9. Saªkh±rupekkh±ñ±ºaniddesavaººan±

54. Saªkh±rupekkh±ñ±ºaniddese upp±d±d²ni vuttatth±neva. Dukkhanti bhayanti s±misanti saªkh±r±ti upp±d±dimuñcanañ±ºassa k±raºavacan±ni. Evañca lakkhaºato saªkh±rupekkha½ dassetv± id±ni atthato dassetu½ upp±do saªkh±r±, te saªkh±re ajjhupekkhat²ti saªkh±rupekkh±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha saªkh±re ajjhupekkhat²ti tassa ±raddhavipassakassa vipassan±ñ±ºena lakkhaºattayassa diµµhatt± lakkhaºavicinane pah²naby±p±rassa ±ditte viya tayo bhave passato saªkh±raggahaºe majjhattassa ta½ vipassan±ñ±ºa½ te saªkh±re visesena ca ikkhati, gahaºena vajjitañca hutv± ikkhati oloket²ti saªkh±rupekkh± n±m±ti attho. Yath± loke visesena jayanto adhijayat²ti, annena vajjito vasanto upavasat²ti vuccati. Puna saªkh±re anicc±dito vipassitv± gahaºe majjhattabh±vasaºµhita½ saªkh±rupekkhampi anicc±dito vipassitv± tass±pi saªkh±rupekkh±ya gahaºe majjhatt±k±rasaºµhit±ya saªkh±rupekkh±ya sabbh±vato ye ca saªkh±r± y± ca upekkh±ti-±di vutta½.
55. Id±ni saªkh±rupekkh±ya citt±bhin²h±rabheda½ dassetu½ katih±k±reh²ti-±dim±ha. Tattha saªkh±rupekkh±y±ti bhummavacana½. Cittassa abhin²h±roti saªkh±rupekkh±l±bhino tato aññassa cittassa saªkh±rupekkh±bhimukha½ katv± bhusa½ haraºa½. Abhimukhattho hi ettha abhisaddo, bhusattho saddo. Katih±k±reh²ti pucchita½ puccha½ aµµhah±k±reh²ti vissajjetv± dutiyapucch±vissajjaneneva te aµµh±k±re dassetuk±mo te adassetv±va puthujjanassa katih±k±reh²ti-±di puccha½ ak±si. Puthujjanass±ti ettha pana–
Duve puthujjan± vutt±, buddhen±diccabandhun±;
andho puthujjano eko, kaly±ºeko puthujjanoti.
Tattha yassa khandhadh±tu-±yatan±d²su uggahaparipucch±savanadh±raºapaccavekkhaº±d²ni natthi, aya½ andhaputhujjano. Yassa t±ni atthi, so kaly±ºaputhujjano. Duvidhopi panesa–
Puth³na½ janan±d²hi, k±raºehi puthujjano;
puthujjanantogadhatt±, puthuv±ya½ jano iti.
So hi puth³na½ n±nappak±r±na½ kiles±d²na½ janan±d²hi k±raºehi puthujjano. Yath±ha– “puthu kilese janent²ti puthujjan±, puthu avihatasakk±yadiµµhik±ti puthujjan±, puthu satth±r±na½ mukhullokik±ti puthujjan±, puthu sabbagat²hi avuµµhit±ti puthujjan±, puthu n±n±bhisaªkh±re abhisaªkharont²ti puthujjan±, puthu n±n±-oghehi vuyhant²ti puthujjan±, puthu n±n±sant±pehi santappent²ti puthujjan±, puthu n±n±pari¼±hehi pari¹ayhant²ti puthujjan±, puthu pañcasu k±maguºesu ratt± giddh± gadhit± mucchit± ajjhosann± lagg± laggit± palibuddh±ti puthujjan±, puthu pañcahi n²varaºehi ±vut± nivut± ovut± pihit± paµicchann± paµikujjit±ti puthujjan±”ti (mah±ni. 94). Puth³na½ v± gaºanapath±t²t±na½ ariyadhammaparammukh±na½ n²cadhammasam±c±r±na½ jan±na½ antogadhatt±pi puthujjan±, puthu v± aya½ visu½yeva saªkha½ gato, visa½saµµho s²lasut±diguºayuttehi ariyehi janotipi puthujjano. Tesu kaly±ºaputhujjano idh±dhippeto itarassa bh±van±ya eva abh±v±.
