Dukkhasaccaniddesavaººan±

32-33
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Ariyasaccacatukkampi tathaµµhena sacc±na½ ekasambandhatt± ekato eva niddiµµha½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu cat³su ariyasaccesu. Katamanti kathetukamyat±pucch± Dukkha½ ariyasaccanti pucchitadhammanidassana½. Tattha j±tipi dukkh±ti-±d²su j±tisaddassa t±va aneke atth± pavedit±. Yath±ha–
“Bhavo kula½ nik±yo ca, s²la½ paññatti lakkhaºa½;
pas³ti sandhi cev±ti, j±ti-atth± pavedit±”.
Tath± hissa “ekampi j±ti½ dvepi j±tiyo”ti-±d²su (p±r±. 12) bhavo attho. “Akkhitto anupakkuµµho j±tiv±den±”ti (d². ni. 1.331) ettha kula½. “Atthi, vis±khe, nigaºµh± n±ma samaºaj±t²”ti (a. ni. 3.71) ettha nik±yo. “Yatoha½, bhagini, ariy±ya j±tiy± j±to n±bhij±n±m²”ti (ma. ni. 2.351) ettha ariyas²la½. “Tiriy± n±ma tiºaj±ti n±bhiy± uggantv± nabha½ ±hacca µhit± ahos²”ti (a. ni. 5.196) ettha paññatti. “J±ti dv²hi khandhehi saªgahit±”ti (dh±tu. 71) ettha saªkhatalakkhaºa½. “Sampatij±to, ±nanda, bodhisatto”ti (ma. ni. 3.207) ettha pas³ti. “Bhavapaccay± j±t²”ti (vibha. 354) ca “j±tipi dukkh±”ti (paµi. ma. 1.33; vibha. 190) ca ettha pariy±yato paµisandhikhandh±. Nippariy±yato pana tattha tattha nibbattam±n±na½ satt±na½ ye ye khandh± p±tubhavanti, tesa½ tesa½ paµhama½ p±tubh±vo.
Kasm± panes± j±ti dukkh±ti ce? Anekesa½ dukkh±na½ vatthubh±vato. Anek±ni hi dukkh±ni. Seyyathida½– dukkhadukkha½, vipariº±madukkha½, saªkh±radukkha½, paµicchannadukkha½, appaµicchannadukkha½ pariy±yadukkha½, nippariy±yadukkhanti. Ettha k±yikacetasik± dukkh± vedan±sabh±vato ca n±mato ca dukkhatt± dukkhadukkhanti vuccati. Sukh± vedan± vipariº±mena dukkhuppattihetuto vipariº±madukkha½. Upekkh±vedan± ceva avases± ca tebh³makasaªkh±r± udayabbayapaµip²¼itatt± saªkh±radukkha½. Kaººas³ladantas³lar±gajapari¼±hadosajapari¼±h±di k±yikacetasiko ±b±dho pucchitv± j±nitabbato upakkamassa ca ap±kaµabh±vato paµicchannadukkha½. Dvatti½sakammak±raº±disamuµµh±no ±b±dho apucchitv±va j±nitabbato upakkamassa ca p±kaµabh±vato appaµicchannadukkha½. Ýhapetv± dukkhadukkha½ sesa½ dukkhasaccavibhaªge (vibha. 190 ±dayo) ±gata½ j±ti-±di sabbampi tassa tassa dukkhassa vatthubh±vato pariy±yadukkha½. Dukkhadukkha½ pana nippariy±yadukkhanti vuccati.
Tatr±ya½ j±ti ya½ ta½ b±lapaº¹itasutt±d²su (ma. ni. 3.246 ±dayo) bhagavat±pi upam±vasena pak±sita½ ±p±yika½ dukkha½, yañca sugatiyampi manussaloke gabbhokkantim³lak±dibheda½ dukkha½ uppajjati, tassa vatthubh±vato dukkh±. Tatrida½ gabbhokkantim³lak±dibheda½ dukkha½– ayañhi satto m±tukucchimhi nibbattam±no na uppalapadumapuº¹ar²k±d²su nibbattati, atha kho heµµh± ±m±sayassa upari pakk±sayassa udarapaµalapiµµhikaºµak±na½ vemajjhe paramasamb±dhe tibbandhak±re n±n±kuºapagandhaparibh±vitaparamaduggandhapavanavicarite adhimattajegucche kucchippadese p³timacchap³tikumm±sacandanik±d²su kimi viya nibbattati. So tattha nibbatto dasa m±se m±tukucchisambhavena usman± puµap±ka½ viya paccam±no piµµhapiº¹i viya sediyam±no samiñjanapas±raº±divirahito adhimatta½ dukkha½ paccanubhot²ti. Ida½ t±va gabbhokkantim³laka½ dukkha½.
