Pah±tabbaniddesavaººan±

23. Pah±tabbaniddese asmim±noti r³p±d²su pañcasu up±d±nakkhandhesu asm²ti m±no. Tasmiñhi pah²ne arahatta½ patta½ hoti. R³par±g±d²su vijjam±nesupi ses±ni avatv± asmim±nasseva vacana½ diµµhipatir³pakattena tassa o¼±rikatt±ti veditabba½. Avijj±ti suttantapariy±yena dukkh±d²su cat³su µh±nesu aññ±ºa½, abhidhammapariy±yena pubbant±d²hi saddhi½ aµµhasu. Vuttañheta½–
“Tattha katam± avijj±? Dukkhe aññ±ºa½, dukkhasamudaye aññ±ºa½, dukkhanirodhe aññ±ºa½, dukkhanirodhag±miniy± paµipad±ya aññ±ºa½, pubbante aññ±ºa½, aparante aññ±ºa½, pubbant±parante aññ±ºa½, idappaccayat±paµiccasamuppannesu dhammesu aññ±ºan”ti (dha. sa. 1106; vibha. 226).
Bhavataºh±ti k±mabhav±d²su bhavesu patthan±. Yath±ha–
“Tattha katam± bhavataºh±? Yo bhavesu bhavacchando bhavar±go bhavanand² bhavataºh± bhavasineho bhavapari¼±ho bhavamucch± bhavajjhos±nan”ti (vibha. 895).
Tisso taºh±ti k±mataºh±, bhavataºh±, vibhavataºh±. T±sa½ abhidhamme eva½ niddeso kato– tattha katam± bhavataºh±? Bhavadiµµhisahagato r±go…pe… cittassa s±r±go, aya½ vuccati bhavataºh±. Tattha katam± vibhavataºh±? Ucchedadiµµhisahagato r±go…pe… cittassa s±r±go, aya½ vuccati vibhavataºh±. Avases± taºh± k±mataºh±. Tattha katam± k±mataºh±? K±madh±tupaµisa½yutto r±go…pe… cittassa s±r±go, aya½ vuccati k±mataºh±. Tattha katam± bhavataºh±? R³padh±tu-ar³padh±tupaµisa½yutto r±go…pe… tattha katam± vibhavataºh±? Ucchedadiµµhisahagato r±go…pe… (vibha. 916).
Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “pañcak±maguºiko r±go k±mataºh±, r³p±r³pabhavesu r±go jh±nanikantisassatadiµµhisahagato r±go bhavavasena patthan± bhavataºh±, ucchedadiµµhisahagato r±go vibhavataºh±”ti vutta½. Aya½ dasuttarasuttapariy±yena yojan±. Saªg²tipariy±yena pana abhidhammapariy±yena ca “apar±pi tisso taºh± k±mataºh± r³pataºh± ar³pataºh±. Apar±pi tisso taºh± r³pataºh± ar³pataºh± nirodhataºh±”ti (d². ni. 3.305; vibha. 917-918) vutt± taºh±pi ettha yujjanti. T±su pañca k±madh±tur³padh±tu-ar³padh±tupaµisa½yutt±, antim± ucchedadiµµhisahagat±.
Catt±ro ogh±ti k±mogho, bhavogho, diµµhogho, avijjogho. Yassa sa½vijjanti, ta½ vaµµasmi½ ohananti os²d±pent²ti ogh±. Balavakiles± ete. K±maguºasaªkh±te k±me ogho k±mogho. K±mataºh±yeta½ n±ma½. R³p±r³pasaªkh±te kammato ca upapattito ca duvidhepi bhave ogho bhavogho. Bhavataºh±yeta½ n±ma½. Diµµhi eva ogho diµµhogho. “Sassato loko”ti-±dik±ya diµµhiy± eta½ n±ma½. Avijj± eva ogho avijjogho, dukkh±d²su aññ±ºasseta½ n±ma½.
Pañca n²varaº±n²ti k±macchandan²varaºa½ by±p±dan²varaºa½ thinamiddhan²varaºa½ uddhaccakukkuccan²varaºa½ vicikicch±n²varaºa½. Citta½ n²varanti pariyonandhant²ti n²varaº±ni. K±m²yant²ti k±m±. Pañca k±maguº±. K±mesu chando k±macchando. K±mayat²ti v± k±mo, k±mo eva chando, na kattukamyat±chando na dhammacchandoti k±macchando. K±mataºh±yeta½ n±ma½. By±pajjati tena citta½ p³tibh±va½ gacchati, by±p±dayati v± vinay±c±rar³pasampattihitasukh±n²ti by±p±do. Dosasseta½ n±ma½. Thinanat± thina½, middhanat± middha½, anuss±hasa½hananat± asattivigh±to c±ti attho. Cittassa anuss±ho thina½, cetasik±na½ akammaññat± middha½, thinañca middhañca thinamiddha½. Uddhatassa bh±vo uddhacca½, av³pasamoti attho. Vikkhepasseta½ n±ma½. Kucchita½ kata½ kukata½, kukatassa bh±vo kukkucca½, garahitakiriyabh±voti attho. Pacch±nut±passeta½ n±ma½. Vigat± cikicch±ti vicikicch±, vigatapaññ±ti attho. Sabh±va½ v± vicinanto et±ya kicchati kilamat²ti vicikicch±. