Tattha “sa½khittena pañcup±d±nakkhandh± dukkh±”ti (d². ni. 2.387; ma. ni. 1.120; 3.373; vibha. 202) vacanato taºh±vajj± tebh³makadhamm± dukkhasacca½, te ca anicc±disabh±vatt± ±d²navo, phalañca desan±ya s±dhetabba½. Tattha ya½ lokiya½, ta½ sandh±ya vutta½ “phalañca dukkhan”ti. Ass±doti taºh±vipall±s±nampi icchitatt± te sandh±ya “ass±do samudayo”ti vutta½. Saha vipassan±ya ariyamaggo desan± ca desan±phal±dhigamassa up±yoti katv± “up±yo ±ºatti ca maggo”ti vutta½. Nissaraºapade c±pi ariyamaggo niddh±retabbo, na c±ya½ saccavibh±go ±kuloti daµµhabbo. Yath± hi saccavibhaªge (vibha. 208) “taºh± avasiµµh± kiles± avasiµµh± akusal± dhamm± s±sav±ni kusalam³l±ni s±sav± ca kusal± dhamm± samudayasaccabh±vena vibhatt±”ti tasmi½ tasmi½ naye ta½ta½avasiµµh± tebh³makadhamm± dukkhasaccabh±vena vibhatt±, evamidh±pi daµµhabbanti. Im±ni catt±ri sacc±n²ti nigamana½ Ida½ dhammacakkanti y±ya½ bhagavato catusaccavasena s±mukka½sik± dhammadesan±, ida½ dhammacakka½.
Id±ni tass± dhammadesan±ya dhammacakkabh±va½ saccavibhaªgasuttavasena (ma. ni. 3.371 ±dayo) dassetu½ “yath±ha bhagav±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ida½ dukkhanti ida½ j±ti-±divibh±ga½ saªkhepato pañcup±d±nakkhandhasaªgaha½ taºh±vajja½ tebh³makadhammaj±ta½ dukkhassa adhiµµh±nabh±vena dukkhadukkh±dibh±vena ca dukkha½ ariyasaccanti attho. Meti bhagav± att±na½ niddisati. B±r±ºasiyanti b±r±ºas²n±makassa nagarassa avid³re. Paccekabuddha-is²na½ ±k±sato otaraºaµµh±nat±ya isipatana½. Mig±na½ tattha abhayassa dinnatt± migad±yanti ca laddhan±me assame. Uttarati atikkamati, abhibhavat²ti v± uttara½, natthi etassa uttaranti anuttara½. Anatisaya½ appaµibh±ga½ v±. Kiñc±pi bhagavato dhammadesan± anek±su devamanussaparis±su anekasatakkhattu½ tesa½ ariyasaccappaµivedhasamp±danavasena pavattit±, tath±pi sabbapaµhama½ aññ±sikoº¹aññappamukh±ya aµµh±rasaparim±º±ya brahmakoµiy± catusaccappaµivedhavibh±van²y± dhammadesan±, tass± s±tisay± dhammacakkasamaññ±ti “dhammacakka½ pavattitan”ti vutta½.
Tattha satipaµµh±n±didhammo eva pavattanaµµhena cakkanti dhammacakka½, cakkanti v± ±º±. Dhammato anapetatt± dhammañca ta½ cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½. Dhammena ñ±yena cakkantipi dhammacakka½. Yath±ha– “dhammañca pavatteti cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½, cakkañca pavatteti dhammañc±ti dhammacakka½, dhammena pavattet²ti dhammacakkan”ti-±di (paµi. ma. 2.41-42). Appaµivattiyanti dhammissarassa bhagavato samm±sambuddhabh±vato dhammacakkassa ca anuttarabh±vato appaµisedhan²ya½. Kena pana appaµivattiyanti ±ha “samaºena v±”ti-±di. Tattha samaºen±ti pabbajja½ upagatena. Br±hmaºen±ti j±tibr±hmaºena. Paramatthasamaºabr±hmaº±nañhi paµilomanacitta½yeva natthi. Deven±ti k±m±vacaradevena. Kenac²ti yena kenaci avasiµµhap±risajjena. Ett±vat± aµµhannampi paris±na½ anavasesapariy±d±na½ daµµhabba½. Lokasminti sattaloke.
Tatth±ti tissa½ catusaccadhammadesan±ya½. Aparim±º± pad±, aparim±º± akkhar±ti uppaµip±µivacana½ yebhuyyena padasaªgahit±ni akkhar±n²ti dassanattha½. Pad± akkhar± byañjan±ti liªgavipall±so katoti daµµhabba½. Atthass±ti catusaccasaªkh±tassa atthassa. Saªk±san±ti saªk±sitabb±k±ro. Esa nayo sesesupi. Atthass±ti ca sambandhe s±mivacana½. Itipidanti it²ti pak±rattho, pi-saddo sampiº¹anattho, imin±pi imin±pi pak±rena ida½ dukkha½ ariyasacca½ veditabbanti attho. Tena j±ti-±dibhedena yath±vuttassa dukkhasaccassa anekabhedata½ ta½d²pak±na½ akkharapad±d²na½ vuttappak±ra½ aparim±ºatañca samattheti.
