no pavivek±ya, kosajj±ya sa½vattanti no v²riy±rambh±ya, dubbharat±ya sa½vattanti no subharat±ya, eka½sena gotami dh±reyy±si ‘neso dhammo, neso vinayo, neta½ satthus±sanan’ti. Ye ca kho tva½, gotami, dhamme j±neyy±si ime dhamm± vir±g±ya sa½vattanti no sar±g±ya, visaññog±ya sa½vattanti no saññog±ya, apacay±ya sa½vattanti no ±cay±ya, appicchat±ya sa½vattanti no mahicchat±ya, santuµµhiy± sa½vattanti no asantuµµhiy± pavivek±ya sa½vattanti no saªgaºik±ya, v²riy±rambh±ya sa½vattanti no kosajj±ya, subharat±ya sa½vattanti no dubbharat±ya, eka½sena gotami dh±reyy±si ‘eso dhammo, eso vinayo, eta½ satthus±sana”n’ti (c³¼ava. 406).
Dhammat±yantipadassa attha½ dassetu½ “paµiccasamupp±de”ti vutta½. Paµiccasamupp±do hi µhit±va s± dh±tu dhammaµµhitat± dhammaniy±mat±ti (a. ni. 3.137) vutto. “Dhammat±ya½ upanikkhipitabb±n²”ti ida½ p±¼iya½ natthi, atthadassanavasena pana idha vuttanti daµµhabba½. Ettha ca pavatti½ nivatti½ tadup±yañca b±dhak±dibh±ve niyata½ parid²pento sutte otarati n±ma. Ekantena r±g±dikilesavinaya½ vadanto vinaye sandissati n±ma. Tath± sassata½ ucchedañca vajjetv± ekattanay±diparid²panena sabh±vadhamm±na½ paccayapaccayuppannabh±va½ vibh±vento dhammata½ na vilometi n±ma.
Eva½vidho ca k±m±sav±dika½ ±sava½ na upp±det²ti imamattha½ dassento “yadi cat³su ariyasacces³”ti-±dim±ha. Nanu ca anulomato paµiccasamupp±do pavatti, paµilomato nivatt²ti so catt±ri ariyasacc±ni anupaviµµho kasm± idha visu½ gahitoti? Saccameta½. Idha pana visu½ gahaºa½ dhamm±na½ paccay±yattavuttidassanena aniccapaccayalakkhaºa½ asamatthapaccayalakkhaºa½ nir²hapaccayalakkhaºañca vibh±vetv± tesa½ udayavantat± tato eva vayavantat± tadubhayena aniccat± udayabbayapaµip²¼anena dukkhat± anattat±ti tilakkhaºasam±yogaparid²pan² sabbadiµµhigatakumatividdha½san² anaññas±dh±raº± s±sanasampatti pak±sit± hot²ti dassanattha½.
Ettha ca sutta½ sutt±nuloma½ ±cariyav±do attanomat²ti ida½ catukka½ veditabba½– tattha sutta½ n±ma tisso saªg²tiyo ±ru¼h±ni t²ºi piµak±ni. Sutt±nuloma½ n±ma mah±pades±, ya½ “anulomakappiyan”ti vuccati. ¾cariyav±do n±ma aµµhakath±. Attanomati n±ma nayagg±hena anubuddhiy± attano paµibh±na½. Tattha sutta½ appaµib±hiya½, ta½ paµib±hantena satth±va paµib±hito hoti. Anulomakappiya½ pana suttena samentameva gahetabba½, na itara½. ¾cariyav±dopi suttena samento eva gahetabbo, na itaro. Tath± attanomati, s± pana sabbadubbal±ti.
Id±ni yadattha½ idha catt±ro mah±pades± ±bhat±, ta½ dassetu½ “cat³hi mah±padeseh²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ya½ yanti ya½ ya½ atthaj±tañca dhammaj±tañca. Yujjat²ti yath±vuttehi cat³hi mah±padesehi yujjati. Yena yen±ti yena yena k±raºena. Yath± yath±ti yena yena pak±rena. Ta½ ta½ gahetabbanti sa½vaººiyam±ne sutte ±bhatena k±raºena pasaªgena pak±rena ca suttato uddharitv± sa½vaººan±vasena gahetabbanti attho. Tena catumah±pades±viruddh±ya yuttiy± suttato atthe niddh±retv± yuttih±rayojan± k±tabb±ti dasseti.
19. Id±ni ta½ yuttiniddh±raºa½ dassetu½ “pañha½ pucchiten±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha kati pad±n²ti kittak±ni pad±ni. Pariyog±hitabbanti padassa attha½ dassetu½ “vicetabban”ti vutta½. Yattak±ni pad±ni yath±dhippeta½ attha½ abhivadanti, tattak±ni pad±ni tadatthassekassa ñ±tu½ icchitatt± “eko pañho”ti vuccati, t±ni pana ekag±th±ya½ yadi v± sabb±ni pad±ni y±va yadi v± eka½ pada½ eka½ attha½ abhivadati, ekoyeva so pañhoti imamattha½ dasseti “yadi sabb±n²”ti-±din±. Tanti ta½ pañha½. Aññ±tabbanti ±j±nitabba½. Ki½ ime dhamm±ti-±di ±j±nan±k±radassana½. Tattha dhamm±ti pariyattidhamm±. N±natth±ti n±n± atth±.
Pucch±g±th±ya½ aya½ padattho– kenassubbh±hato lokoti aya½ sattaloko coro viya coragh±takena kena abhihato vadh²yat²ti attho. Kenassu pariv±ritoti m±luvalat±ya viya nissitarukkho kena loko ajjhotthaµo. Kena sallena otiººoti kena visap²takhurappena viya sar²rabbhantaranimuggena sallena anupaviµµho. Kissa dh³p±yitoti kissa kena k±raºena dh³p±yito sant±pito loko. Sad±ti pada½ sabbattha yojetabba½. Teti catt±ri pad±ni. Pañhasadd±pekkh±ya pulliªganiddeso. “Vissajjet²”ti etena vissajjanato tayo pañh±ti ñ±yat²ti dasseti.
20. Tatth±ti vissajjanag±th±ya½ dutiyap±de vutt± jar± ca paµhamap±de vutta½ maraºañc±ti im±ni dve saªkhatassa pañcakkhandhassa “saªkhato”ti lakkh²yati eteh²ti saªkhatalakkhaº±ni. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±– “t²ºim±ni, bhikkhave, saªkhatassa saªkhatalakkhaº±ni. Katam±ni t²ºi? Upp±do paññ±yati, vayo paññ±yati, µhitassa aññathatta½ paññ±yat²”ti (a. ni. 3.47; kath±. 214). Tena vutta½– “jar±ya½ µhitassa aññathatta½, maraºa½ vayo”ti. Ettha ca “µhitassa aññathattan”ti etena khandhappabandhassa pubb±paraviseso idha jar±, na khaºaµµhit²ti dasseti. “Maraºa½ vayo”ti imin± ca “tisso mato, phusso mato”ti eva½ loke vutta½ sammutimaraºa½ dasseti, na khaºikamaraºa½, samucchedamaraºa½ v±.
Id±ni “te tayo pañh±”ti vuttamattha½ yuttivasena dassetu½ “jar±ya c±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha yebhuyyena jiººassa maraºadassanato jar±maraº±na½ n±natta½ asampaµiccham±na½ pati tesa½ n±nattadassanattha½ “gabbhagat±pi hi m²yant²”ti vutta½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yath±dhippetajar±virahitassa maraºassa dassanato aññ± jar± añña½ maraºanti. Tenev±ha– “na ca te jiºº± bhavant²”ti. Kiñca bhiyyo? Kevalassa maraºassa diµµhatt± aññ±va jar± añña½ maraºa½, yath± ta½ dev±nanti imamattha½ dasseti “atthi ca dev±nan”ti-±din±. Anuttarimanussadhammena ca tikicchanena sakk± jar±ya paµik±ra½ k±tu½, na tath± maraºass±ti evampi jar±maraº±na½ atthato n±natta½ sampaµicchitabbanti dassetu½ “sakkatev±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha sakkateti sakyate, sakk±ti attho. Paµikammanti paµikaraºa½. Nanu ca maraºass±pi paµik±ra½ k±tu½ sakk± iddhip±dabh±van±ya vasibh±ve sat²ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha– “aññatreva iddhimant±na½ iddhivisay±”ti. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
“Yassa kassaci, ±nanda, catt±ro iddhip±d± bh±vit± bahul²kat± y±n²kat± vatthukat± anuµµhit± paricit± susam±raddh±, so ±kaªkham±no kappa½ v± tiµµheyya kapp±vasesa½ v±”ti (d². ni. 2.166, 182; sa½. ni. 5.822; kath±. 623; ud±. 51).
Ko panettha kappo, ko v± kapp±vasesoti? Kappoti ±yukappo, yasmi½ tasmiñhi k±le ya½ manuss±na½ ±yuppam±ºa½, ta½ paripuººa½ karonto kappa½ tiµµhati n±ma. “Appa½ v± bhiyyo”ti (d². ni. 2.7; a. ni. 7.74) vutta½ pana vassasat±dito atireka½ tiµµhanto kapp±vasesa½ tiµµhati n±ma. Yadi eva½ kasm± iddhimanto cetovasippatt± kh²º±sav± lokahitattha½ tath± na tiµµhant²ti? Khandhasaªkh±tassa dukkhabh±rassa pariññ±tatt± anussukkat±ya ca. Paµippassaddhasabbussukk± hi te uttamapuris±ti. Vuttañheta½ dhammasen±patin±–
“N±bhinand±mi maraºa½, n±bhikaªkh±mi j²vita½;
k±lañca paµikaªkh±mi, vetana½ bhatako yath±”ti. (Therag±. 654; mi. pa. 2.2.4).
Yath± jar±maraº±na½ aññamañña½ atthato n±natta½, eva½ tehi taºh±ya ca n±natte dassite “tayo pañh±”ti ida½ sijjhat²ti ta½ dassetu½ “ya½ pan±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha yasm± taºh±ya abh±vepi sati jar±maraºa½ labbhati kh²º±savasant±ne, tasm± añña½ jar±maraºa½ aññ± taºh±ti imamattham±ha “dissanti v²tar±g± j²rant±pi m²yant±p²”ti. Nanu ca taºh±pi j²raºabhijjanasabh±v±ti? Sacca½, na ida½ jar±maraºa½ idh±dhippetanti vuttov±yamattho. “Yadi c±”ti-±din± jar±maraºato taºh±ya anaññatte dosa½ dasseti. Yobbanaµµh±pi vigatataºh± siyu½, na ida½ yuttanti adhipp±yo. Jar±maraºampi siy± dukkhassa samudayo taºh±ya anaññatte sat²ti adhipp±yo. Na ca siy± taºh± dukkhassa samudayo jar±maraºato anaññatte sat²ti bh±vo. Na hi jar±maraºa½ dukkhassa samudayo, taºh± dukkhassa samudayo, tasm± veditabba½ etesamatthato n±nattanti adhipp±yo. Yath± ca taºh± maggavajjh±, eva½ jar±maraºampi siy± maggavajjha½ taºh±ya anaññatte sati. Yath± ca jar±maraºa½ na maggavajjha½, tath± taºh±pi siy±ti ayampi nayo vutto ev±ti daµµhabba½. Im±ya yuttiy±ti im±ya yath±vutt±ya upapattiy±. Aññamaññeh²ti aññ±hi aññ±hi k±raº³papatt²hi atthato ce aññatta½, tadaññampi byañjanato gavesitabbanti attho.