Ya½ pana so m±tu sahas± upakkhalanagamananis²dana-uµµh±naparivattan±d²su sur±dhuttahatthagato e¼ako viya ahituº¹ikahatthagato sappapotako viya ca ±ka¹¹hanaparika¹¹hana-odhunananiddhunan±din± upakkamena adhimatta½ dukkhamanubhoti, yañca m±tu s²tudakap±nak±le s²tanarak³papanno viya uºhay±gubhatt±di-ajjhoharaºak±le aªg±ravuµµhisamparikiººo viya loºambil±di-ajjhoharaºak±le kh±r±patacchik±dikammak±raºappatto viya adhimatta½ dukkhamanubhoti. Ida½ gabbhapariharaºam³laka½ dukkha½.
Ya½ panassa m³¼hagabbh±ya m±tuy± mitt±maccasuhajj±d²hipi adassan±rahe dukkhuppattiµµh±ne chedanaph±lan±d²hi dukkhamanubhavati. Ida½ gabbhavipattim³laka½ dukkha½.
Ya½ vij±yam±n±ya m±tuy± kammajehi v±tehi parivattetv± narakappap±ta½ viya atibhay±naka½ yonimagga½ paµip±diyam±nassa paramasamb±dhena ca yonimukhena t±¼acchigga¼ena viya nika¹¹hiyam±nassa mah±n±gassa narakasattassa viya ca saªgh±tapabbatehi vicuººiyam±nassa dukkhamuppajjati. Ida½ vij±yanam³laka½ dukkha½.
Ya½ pana j±tassa taruºavaºasadisassa sukum±rasar²rassa hatthagahaºanh±panadhovanaco¼aparimajjan±dik±le s³cimukhakhuradh±r±vijjhanaph±lanasadisa½ dukkhamuppajjati. Ida½ m±tukucchito bahi nikkhamanam³laka½ dukkha½.
Ya½ tato para½ pavattiya½ attan±va att±na½ vadhentassa acelakavat±divasena ±t±panaparit±pan±nuyogamanuyuttassa kodhavasena abhuñjantassa ubbandhantassa ca dukkha½ hoti. Ida½ attupakkamam³laka½ dukkha½.
Ya½ pana parato vadhabandhan±d²ni anubhavantassa uppajjati. Ida½ par³pakkamam³laka½dukkhanti. Iti imassa sabbass±pi dukkhassa aya½ j±ti vatthumeva hoti. Teneta½ vuccati–
“J±yetha no ce narakesu satto, tatthaggid±h±dikamappasayha½;
labhetha dukkha½ nu kuhi½ patiµµha½, icc±ha dukkh±ti mun²dha j±ti½.
“Dukkha½ tiracchesu kas±patoda-
daº¹±bhigh±t±dibhava½ aneka½;
ya½ ta½ katha½ tattha bhaveyya j±ti½,
vin± tahi½ j±ti tatopi dukkh±.
“Petesu dukkha½ pana khuppip±s±-
v±t±tap±dippabhava½ vicitta½;
yasm± aj±tassa na tattha atthi,
tasm±pi dukkha½ muni j±tim±ha.
“Tibbandhak±re ca asayhas²te,
lokantare ya½ asuresu dukkha½;
na ta½ bhave tattha na cassa j±ti,
yato aya½ j±ti tatopi dukkh±.
“Yañc±pi g³thanarake viya m±tugabbhe,
satto vasa½ ciramato bahi nikkhamañca;
pappoti dukkhamatighoramidampi natthi,
j±ti½ vin± itipi j±ti ayañhi dukkh±.
“Ki½ bh±sitena bahun± nanu ya½ kuhiñci,
atth²dha kiñcidapi dukkhamida½ kad±ci;
nevatthi j±tivirahe yadato mahes²,
dukkh±ti sabbapaµhama½ imam±ha j±tin”ti.
Jar±pi dukkh±ti ettha duvidh± jar± saªkhatalakkhaºañca, khaº¹icc±disammato santatiya½ ekabhavapariy±pannakhandhapur±ºabh±vo ca. S± idha adhippet±. S± panes± dukkh± saªkh±radukkhabh±vato ceva dukkhavatthuto ca. Ya½ hida½ aªgapaccaªgasithil²bh±va-indriyavik±ravir³pat± yobbanavin±sabal³pagh±tasatimativippav±saparaparibhav±di-anekappaccaya½ k±yikacetasika½ dukkhamuppajjati, jar± tassa vatthu. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Aªg±na½ sithil²bh±v±, indriy±na½ vik±rato;
yobbanassa vin±sena, balassa upagh±tato.
“Vippav±s± sat±d²na½, puttad±rehi attano;
appas±dan²yato ceva, bhiyyo b±lattapattiy±.
“Pappoti dukkha½ ya½ macco, k±yika½ m±nasa½ tath±;
sabbameta½ jar±hetu, yasm± tasm± jar± dukh±”ti.
Jar±dukkh±nantara½ by±dhidukkhe vattabbepi k±yikadukkhagahaºeneva by±dhidukkha½ gahita½ hot²ti na vuttanti veditabba½.
Maraºampi dukkhanti etth±pi duvidha½ maraºa½– saªkhatalakkhaºañca, ya½ sandh±ya vutta½– “jar±maraºa½ dv²hi khandhehi saªgahitan”ti (dh±tu. 71). Ekabhavapariy±pannaj²vitindriyappabandhavicchedo ca, ya½ sandh±ya vutta½– “nicca½ maraºato bhayan”ti (su. ni. 581). Ta½ idha adhippeta½. J±tipaccayamaraºa½ upakkamamaraºa½ sarasamaraºa½ ±yukkhayamaraºa½ puññakkhayamaraºantipi tasseva n±ma½. Puna khaºikamaraºa½ sammutimaraºa½ samucchedamaraºanti ayampettha bhedo veditabbo. Pavatte r³p±r³padhamm±na½ bhedo khaºikamaraºa½ n±ma. “Tisso mato, phusso mato”ti ida½ paramatthato sattassa abh±v±, “sassa½ mata½, rukkho mato”ti ida½ j²vitindriyassa abh±v± sammutimaraºa½ n±ma. Kh²º±savassa appaµisandhik± k±lakiriy± samucchedamaraºa½ n±ma. B±hiraka½ sammutimaraºa½ µhapetv± itara½ sammutimaraºañca samucchedamaraºañca yath±vuttapabandhavicchedeneva saªgahita½. Dukkhassa pana vatthubh±vato dukkha½. Teneta½ vuccati–
“P±passa p±pakamm±dinimittamanupassato;
bhaddass±pasahantassa, viyoga½ piyavatthuka½;
m²yam±nassa ya½ dukkha½, m±nasa½ avisesato.
“Sabbesañc±pi ya½ sandhibandhanacchedan±dika½;
vitujjam±namamm±na½ hoti dukkha½ sar²raja½.
“Asayhamappaµik±ra½, dukkhassetassida½ yato;
maraºa½ vatthu teneta½, dukkhamicceva bh±sitan”ti.
Sok±d²su soko n±ma ñ±tibyasan±d²hi phuµµhassa antonijjh±nalakkhaºo cittasant±po. Dukkho pana dukkhadukkhato dukkhavatthuto ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Satt±na½ hadaya½ soko, visasalla½va tujjati;
aggitattova n±r±co, bhusa½va dahate puna.
“Sam±vahati by±dhiñca, jar±maraºabhedana½;
dukkhampi vividha½ yasm±, tasm± dukkhoti vuccat²”ti.
Paridevo n±ma ñ±tibyasan±d²hi phuµµhassa vac²pal±po. Dukkho pana saªkh±radukkhabh±vato dukkhavatthuto ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Ya½ sokasallavihato paridevam±no, kaºµhoµµhat±lutalasosajamappasayha½;
bhiyyodhimattamadhigacchatiyeva dukkha½, dukkhoti tena bhagav± paridevam±h±”ti.
Dukkha½ n±ma k±yap²¼analakkhaºa½ k±yikadukkha½. Dukkha½ pana dukkhadukkhato m±nasadukkh±vahanato ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“P²¼eti k±yikamida½, dukkha½ dukkhañca m±nasa½ bhiyyo;
janayati yasm± tasm±, dukkhanti visesato vuttan”ti.
Domanassa½ n±ma cittap²¼analakkhaºa½ m±nasa½ dukkha½. Dukkha½ pana dukkhadukkhato k±yikadukkh±vahanato ca. Cetodukkhasamappit± hi kese pakiriya kandanti, ur±ni paµipisanti, ±vaµµanti, vivaµµanti, uddha½p±da½ papatanti, sattha½ ±haranti, visa½ kh±danti, rajjuy± ubbandhanti, aggi½ pavisant²ti n±nappak±raka½ dukkhamanubhavanti. Teneta½ vuccati–
“P²¼eti yato citta½, k±yassa ca p²¼ana½ sam±vahati;
dukkhanti domanassa½, vidomanass± tato ±h³”ti.
Up±y±so n±ma ñ±tibyasan±d²hi phuµµhassa adhimattacetodukkhappabh±vito dosoyeva. “Saªkh±rakkhandhapariy±panno eko dhammo”ti eke. Dukkho pana saªkh±radukkhabh±vato cittaparidahanato k±yavis±danato ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Cittassa ca paridahan±, k±yassa vis±dan± ca adhimatta½;
ya½ dukkhamup±y±so, janeti dukkho tato vutto”ti.
Ettha ca mandaggin± antobh±jane p±ko viya soko, tikkhaggin± paccam±nassa bh±janato bahinikkhamana½ viya paridevo, bahinikkhant±vasesassa nikkhamitumpi appahontassa antobh±janeyeva y±va parikkhay± p±ko viya up±y±so daµµhabbo.