Aya½ dukkhasamudayoti aya½ k±mataºh±dibhed± taºh±vaµµassa m³labh³t± yath±vuttassa dukkhassa nibbattihetubh±vato dukkhasamudayo. Aya½ dukkhanirodhoti aya½ sabbasaªkhatanissaµ± asaªkhatadh±tu yath±vuttassa dukkhassa anupp±danirodhapaccayatt± dukkhanirodho. Aya½ dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±ti aya½ samm±diµµhi-±di-aµµhaªgasam³ho dukkhanirodhasaªkh±ta½ nibb±na½ gacchati ±rammaºavasena tadabhimukh²bh³tatt± paµipad± ca hoti dukkhanirodhappattiy±ti dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±. Itipidanti padassa pana samudayasacce aµµhasatataºh±vicaritehi, nirodhasacce madanimmadan±dipariy±yehi, maggasacce sattatti½sabodhipakkhiyadhammehi attho vibhajitv± veditabbo. Sesa½ vuttanayameva.
Eva½ “dv±dasa pad±ni suttan”ti g±th±ya sakalassa s±sanassa channa½ atthapad±na½ channañca byañjanapad±na½ vasena y± dv±dasapadat± vutt±, tameva “dhamma½ vo, bhikkhave, desess±m²”ti-±din± desan±h±rassa visayadassanavasena chachakkapariy±ya½ (ma. ni. 3.420 ±dayo) ekadesena uddisitv± dhammacakkappavattanasuttena (sa½. ni. 5.1081; mah±va. 13; paµi. ma. 2.30) tadatthassa saªgahitabh±vadassanamukhena sabbass±pi bhagavato vacanassa catusaccadesan±bh±va½ tadatthassa ca catusaccabh±va½ vibh±vento “ida½ dukkhanti me, bhikkhave, b±r±ºasiyan”ti-±din± saccavibhaªgasutta½ (ma. ni. 3.371 ±dayo) uddesato dassetv± “tattha aparim±º± pad±”ti-±din± byañjanatthapad±ni vibhajanto dv±dasapadabh±va½ d²petv± id±ni tesa½ aññamaññavisayivisayabh±vena sambandhabh±va½ dassetu½ “tattha bhagav± akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±di vutta½.
Tattha pad±vayavaggahaºamukhena padaggahaºa½, gahite ca pade padatth±vabodho gahitapubbasaªketassa hoti. Tattha ca pad±vayavaggahaºena viya padaggahaºassa, padatth±vayavaggahaºen±pi padatthaggahaºassa vises±dh±na½ j±yat²ti ±ha– “akkharehi saªk±set²”ti. Yasm± pana akkharehi sa½khittena d²piyam±no attho padapariyos±ne v±kyassa apariyositatt± padeneva pak±sito d²pito hoti, tasm± “padehi pak±set²”ti vutta½. V±kyapariyos±ne pana so attho vivarito vivaµo kato hot²ti vutta½ “byañjanehi vivarat²”ti. Yasm± ca pak±rehi v±kyabhede kate tadattho vibhatto n±ma hoti, tasm± “±k±rehi vibhajat²”ti vutta½. Tath± v±ky±vayav±na½ pacceka½ nibbacanavibh±ge kate so attho p±kaµo hot²ti vutta½ “nirutt²hi utt±n²karot²”ti. Katanibbacanehi v±ky±vayavehi vitth±ravasena niravasesato desitehi veneyy±na½ cittaparitosana½ buddhinis±nañca kata½ hot²ti ±ha– “niddesehi paññapet²”ti. Ettha ca akkharehi eva saªk±set²ti avadh±raºa½ akatv± akkharehi saªk±setiyev±ti eva½ avadh±raºa½ daµµhabba½. Evañhi sati atthapad±na½ n±n±v±kyavisayat±pi siddh± hoti. Tena ek±nusandhike sutte cha¼eva atthapad±ni, n±n±nusandhike pana anusandhimhi anusandhimhi cha cha atthapad±ni niddh±retabb±ni.