Sekkhass±ti ettha satta sekkh± sot±pattimaggaphalasakad±g±mimaggaphala-an±g±mimaggaphala-arahattamaggaµµh±. Te hi tisso sikkh± sikkhant²ti sekkh±. Tesu sot±pattisakad±g±mi-an±g±miphalaµµh± tayo idh±dhippet± maggaµµh±na½ saªkh±rupekkh±ya citt±bhin²h±r±bh±v±.
V²tar±gass±ti ettha samucchedavigamena vigato r±go ass±ti v²tar±go. Arahato eta½ adhivacana½. T²supi padesu j±tiggahaºena ekavacana½ kata½.
Saªkh±rupekkha½ abhinandat²ti tasmi½ upekkh±vih±re ph±suvih±rasañña½ paµilabhitv± ph±suvih±ranikantiy± saªkh±rupekkh±bhimukho hutv± nandati, sapp²tika½ taºha½ upp±det²ti attho. Vipassat²ti sot±pattimaggapaµil±bhattha½ anicc±divasena vividh± passati, sekkho uparimaggattha½, v²tar±go diµµhadhammasukhavih±rattha½ vipassati. Paµisaªkh±y±ti anicc±divaseneva upaparikkhitv±. Yasm± pana sot±pann±dayo ariy± saka½ saka½ phalasam±patti½ sam±pajjam±n± udayabbayañ±º±d²hi navahi vipassan±ñ±ºehi avipassitv± sam±pajjitu½ na sakkonti, tasm± paµisaªkh±ya v± phalasam±patti½ sam±pajjat²ti vutta½.
Phalasam±pattiy± pavattidassanattha½ pana tesa½ ida½ pañhakamma½– k± phalasam±patti? Ke ta½ sam±pajjanti? Ke na sam±pajjanti? Kasm± sam±pajjanti? Kathañcass± sam±pajjana½ hoti? Katha½ µh±na½? Katha½ vuµµh±na½? Ki½ phalassa anantara½? Kassa ca phala½ anantaranti?
Tattha k± phalasam±patt²ti? Y± ariyaphalassa nirodhe appan±.
Ke ta½ sam±pajjanti? Ke na sam±pajjant²ti? Sabbepi puthujjan± na sam±pajjanti. Kasm±? Anadhigatatt±. Ariy± pana sabbepi sam±pajjanti. Kasm± Adhigatatt±. Uparim± pana heµµhima½ na sam±pajjanti puggalantarabh±v³pagamanena paµippassaddhatt±, heµµhim± ca uparima½ anadhigatatt±. Attano attanoyeva pana phala½ sabbepi sam±pajjant²ti idamettha sanniµµh±na½.
Keci pana “sot±pannasakad±g±minopi na sam±pajjanti, uparim± dveyeva sam±pajjant²”ti vadanti. Idañca nesa½ k±raºa½– ete hi sam±dhismi½ parip³rak±rinoti. Ta½ puthujjanass±pi attan± paµiladdha½ lokiyasam±dhi½ sam±pajjanato ak±raºameva. Kiñcettha k±raº±k±raºacint±ya. Nanu idheva p±¼iya½ “katame dasa saªkh±rupekkh± vipassan±vasena uppajjanti, katame dasa gotrabhudhamm± vipassan±vasena uppajjant²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.60) imesa½ pañh±na½ vissajjane “sot±pattiphalasam±pattatth±ya sakad±g±miphalasam±pattatth±y±”ti (paµi. ma. 1.60) visu½ visu½ vutt±. Tasm± sabbepi ariy± attano attano phala½ sam±pajjant²ti niµµhamettha gantabba½.
Kasm± sam±pajjant²ti? Diµµhadhammasukhavih±rattha½. Yath± hi r±j±no rajjasukha½, devat± dibbasukhamanubhavanti, eva½ ariy± “lokuttarasukha½ anubhaviss±m±”ti addh±napariccheda½ katv± icchiticchitakkhaºe phalasam±patti½ sam±pajjanti.
Kathañcass± sam±pajjana½ hoti, katha½ µh±na½, katha½ vuµµh±nanti? Dv²hi t±va ±k±rehi ass± sam±pajjana½ hoti nibb±nato aññassa ±rammaºassa amanasik±r±, nibb±nassa ca manasik±r±. Yath±ha– “dve kho, ±vuso, paccay± animitt±ya cetovimuttiy± sam±pattiy± sabbanimitt±nañca amanasik±ro, animitt±ya ca dh±tuy± manasik±ro”ti (ma. ni. 1.458). Aya½ panettha sam±pajjanakkamo– phalasam±pattatthikena hi ariyas±vakena rahogatena paµisall²nena udayabbay±divasena saªkh±r± vipassitabb±. Tassa pavatt±nupubbavipassanassa saªkh±r±rammaºagotrabhuñ±º±nantara½ phalasam±pattivasena nirodhe citta½ appeti. Phalasam±pattininnat±ya cettha sekkhass±pi phalameva uppajjati, na maggo. Ye pana vadanti “sot±panno ‘phalasam±patti½ sam±pajjiss±m²’ti vipassana½ paµµhapetv± sakad±g±m² hoti, sakad±g±m² ca an±g±m²”ti. Te vattabb± “eva½ sati an±g±m² arah± bhavissati, arah± paccekabuddho, paccekabuddho ca buddho”ti.
Tasm± na kiñci eta½, p±¼ivaseneva ca paµikkhittantipi na gahetabba½. Idameva pana gahetabba½. Sekkhass±pi phalameva uppajjati, na maggo. Phalañcassa sace anena paµhamajjh±niko maggo adhigato hoti, paµhamajjh±nikameva uppajjati, sace dutiy±d²su aññatarajjh±niko, dutiy±d²su aññatarajjh±nikamev±ti eva½ t±vass± sam±pajjana½ hoti.
“Tayo kho, ±vuso, paccay± animitt±ya cetovimuttiy± µhitiy± sabbanimitt±nañca amanasik±ro, animitt±ya ca dh±tuy± manasik±ro, pubbe ca abhisaªkh±ro”ti (ma. ni. 1.458) vacanato panass± t²h±k±rehi µh±na½ hoti. Tattha pubbe ca abhisaªkh±roti sam±pattito pubbe k±laparicchedo. “Asukasmi½ n±ma k±le vuµµhahiss±m²”ti paricchinnatt± hiss± y±va so k±lo n±gacchati, t±va µh±na½ hoti. Evamassa µh±na½ hoti.
“Dve kho, ±vuso, paccay± animitt±ya cetovimuttiy± vuµµh±n±ya sabbanimitt±nañca manasik±ro, animitt±ya ca dh±tuy± amanasik±ro”ti (ma. ni. 1.458) vacanato panass± dv²h±k±rehi vuµµh±na½ hoti. Tattha sabbanimitt±nanti r³panimittavedan±saññ±saªkh±raviññ±ºanimitt±na½. K±mañca na sabb±nevet±ni ekato manasi karoti, sabbasaªg±hikavasena paneta½ vutta½. Tasm± ya½ bhavaªgassa ±rammaºa½ hoti, ta½ manasikaroto phalasam±pattito vuµµh±na½ hot²ti evamass± vuµµh±na½ veditabba½.
Ki½ phalassa anantara½, kassa ca phala½ anantaranti? Phalassa t±va phalameva v± anantara½ hoti bhavaªga½ v±. Phala½ pana atthi magg±nantara½, atthi phal±nantara½, atthi gotrabhu-anantara½, atthi nevasaññ±n±saññ±yatan±nantaranti. Tattha maggav²thiya½ magg±nantara½, purimassa purimassa pacchima½ pacchima½ phal±nantara½, phalasam±patt²su purima½ purima½ gotrabhu-anantara½. Gotrabh³ti cettha anuloma½ veditabba½. Vuttañheta½ paµµh±ne “arahato anuloma½ phalasam±pattiy± anantarapaccayena paccayo. Sekkh±na½ anuloma½ phalasam±pattiy± anantarapaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.417). Yena phalena nirodh± vuµµh±na½ hoti, ta½ nevasaññ±n±saññ±yatan±nantaranti. Tattha µhapetv± maggav²thiya½ uppannaphala½ avasesa½ sabba½ phalasam±pattivasena pavatta½ n±ma. Evameta½ maggav²thiya½ v± phalasam±pattiya½ v± uppajjanavasena–
“Paµippassaddhadaratha½, amat±rammaºa½ subha½;
vantalok±misa½ santa½, s±maññaphalamuttaman”ti.

