2. Vicayah±ravibhaªgavaººan±

11. Tattha katamo vicayo h±roti-±di vicayah±ravibhaªgo. Tatth±ya½ apubbapadavaººan±– ki½ vicinat²ti ettha “vicinat²”ti etena vicayasaddassa kattuniddesata½ dasseti. Kinti panatthassa h±rassa visayo pucchitoti ta½ tassa visaya½ dassetu½ “pada½ vicinat²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha pada½ vicinat²ti ±dito paµµh±ya y±va nigaman± suttassa sabba½ pada½ vicinati. Ayañca vicayo duvidho saddato atthato ca. Tesu “ida½ n±mapada½, ida½ ±khy±tapada½, ida½ upasaggapada½, ida½ nip±tapada½, ida½ itthiliªga½, ida½ purisaliªga½, ida½ napu½sakaliªga½, ida½ at²tak±la½, ida½ an±gatak±la½, ida½ vattam±nak±la½, ida½ kattus±dhana½, ida½ karaºas±dhana½, ida½ kammas±dhana½, ida½ adhikaraºas±dhana½, ida½ paccattavacana½, ida½ upayogavacana½, y±va ida½ bhummavacana½, ida½ ekavacana½, ida½ anekavacanan”ti evam±divibh±gavacana½, aya½ saddato padavicayo. So pan±ya½ padavicayo avipar²tasabh±vaniruttisallakkhaºeneva sampajjat²ti daµµhabba½. Atthato pana vicayo tena tena padena vattabba-atthasa½vaººan±. Sace pana pada½ pucch±divasena pavatta½, tassa tadatthassa ca pucch±dibh±vo vicetabboti imamattha½ dassento “pañha½ vicinat²”ti-±dim±ha.
Yasm± ca sabbo desan±h±ro vicayah±rassa visayo suttassa vicayoti katv±, tasm± vutta½– “ass±da½ vicinat²”ti-±di. Yasm± pana anug²t²ti ettha anur³p± g²ti anug²t²ti ayampi attho icchito, tasm± viciyam±nassa suttapadassa anur³pato suttantarapad±nipi atthuddh±ravasena v± paduddh±ravasena v± ±netv± vicetabb±n²ti dassento “sabbe nava suttante vicinat²”ti ±ha. Nava suttanteti suttageyy±dike nava sutte, yath±sambhavatoti adhipp±yo. Aya½ vicayah±rassa padatthaniddeso.
Eva½ niddesav±re vicayah±ro saªkhepato niddiµµhoti ta½ vibh±gena niddisitv± paµiniddesavasena vibhajanto yasm± padavicayo suttassa anupada½ pavattetabbat±ya atibh±riko na sukaro c±ti ta½ an±masitv± pañhavissajjanavicaye t±va dassento “yath± ki½ bhave”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha yath± ki½ bhaveti yena pak±rena so vicayo pavattetabbo, ta½ pak±raj±ta½ ki½ bhave, k²disa½ bhaveyy±ti attho. “Yath± ki½ bhaveyy±”tipi p±µho. Puna yath±ti nip±tamatta½. ¾yasm±ti piyavacana½ ajitoti b±var²br±hmaºassa paric±rakabh³t±na½ so¼asanna½ aññataro. P±r±yaneti p±ra½ vuccati nibb±na½, tassa adhigam³p±yadesanatt± kiñc±pi sabba½ bhagavato vacana½ “p±r±yanan”ti vattabbata½ arahati, saªg²tik±rehi pana vatthug±th±nug²tig±th±d²hi saddhi½ ajitasutt±d²na½ (su. ni. 1038 ±dayo; c³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch± 57 ±dayo, ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa 1 ±dayo) so¼asanna½ sutt±na½ ida½ n±ma½ katanti tesaññeva p±r±yanasamaññ±ti ±ha “p±r±yane”ti. Keci “p±r±yaniko”ti paµhanti. Te kira t±pasapabbajj³pagamanato pubbe p±r±yana½ adh²yant± vicari½su. Tasm± ayampi p±r±yana½ vattet²ti p±r±yanikoti vutto. Pucchat²ti kasm± vutta½, nanu pucch±nibbattatt± at²t±ti? Saccameta½, pucchan±k±ra½ pana buddhiya½ viparivattam±na½ katv± evam±ha.
Pucch± ca n±mes± adiµµhajotan±pucch± diµµhasa½sandan± vimaticchedan± anumatipucch± kathetukamyat±pucch± eka½saby±karaº²y± vibhajjaby±karaº²y± paµipucch±by±karaº²y± µhapan²y± dhamm±dhiµµh±n± satt±dhiµµh±n±ti anekavidh±. Tasm± “kimaya½ pucch± adiµµhajotan±”ti-±din± yath±sambhava½ pucch± vicetabb±. Yath± cettha pucch±vibh±go, eva½ vissajjanavibh±gopi vissajjanavicaye yath±sambhava½ vattabbo. Pucch±sabh±gena hi vissajjananti. Idha pana vimaticchedana½ satt±dhiµµh±na½ puccha½ ud±haritv± tattha vicayan±k±ra½ dassetu½ “kenassu nivuto loko”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha ken±ti kattari karaºavacana½. ti nip±tamatta½, ti v± sa½saye nip±to, tenassa pañhassa vimaticchedanapucch±bh±va½ dasseti. Nivutoti paµicch±dito. Lokoti sattaloko. Icc±yasm± ajitoti saªg²tik±rakavacana½. Nappak±sat²ti na paññ±yati. Kiss±bhilepana½ br³s²ti ki½ assa lokassa abhilepana½ vadasi. “Ki½ sv±bhilepanan”tipi p±µho, tassa ki½ su abhilepananti padavibh±go.
Pad±n²ti pajjati etehi atthoti pad±ni, v±ky±ni. Pucchit±n²ti pucch±bh±vena vutt±n²ti attho. Eko pañhoti yadipi catt±ri pad±ni pucchanavasena vutt±ni, ñ±tu½ icchito pana attho eko ev±ti “eko pañho”ti vutta½. Tattha k±raºam±ha “ekavatthupariggah±”ti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– kiñc±pi niv±raºa-appak±sana-abhilepanamah±bhayasaªkh±t± pucch±ya gahit± catt±ro ete atth±, te paneka½ loka½ patiguºabh³t±, loko padh±nabh±vena gahitoti tabbasena ekov±ya½ pañhoti. Tenev±ha “lok±dhiµµh±nan”ti-±di. Ko pana so lokoti? ¾ha “loko tividho”ti-±di.
Tattha r±g±dikilesabahulat±ya k±m±vacarasatt± kilesaloko. Jh±n±bhiññ±paribuddhiy± r³p±vacarasatt± bhavaloko. ¾neñjasam±dhibahulat±ya visadindriyatt± ar³p±vacarasatt± indriyaloko. Atha v± kilissana½ kileso, vip±kadukkhanti attho. Tasm± dukkhabahulat±ya ap±yesu satt± kilesaloko. Tadaññe satt± sampattibhavabh±vato bhavaloko. Tattha ye vimuttiparip±cakehi indriyehi samann±gat± satt±, so indriyalokoti veditabba½. Pariy±pannadhammavasena lokasamaññ±ti ariyapuggal± idha na saªgayhanti.
Avijj±ya nivuto lokoti caturaªgasamann±gatena andhak±rena viya rathaghaµ±didhammasabh±vappaµicch±danalakkhaº±ya avijj±ya nivuto paµicch±dito loko. Vivicch±ti vicikicch±hetu. “Vivicch± macchariyan”ti saªgahe vutta½. Pam±d±ti pam±dahetu. Japp±bhilepananti japp± taºh± assa lokassa makkaµ±lepo viya makkaµassa abhilepana½ silesoti br³mi. Dukkhanti j±ti-±dika½ vaµµadukkhanti aya½ padattho. Sesa½ p±¼iy± eva viññ±yati. Im±ni catt±ri pad±ni pucch±g±th±ya½ vutt±ni “imeh²”ti vissajjanag±th±ya½ vuttehi imehi cat³hi padehi vissajjit±ni. Kathanti ±ha “paµhaman”ti-±di½. Tena yath±kkama½ pucch±vissajjan±ni veditabb±n²ti dasseti.
Id±ni ta½ yath±kkama½ puccha½ vissajjanañca sar³pato dassetu½ g±th±ya ca attha½ vivaritu½ “kenass³”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha “n²varaºeh²”ti padena vuttamevattha½ p±kaµa½ katv± dassetu½ “avijj±n²varaº± hi sabbe satt±”ti-±di vutta½. Ettha ca “yath±h±”ti-±din± suttantaradassanena imasmi½ pañhavissajjanavicaye anug²tivicaya½ dasset²ti daµµhabba½. Tattha pariy±yatoti k±raºato. N²varaºasaªkh±t±na½ k±macchand±d²nampi k±raºabh±vato paµicch±danabh±vato ca eka½yeva n²varaºa½ vad±mi, na pana aññesa½ n²varaºasabh±v±na½ abh±v±ti attho. Yath± ca avijj±ya sati n²varaº±na½ bh±vo, eva½ avijj±ya asati na santi n²varaº±n²ti dassetu½ “sabbaso”ti-±di vutta½.
Ten±ti “avijj±ya nivuto loko”ti padena. Paµhamassa padass±ti “kenassu nivuto loko”ti padassa. Yutt±ti yojit±, anur³p±ti v± attho. Etena pucch±nur³pat± vissajjanassa dassit±ti pubb±paravicayo vuttoti veditabba½. “Yo puggalo n²varaºehi nivuto”ti-±din± vivicch±pam±d±na½ avijj±ya paccayabh±va½ dasseti. Nivuto eva hi nappak±sati. Vivicch±ti vicikicch±. Tenev±ha– “vivicch± n±ma vuccati vicikicch±”ti. Tatr±ya½ padasiddhi– yath± micch±diµµhisamm±diµµhiyo “nicca½ aniccan”ti-±din± eka½sagg±habh±vena pavattanti, na evamaya½. Aya½ pana aneka½sagg±habh±vato “nicca½ nu kho anicca½ nu kho”ti-±din± vividha½ viruddha½ v± icchati esat²ti vivicch±ti “So vicikicchanto”ti-±din± appak±sanassa vivicch±pam±d±na½ k±raºabh±va½ vivarati. Sukke dhamme na upp±diyat²ti na sam±d±ya vattati. Nappak±sant²ti te attano sant±ne anupp±diyam±n± kusal± dhamm± ta½ puggala½ pak±sa½ loke abhiññ±ta½ na karont²ti attho. Abhilimpat²ti makkaµ±lepo viya makkaµa½ d±rusil±d²su purisa½ r³p±divisaye all²y±pet²ti attho. ¾sattibahulass±ti ±saªgabahulassa. Eva½ abhijapp±ti karitv±ti eva½ pariyuµµh±naµµh±yin²ti imin± k±raºena. Tatth±ti t±ya taºh±ya. Loko abhilitto silesena makkhito viya hot²ti attho.
Bh±yati etasm±ti bhaya½. Mahanta½ bhaya½ mahabbhaya½. Tenev±ha– “dukkhamassa mahabbhayan”ti. Dukkha½ domanassanti dukkhameva vibhattanti sabba½ dukkha½ vibhajitv± dassetu½ “tisso dukkhat±”ti-±di vutta½. Odhasoti kad±ci att³pakkamam³l±ya kad±ci par³pakkamam³l±y±ti-±din± vibh±gena dukkhadukkhat±ya muccanak± visesena r³p±vacar±. Tath±ti odhaso kad±ci karahac²ti eva½ ±ka¹¹hati. Vipariº±madukkhat±ya muccanak± upekkh±sam±pattibahul± visesena ar³p±vacarasatt±. App±b±dh±ti pada½ dukkhadukkhat±ya muccanassa k±raºavacana½. D²gh±yuk±ti vipariº±madukkhat±ya. Ar³padev± hi loke visesato d²gh±yuk±ti. Idañca muccanamaccantika½. Yasm± ca dukkh± vedan±pi saªkhatatt± aniccat±disaªkh±radukkhasabh±v± eva, tasm± yato muccanamaccantika½, ta½ anavasesapariy±d±navasena saªgaºhitv± dassetu½ “saªkh±radukkhat±ya pan±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha up±diyat²ti up±di, vip±kakkhandh± kaµatt± ca r³pa½. Up±dissa sesa½ up±disesa½, ta½ natthi etiss±ti anup±dises±, nibb±nadh±tu, t±ya anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy±, itthambh³talakkhaºe c±ya½ karaºaniddeso. Nibb±nadh±t³ti ca nibb±yanamatta½. Tasm±ti yasm± sakalalokaby±pin² sabbasaªg±hin² ca saªkh±radukkhat±, tasm±. Lokass±ti sambandhe s±mivacana½. Tena “dukkhamass±”ti padassa attha½ dasseti. Evamettha lokassa n²varaº±d²ni aj±nantena, samayantaraparicayena v± tattha sa½sayapakkhandena eka½seneva by±k±tabbatt± satt±dhiµµh±n± pucch± kat±, s± ca aj±nanassa, sa½sayassa v± n²varaº±divisayat±ya catubbidh±. P±¼iya½ pana n²varaº±d²na½ loko ±dh±rabh±vena g±th±ya½ vuttoti eko pañhoti dassitanti. Ayamettha pucch±vicayo. Vissajjanavicayopi adiµµhajotin² vissajjan± vimaticchedin² c±ti-±din± pucch±vicaye vuttanay±nus±rena veditabbo.
Eva½ ek±dh±ra½ puccha½ dassetv± id±ni anek±dh±ra½ dassetu½ “savanti sabbadh²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha savant²ti sandanti. Sabbadh²ti sabbesu r³p±d²su ±yatanesu. Sot±ti taºh±disot±. Ki½ niv±raºanti tesa½ ki½ ±varaºa½ k± rakkh±. Sa½vara½ br³h²ti ta½ nesa½ n²varaºasaªkh±ta½ sa½vara½ kathehi. Kena sot± pidh²yareti kena dhammena taºh±disot± pidhiyyanti pacchijjant²ti ayamettha padattho. Sesa½ p±¼ivaseneva ±vi bhavissati.
Te dve pañh±ti yadipi imiss± g±th±ya pucch±vasena pavatt±ya catt±ri pad±ni catt±ri v±ky±ni. ѱtu½ icchitassa pana atthassa duvidhatt± te dve pañh±. Kasm±ti ce? “Imehi bahv±dhivacanena pucchit±”ti ±ha. Tatth±ya½ saªkhepattho– ime et±ya g±th±ya gahit± atth± yasm± bah³ni adhikicca pavattavacanena pucchit±, tasm± te dve pañh±ti. Ekato upari bah³ti hi s±sanavoh±ro, tameva pucch±ya duvidhatthavisayata½ vivaritu½ “evan”ti-±di vutta½. Tassattho– y±hi ñ±tibyasan±disaªkh±t±hi p±ºavadh±d²hi eva v± duggatihetubh³t±hi ±pad±hi sama½ saha, sabbath± v± aya½ loko ±panno ajjhotthaµo. Ta½nimittehi dasahi kilesavatth³hi sa½kiliµµho ca, tassa ta½ ±pann±k±ra½ sa½kiliµµh±k±rañca buddhiya½ katv± ±ha– “eva½ sam±pannassa eva½ sa½kiliµµhass±”ti. Vod±yati sujjhati eten±ti vod±na½, samathavipassan±. Vuµµh±ti etena nimittato pavattato c±ti vuµµh±na½, ariyamaggo.