“Akkharehi ca padehi ca ugghaµet²”ti-±din± byañjanapad±na½ kiccas±dhana½ dasseti. Veneyyattayavinayameva hi tesa½ by±p±ro. Aµµh±nabh±vato pana saccappaµivedhassa padaparamo na idha vutto. Neyyaggahaºeneva v± tass±pi idha gahaºa½ sekkhaggahaºena viya kaly±ºaputhujjanass±ti daµµhabba½. Akkhareh²ti-±d²su karaºas±dhane karaºavacana½, na hetumhi. Akkhar±d²ni hi ugghaµan±di-atth±ni, na ugghaµan±di-akkhar±di-attha½. Yadatth± ca kiriy± so hetu, yath± “annenavasat²”ti. Ugghaµet²ti sot±vadh±na½ katv± sam±hitacitt±na½ veneyy±na½ saªk±sanavasena akkharehi visesa½ ±dahanto yath± padapariyos±ne ±sayappaµibodho hoti, tath± yath±dhippeta½ attha½ saªkhepena katheti uddisat²ti attho. Vipañcayat²ti yath±-uddiµµha½ attha½ niddisati. Vitth±ret²ti vitth±ra½ karoti, vitth±ra½ katv± ±cikkhati v±, paµiniddisat²ti attho. Yasm± cettha ugghaµet²ti uddisana½ adhippeta½. Uddeso ca desan±ya ±di, tasm± vutta½– “ugghaµan± ±d²”ti. Tath± vipañcana½ niddisana½, vittharaºa½ paµiniddisana½, niddesapaµiniddes± ca desan±ya majjhapariyos±n±ti. Tena vutta½– “vipañcan± majjhe, vitth±raº± pariyos±nan”ti.
Eva½ “akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±din± channa½ byañjanapad±na½ by±p±ra½ dassetv± id±ni atthapad±na½ by±p±ra½ dassetu½ “soya½ dhammavinayo”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha s²l±didhammo eva pariyatti-atthabh³to veneyyavinayanato dhammavinayo. Ugghaµ²yantoti uddisiyam±no. Ten±ti ugghaµitaññ³vinayanena. Vipañc²yantoti niddisiyam±no. Vitth±r²yantoti paµiniddisiyam±no.
10. Ett±vat± “dhamma½ vo, bhikkhave, desess±m²”ti uddiµµh±ya p±¼iy± tividhakaly±ºata½ dassetv± id±ni atthabyañjanasampatti½ dassetu½ “cha pad±ni attho”ti-±di vutta½. Ta½ suviññeyya½. “Ten±ha bhagav±”ti-±din± desan±h±rassa visayabh±vena uddiµµha½ p±¼i½ nigamanavasena dasseti. Lokuttaranti-±di “kevalaparipuººa½ parisuddhan”ti pad±na½ atthavivaraºa½. Tattha upaµµhita½ sabbavises±nanti sabbesa½ uttarimanussadhammasaªkh±t±na½ vises±na½ adhis²lasikkh±divises±na½ v± upatiµµhanaµµh±na½. “Ida½ nesa½ padakkantan”ti-±d²na½ viya etassa saddasiddhi veditabb±. “Ida½ vuccati tath±gatapada½ itip²”ti-±d²su ida½ sikkhattayasaªgaha½ s±sanabrahmacariya½ tath±gatagandhahatthino paµipattidesan±gamanehi kilesagahana½ ottharitv± gatamaggotipi. Tena gocarabh±van±sevan±hi nisevita½ bhajitantipi. Tassa mah±vajirañ±ºasabbaññutaññ±ºadantehi ±rañjita½ tebh³makadhamm±na½ ±rañjanaµµh±nantipi vuccat²ti attho. Ato cetanti yato tath±gatapad±dibh±vena vuccati, ato aneneva k±raºena brahmuno sabbasattuttamassa bhagavato, brahma½ v± sabbaseµµha½ cariyanti paññ±yati y±vadeva manussehi suppak±sitatt± yath±vuttappak±rehi ñ±yati. Ten±ha bhagav±ti yath±vuttattha½ p±¼i½ nigamanavasena dasseti.
Anup±d±parinibb±natthat±ya bhagavato desan±ya y±vadeva ariyamaggasamp±panattho desan±h±roti dassetu½ “kesa½ aya½ dhammadesan±”ti pucchitv± “yog²nan”ti ±ha. Catusaccakammaµµh±nabh±van±ya yuttappayutt±ti yogino. Te hi ima½ desan±h±ra½ payojent²ti. Ida½ vacana½ desan±h±ravibhaªgassa yath±nusandhin± samm± µhapitabh±va½ dassetu½ pakaraºa½ saªg±yantehi µhapitanti daµµhabba½. Tath± hi vutta½ “ten±ha ±yasm± mah±kacc±yano”ti. Niyuttoti p±¼ito ass±d±dipadatthe niddh±retv± yojitoti attho.

Desan±h±ravibhaªgavaººan± niµµhit±.