Ayamettha phalasam±pattikath±.

Tadajjhupekkhitv±ti ta½ saªkh±rupekkha½ aññena t±diseneva vipassan±ñ±ºena ajjhupekkhitv±. Suññatavih±rena v±ti-±d²su phalasam±patti½ vin± vipassan±vih±reneva viharituk±massa arahato att±bhinivesa½ bhayato disv± suññat±dhimuttassa saªkh±rupekkh±ya vaya½ passantassa vipassanattayavih±ro suññatavih±ro n±ma, saªkh±ranimitta½ bhayato disv± animitt±dhimuttassa saªkh±rupekkh±ya vaya½ passantassa vipassanattayavih±ro animittavih±ro n±ma, taºh±paºidhi½ bhayato disv± appaºihit±dhimuttassa saªkh±rupekkh±ya vaya½ passantassa vipassanattayavih±ro appaºihitavih±ro n±ma. Tath± hi parato vutta½–
“Abhinivesa½ bhayato sampassam±no suññate adhimuttatt± phussa phussa vaya½ passati, suññato vih±ro. Nimitta½ bhayato sampassam±no animitte adhimuttatt± phussa phussa vaya½ passati, animitto vih±ro. Paºidhi½ bhayato sampassam±no appaºihite adhimuttatt± phussa phussa vaya½ passati, appaºihito vih±ro”ti (paµi. ma. 1.78).
Cha¼aªgupekkh±sabbh±vena ca paµik³le appaµik³lasaññ±divih±rasabbh±vena ca arahatoyeva sabb±k±rena citta½ vase vattati, tato aya½ vipassan±vih±ro arahatoyeva ijjhat²ti vutta½ hoti. V²tar±go saªkh±rupekkha½ vipassati v±ti ettha pana tidh± ca bhaya½, tidh± ca adhimutti½ an±pajjitv± kevala½ vipassan±ti veditabb±. Evañhi sati pubb±paraviseso hoti.
56. Id±ni dvinna½ tiººa½ puggal±na½ vasena saªkh±rupekkh±ya ekattan±nattabheda½ dassetuk±mo katha½ puthujjanassa ca sekkhassa c±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha cittassa abhin²h±ro ekatta½ hot²ti eko hoti, sakatthe bh±vavacananti veditabba½. Yath± idappaccay± eva idappaccayat±ti vutta½, tath± ekova ekatta½. Abhin²h±roti s±mi-atthe paccattavacana½ v±, abhin²h±rass±ti attho. “So deso sammajjitv±”ti-±d²su (mah±va. 168) viya vibhattivipall±so katoti veditabbo. Citta½ kilissat²ti vipassan±nikantisaªkh±tena lobhakilesena citta½ kilissati, t±p²yati b±dh²yat²ti attho. Bh±van±ya paripantho hot²ti paµiladdh±ya vipassan±bh±van±ya upagh±to hoti. Paµivedhassa antar±yo hot²ti vipassan±bh±van±ya paµilabhitabbassa saccappaµivedhassa paµil±bhantar±yo hoti. ¾yati½ paµisandhiy± paccayo hot²ti saªkh±rupekkh±sampayuttakammassa balavatt± teneva sugatipaµisandhiy± d²yam±n±ya atinandanasaªkh±to lobhakileso an±gate k±m±vacarasugatipaµisandhiy± paccayo hoti Yasm± kilesasah±ya½ kamma½ vip±ka½ janeti, tasm± kamma½ janakapaccayo hoti, kileso upatthambhakapaccayo. Sekkhassa pana uttaripaµivedhass±ti sakad±g±mimagg±divasena saccappaµivedhassa. ¾yati½ paµisandhiy± paccayo hot²ti sekkhesu sot±pannasakad±g±m²na½ anadhigatajjh±n±na½ saªkh±rupekkh±kammena d²yam±n±ya k±m±vacarasugatipaµisandhiy± abhinandanakileso paccayo hoti, jh±nal±bh²na½ pana an±g±missa ca brahmalokeyeva paµisandh±nato paccayo na hoti, anulomagotrabh³hi ca d²yam±n±ya paµisandhiy± ayameva kileso paccayo hot²ti veditabbo.
