Iti ime catt±ro satipaµµh±n± pubbabh±ge n±n±cittesu labbhanti. Aññeneva hi cittena k±ya½ pariggaºh±ti, aññena vedana½, aññena citta½, aññena dhamme pariggaºh±ti. Lokuttaramaggakkhaºe pana ekacitteyeva labbhanti. ¾dito hi k±ya½ pariggaºhitv± ±gatassa vipassan±sampayutt± sati k±y±nupassan± n±ma, t±ya satiy± samann±gato puggalo k±y±nupass² n±ma. Vipassana½ ussukk±petv± ariyamagga½ pattassa maggakkhaºe maggasampayutt± sati k±y±nupassan± n±ma, t±ya satiy± samann±gato puggalo k±y±nupass² n±ma. Vedana½ pariggaºhitv± citta½ pariggaºhitv± dhamme pariggaºhitv± ±gatassa vipassan±sampayutt± sati dhamm±nupassan± n±ma, t±ya satiy± samann±gato puggalo dhamm±nupass² n±ma. Vipassana½ ussukk±petv± ariyamagga½ pattassa maggakkhaºe maggasampayutt± sati dhamm±nupassan± n±ma, t±ya satiy± samann±gato puggalo dhamm±nupass² n±ma. Eva½ t±va desan± puggale tiµµhati. K±ye pana “subhan”ti vipall±sappah±n± k±yaparigg±hik± sati maggena samijjhat²ti k±y±nupassan± n±ma. Vedan±ya “sukh±”ti vipall±sappah±n± vedan±parigg±hik± sati maggena samijjhat²ti vedan±nupassan± n±ma. Citte “niccan”ti vipall±sappah±n± cittaparigg±hik± sati maggena samijjhat²ti citt±nupassan± n±ma. Dhammesu “att±”ti vipall±sappah±n± dhammaparigg±hik± sati maggena samijjhat²ti dhamm±nupassan± n±ma. Iti ek±va maggasampayutt± sati catukiccas±dhakattena catt±ri n±m±ni labhati. Tena vutta½ “lokuttaramaggakkhaºe pana ekacitteyeva labbhant²”ti.
Samm±sam±dhiniddese vivicceva k±meh²ti k±mehi viviccitv± vin± hutv± apakkamitv±. Yo pan±yamettha evak±ro, so niyamatthoti veditabbo. Yasm± ca niyamattho, tasm± paµhamajjh±na½ upasampajja viharaºasamaye avijjam±n±nampi k±m±na½ tassa paµhamajjh±nassa paµipakkhabh±va½ k±maparicc±geneva cassa adhigama½ d²peti. Katha½? “Vivicceva k±meh²”ti evañhi niyame kayiram±ne ida½ paññ±yati– n³nimassa jh±nassa k±m± paµipakkhabh³t±, yesu sati ida½ na pavattati, andhak±re sati pad²pobh±so viya, tesa½ paricc±geneva cassa adhigamo hoti orimat²raparicc±gena p±rimat²rassa viya. Tasm± niyama½ karot²ti.
Tattha siy±, kasm± panesa pubbapadeyeva vutto, na uttarapade, ki½ akusalehi dhammehi avivicc±pi jh±na½ upasampajja vihareyy±ti? Na kho paneta½ eva½ daµµhabba½. Ta½nissaraºato hi pubbapade esa vutto. K±madh±tusamatikkamanato hi k±mar±gapaµipakkhato ca ida½ jh±na½ k±m±nameva nissaraºa½. Yath±ha– “k±m±nameta½ nissaraºa½ yadida½ nekkhamman”ti (itivu. 72). Uttarapadepi pana yath± “idheva, bhikkhave, samaºo, idha dutiyo samaºo”ti (ma. ni. 1.139; a. ni. 4.241) ettha evak±ro ±netv± vuccati, eva½ vattabbo. Na hi sakk± ito aññehipi n²varaºasaªkh±tehi akusalehi dhammehi avivicca jh±na½ upasampajja viharitu½. Tasm± “vivicceva k±mehi vivicceva akusalehi dhammeh²”ti eva½ padadvayepi esa daµµhabbo. Padadvayepi ca kiñc±pi vivicc±ti imin± s±dh±raºavacanena tadaªgavikkhambhanasamucchedapaµippassaddhinissaraºavivek± cittak±ya-upadhivivek± ca saªgaha½ gacchanti, tath±pi pubbabh±ge k±yavivekacittavivekavikkhambhanavivek± daµµhabb±, lokuttaramaggakkhaºe k±yavivekacittavivekasamucchedavivekapaµippassaddhivivekanissaraºavivek±.