Aniccatoti hutv± abh±vaµµhena aniccantikat±ya ±di-antavantat±ya ca aniccato. Dukkhatoti abhiºha½ paµip²¼anaµµhena upp±davayapaµip²¼anat±ya dukkhavatthut±ya ca dukkhato. Anattatoti avasavattanaµµhena paccay±yattavuttit±ya s±miniv±s²k±rakavedak±bh±vena ca anattato. Anupassanaµµhen±ti anu anu anicc±dito passanaµµhena. Abhin²h±ro n±natta½ hot²ti abhin²h±ro n±n± hot²ti v± abhin²h±rassa n±n±bh±vo hot²ti v± veditabba½.
Kusal±ti ±rogyaµµhena anavajjaµµhena kosallasambh³taµµhena ca. Aby±kat±ti kusal±kusalabh±vena na by±kat±. Kiñcik±le suvidit±ti vipassan±k±le suµµhu vidit±. Kiñcik±le na suvidit±ti abhinandanak±le na suµµhu vidit±. Accanta½ suvidit±ti abhinandan±ya pah²natt± ekantena suvidit±. Viditaµµhena ca aviditaµµhena c±ti ettha puthujjanasekkh±na½ suviditaµµhopi v²tar±gassa accantasuviditaµµhopi viditaµµhova hoti, dvinnampi na suviditaµµho aviditaµµhova.
Atittatt±ti vipassan±ya karaº²yassa apariyositatt± appaº²tabh±vena. Tabbipar²tena tittatt±. Tiººa½ saññojan±na½ pah±n±y±ti sakk±yadiµµhivicikicch±s²labbatapar±m±s±na½ pah±nattha½. Pacchimabhavik±pi bodhisatt± ettheva saªgaha½ gacchanti. Apacchimabhavik± pana vipassana½ saªkh±rupekkha½ p±petv± µhapenti. Sot±pattimagga½ paµil±bhatth±y±ti asam±setv± paµhanti, sam±setv± p±µho sundarataro. Sekkho tiººa½ saññojan±na½ pah²natt±ti sot±pannasakad±g±mi-an±g±m²na½ s±maññena vutta½. Sakad±g±mi-an±g±m²nampi hi t±ni pah²n±neva. Uttaripaµil±bhatth±y±ti upar³parimaggapaµil±bhattha½. Diµµhadhammasukhavih±ratth±y±ti diµµheva dhamme paccakkhe attabh±ve yo sukho vih±ro, tadatth±ya. Vih±rasam±pattaµµhen±ti sekkhassa phalasam±pattaµµhena, v²tar±gassa vipassan±vih±raphalasam±pattaµµhena.
57. Id±ni saªkh±rupekkh±na½ gaºanapariccheda½ dassetu½ kati saªkh±rupekkh±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha samathavasen±ti sam±dhivasena. Ayameva v± p±µho. N²varaºe paµisaªkh±ti pañca n²varaº±ni pah±tabbabh±vena pariggahetv±. Santiµµhan±ti n²varaº±na½ pah±n±bhimukh²bh³tatt± tesa½ pah±nepi aby±p±rabh±v³pagamanena majjhattat±ya santiµµhan±. Saªkh±rupekkh±s³ti n²varaºappah±ne by±p±r±karaºena n²varaºasaªkh±t±na½ saªkh±r±na½ upekkhan±su. Esa nayo vitakkavic±r±d²su ca. Samathe saªkh±rupekkh± n±ma appan±v²thiy± ±sannapubbabh±ge balappattabh±van±mayañ±ºa½. Sot±pattimagga½ paµil±bhatth±y±ti-±d²su cat³su maggav±resu suññat±nimitta-appaºihitamagg±na½ aññataraññataro maggo labbhati. Sot±pattiphalasam±pattatth±y±ti-±d²su cat³su phalav±resu pana appaºihit± phalasam±patti veditabb±. Kasm±? “Suññatavih±rasam±pattatth±ya animittavih±rasam±pattatth±y±”ti itar±sa½ dvinna½ phalasam±patt²na½ visu½ vuttatt±. Anicc±nupassan±vuµµh±navasena hi animittamaggo, tatheva phalasam±pattik±le animittaphalasam±patti, dukkh±nupassan±vuµµh±navasena appaºihitamaggaphalasam±pattiyo, anatt±nupassan±vuµµh±navasena suññatamaggaphalasam±pattiyo suttantanayeneva veditabb±.