K±meh²ti imin± pana padena ye ca mah±niddese “katame vatthuk±m± man±pik± r³p±”ti-±din± (mah±ni. 1) nayena vatthuk±m± vutt±, ye ca tattheva vibhaªge ca “chando k±mo, r±go k±mo, chandar±go k±mo, saªkappo k±mo, r±go k±mo, saªkappar±go k±mo”ti (mah±ni. 1; vibha. 564) eva½ kilesak±m± vutt±, te sabbepi saªgahit± icceva daµµhabb±. Evañhi sati vivicceva k±meh²ti vatthuk±mehipi viviccev±ti attho yujjati. Tena k±yaviveko vutto hoti.
Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²ti kilesak±mehi sabb±kusalehi v± vivicc±ti attho yujjati. Tena cittaviveko vutto hoti. Purimena cettha vatthuk±mehi vivekavacanato eva k±masukhaparicc±go, dutiyena kilesak±mehi vivekavacanato nekkhammasukhapariggaho vibh±vito hoti. Eva½ vatthuk±makilesak±mavivekavacanatoyeva ca etesa½ paµhamena sa½kilesavatthuppah±na½, dutiyena sa½kilesappah±na½. Paµhamena lolabh±vassa hetuparicc±go, dutiyena b±labh±vassa. Paµhamena ca payogasuddhi, dutiyena ±sayaposana½ vibh±vita½ hot²ti viññ±tabba½. Esa t±va nayo k±meh²ti ettha vuttak±mesu vatthuk±mapakkhe.
Kilesak±mapakkhe pana chandoti ca r±goti ca evam±d²hi anekabhedo k±macchandova k±moti adhippeto. So ca akusalapariy±pannopi sam±no “tattha katame k±m±, chando k±mo”ti-±din± (vibha. 564) nayena vibhaªge upari jh±naªgapaµipakkhato visu½ vutto, kilesak±matt± v± purimapade vutto, akusalapariy±pannatt± dutiyapade. Anekabhedato cassa k±matoti avatv± k±meh²ti vutta½. Aññesampi ca dhamm±na½ akusalabh±ve vijjam±ne “tattha katame akusal± dhamm±, k±macchando”ti-±din± (vibha. 564) nayena vibhaªge upari jh±naªgapaccan²kapaµipakkhabh±vadassanato n²varaº±neva vutt±ni. N²varaº±ni hi jh±naªgapaccan²k±ni, tesa½ jh±naªg±neva paµipakkh±ni viddha½sak±ni vin±sak±n²ti vutta½ hoti. Tath± hi “sam±dhi k±macchandassa paµipakkho, p²ti by±p±dassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sukha½ uddhaccakukkuccassa, vic±ro vicikicch±y±”ti peµake vutta½.
Evamettha “vivicceva k±meh²”ti imin± k±macchandassa vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hoti. “Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²”ti imin± pañcannampi n²varaº±na½. Agahitaggahaºena pana paµhamena k±macchandassa, dutiyena sesan²varaº±na½. Tath± paµhamena t²su akusalam³lesu pañcak±maguºabhedavisayassa lobhassa, dutiyena ±gh±tavatthubhed±divisay±na½ dosamoh±na½. Ogh±d²su v± dhammesu paµhamena k±moghak±mayogak±m±savak±mup±d±na-abhijjh±k±yagantha k±mar±gasaññojan±na½, dutiyena avasesa-oghayog±sava-up±d±naganthasa½yojan±na½. Paµhamena taºh±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca, dutiyena avijj±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca. Apica paµhamena lobhasampayutta-aµµhacittupp±d±na½, dutiyena ses±na½ catunna½ akusalacittupp±d±na½ vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hot²ti veditabbo.
Ett±vat± ca paµhamassa jh±nassa pah±naªga½ dassetv± id±ni sampayogaªga½ dassetu½ savitakka½ savic±ranti-±di vutta½. Tattha ±rammaºe cittassa abhiniropanalakkhaºo vitakko. ¾rammaº±numajjanalakkhaºo vic±ro. Santepi ca nesa½ katthaci avippayoge o¼±rikaµµhena pubbaªgamaµµhena ca ghaº¹±bhigh±to viya cetaso paµham±bhinip±to vitakko, sukhumaµµhena anumajjanasabh±vena ca ghaº¹±nuravo viya anuppabandho vic±ro. Vipph±rav± cettha vitakko paµhamuppattik±le paripphandanabh³to cittassa, ±k±se uppatituk±massa pakkhino pakkhavikkhepo viya, padum±bhimukhap±to viya ca gandh±nubandhacetaso bhamarassa. Santavutti vic±ro n±tiparipphandanabh³to cittassa, ±k±se uppatitassa pakkhino pakkhappas±raºa½ viya, paribbhamana½ viya ca padum±bhimukhapatitassa bhamarassa padumassa uparibh±ge.
Dukanip±taµµhakath±ya½ pana “±k±se gacchato mah±sakuºassa ubhohi pakkhehi v±ta½ gahetv± pakkhe sannis²d±petv± gamana½ viya ±rammaºe cetaso abhiniropanabh±vena pavatto vitakko, v±taggahaºattha½ pakkhe phand±payam±nassa gamana½ viya anumajjanabh±vena pavatto vic±ro”ti vutta½. Ta½ anuppabandhena pavattiya½ yujjati. So pana tesa½ viseso paµhamadutiyajjh±nesu p±kaµo hoti. Apica malaggahita½ ka½sabh±jana½ ekena hatthena da¼ha½ gahetv± itarena hatthena cuººatelav±laº¹upakena parimajjantassa da¼haggahaºahattho viya vitakko, parimajjanahattho viya vic±ro. Tath± kumbhak±rassa daº¹appah±rena cakka½ bhamayitv± bh±jana½ karontassa upp²¼anahattho viya vitakko, ito cito ca sa½saraºahattho viya vic±ro. Tath± maº¹ala½ karontassa majjhe sannirujjhitv± µhitakaºµako viya abhiniropano vitakko, bahi paribbhamanakaºµako viya anumajjano vic±ro. Iti imin± ca vitakkena imin± ca vic±rena saha vattati rukkho viya pupphena phalena c±ti ida½ jh±na½ “savitakka½ savic±ran”ti vuccati.
Vivekajanti ettha vivitti viveko, n²varaºavigamoti attho. Vivittoti v± viveko, n²varaºavivitto jh±nasampayuttadhammar±s²ti attho. Tasm± vivek±, tasmi½ v± viveke j±tanti vivekaja½. P²tisukhanti ettha p²ºayat²ti p²ti, s± sampiy±yanalakkhaº±. S± panes± khuddik± p²ti, khaºik± p²ti, okkantik± p²ti, ubbeg± p²ti, pharaº± p²t²ti pañcavidh± hoti.
Tattha khuddik± p²ti sar²re lomaha½sanamattameva k±tu½ sakkoti. Khaºik± p²ti khaºe khaºe vijjupp±dasadis± hoti. Okkantik± p²ti samuddat²ra½ v²ci viya k±ya½ okkamitv± okkamitv± bhijjati. Ubbeg± p²ti balavat² hoti k±ya½ uddhagga½ katv± ±k±se laªgh±panappam±ºappatt±. Pharaº± p²ti atibalavat² hoti. T±ya hi uppann±ya sakalasar²ra½ dhamitv± p³ritavatthi viya mahat± udakoghena pakkhandapabbatakucchi viya ca anupariphuµa½ hoti. S± panes± pañcavidh± p²ti gabbha½ gaºhant² parip±ka½ gacchant² duvidha½ passaddhi½ parip³reti k±yapassaddhiñca cittapassaddhiñca. Passaddhi gabbha½ gaºhant² parip±ka½ gacchant² duvidhampi sukha½ parip³reti k±yikañca cetasikañca. Sukha½ gabbha½ gaºhanta½ parip±ka½ gacchanta½ tividha½ sam±dhi½ parip³reti– khaºikasam±dhi½, upac±rasam±dhi½, appan±sam±dhiñc±ti. T±su ca y± appan±sam±dhissa m³la½ hutv± va¹¹ham±n± sam±dhisampayoga½ gat± pharaº± p²ti, aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippet± p²t²ti.
Itara½ pana sukhayat²ti sukha½, yassuppajjati, ta½ sukhita½ karot²ti attho. Sukhana½ v± sukha½, suµµhu v± kh±dati, khaºati ca k±yacitt±b±dhanti sukha½, somanassavedan±yeta½ n±ma½. Ta½ s±talakkhaºa½. Santepi ca nesa½ katthaci avippayoge iµµh±rammaºapaµil±bhatuµµhi p²ti, paµiladdharas±nubhavana½ sukha½. Yattha p²ti, tattha sukha½. Yattha sukha½, tattha na niyamato p²ti. Saªkh±rakkhandhasaªgahit± p²ti, vedan±kkhandhasaªgahita½ sukha½. Kant±rakhinnassa vanantudakadassanasavanesu viya p²ti, vanacch±y±pavesana-udakaparibhogesu viya sukha½. Tasmi½ tasmi½ samaye p±kaµabh±vato ceta½ vuttanti veditabba½. Iti ayañca p²ti idañca sukha½ assa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti ida½ jh±na½ “p²tisukhan”ti vuccati. Atha v± p²ti ca sukhañca p²tisukha½ dhammavinay±dayo viya. Vivekaja½ p²tisukha½ assa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti evampi vivekaja½ p²tisukha½. Yatheva hi jh±na½, eva½ p²tisukhampettha vivekajameva hoti. Tañcassa atth²ti tasm± alopasam±sa½ katv± ekapadeneva “vivekaja½p²tisukhan”tipi vattu½ yujjati.
Paµhamanti gaºan±nupubbat± paµhama½, paµhama½ uppannantipi paµhama½. Jh±nanti duvidha½ jh±na½ ±rammaº³panijjh±nañca lakkhaº³panijjh±nañca. Tattha aµµha sam±pattiyo pathav²kasiº±di-±rammaºa½ upanijjh±yant²ti “±rammaº³panijjh±nan”ti saªkhya½ gat±. Vipassan±maggaphal±ni pana lakkhaº³panijjh±na½ n±ma. Tattha vipassan± anicc±dilakkhaºassa upanijjh±nato lakkhaº³panijjh±na½, vipassan±ya katakiccassa maggena ijjhanato maggo lakkhaº³panijjh±na½, phala½ pana nirodhasacca½ tathalakkhaºa½ upanijjh±yat²ti lakkhaº³panijjh±na½. Tesu idha pubbabh±ge ±rammaº³panijjh±na½, lokuttaramaggakkhaºe lakkhaº³panijjh±na½ adhippeta½, tasm± ±rammaº³panijjh±nato lakkhaº³panijjh±nato paccan²kajjh±panato ca “jh±nan”ti veditabba½. Upasampajj±ti upagantv±, p±puºitv±ti vutta½ hoti. Upasamp±dayitv± v±, nipph±detv±ti vutta½ hoti. Viharat²ti tadanur³pena iriy±pathavih±rena iriyati, vuttappak±rajh±nasamaªg² hutv± attabh±vassa vutti½ abhinipph±deti.