Ettha ca cat³su maggav±resu upp±danti-±d²ni pañca m³lapad±ni, gatinti-±d²ni dasa vevacanapad±n²ti pannarasa pad±ni vutt±ni. Chasu pana phalasam±pattiv±resu pañca m³lapad±neva vutt±ni. Ta½ kasm± iti ce? Saªkh±rupekkh±ya tikkhabh±ve sati kilesappah±ne samatthassa maggassa sambhavato tass± tikkhabh±vadassanattha½ vevacanapadehi saha da¼ha½ katv± m³lapad±ni vutt±ni. Phalassa niruss±habh±vena santasabh±vatt± magg±yattatt± ca mandabh³t±pi saªkh±rupekkh± phalassa paccayo hot²ti dassanattha½ m³lapad±neva vutt±n²ti veditabb±ni.
58. Id±ni j±tivasena pucchitv± labbham±navasena vissajjetu½ kati saªkh±rupekkh± kusal±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha pannarasa saªkh±rupekkh±ti samathavasena aµµha, catunna½ magg±na½ tiººa½ phal±na½ vasena satt±ti pannarasa. Samathavasena aµµha saªkh±rupekkh± arahato n²varaºapaµisaªkh±-abh±vato, vitakkavic±r±d²na½ pah±naby±p±ra½ vin± sukhena pah±nato ca saªkh±rupekkh±n±massa ananur³p±ti katv± t±sa½ aby±katat± na vutt±ti veditabb±. Arahat± pana phalasam±patti½ sam±pajjantena saªkh±rupekkha½ vin± sam±pajjitu½ na sakk±ti tisso saªkh±rupekkh± aby±kat±ti vutt±. Appaºihitasuññat±nimittavasena hi arahato tisso saªkh±rupekkh±.
Id±ni saªkh±rupekkh±na½ sa½vaººan±vasena vutt±su t²su g±th±su paµisaªkh±santiµµhan± paññ±ti saªkh±rupekkh± Aµµha cittassa gocar±ti samathavasena vutt± aµµha saªkh±rupekkh± sam±dhissa visay±, bh³miyoti attho. “Citta½ paññañca bh±vayan”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.23, 192) viya cittas²sena sam±dhi niddiµµho, “gocare, bhikkhave, caratha sake pettike visaye”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 5.372) viya gocarasaddena visayo. Yañhi yad±yatta½, tasseso visayoti vuccati. Puthujjanassa dveti samathavasena vipassan±vasena ca. Tayo sekkhass±ti samathavipassan±sam±pattivasena. Tayo ca v²tar±gass±ti appaºihitasuññat±nimittaphalasam±pattivasena. “Tisso”ti vattabbe “tayo”ti ca liªgavipall±so kato. Tayo saªkh±rupekkh± dhamm±ti v± yojetabba½. Yehi citta½ vivaµµat²ti yehi saªkh±rupekkh±dhammehi vitakkavic±r±dito, upp±d±dito v± citta½ apagacchati. V²tar±gass±pi hi saªkh±rupekkh±sabbh±vato ca saªkh±rato citta½ vivaµµitv± nibb±na½ pakkhandat²ti vutta½ hoti. Aµµha sam±dhissa paccay±ti samathavasena vutt± aµµha appan±samp±pakatt± appan±sam±dhissa paccay±. Dasa ñ±ºassa gocar±ti vipassan±vasena vutt± dasa maggañ±ºassa phalañ±ºassa ca bh³miyo. Tiººa½ vimokkh±na paccay±ti suññat±nimitta-appaºihitavimokkh±na½ upanissayapaccay±. N±n±diµµh²su na kampat²ti bhaªga½ avissajjitv±va saªkh±re anicc±divasena vipassanto sassatadiµµhi-±d²su n±nappak±r±su diµµh²su na vedhat²ti.

Saªkh±rupekkh±ñ±ºaniddesavaººan± niµµhit±.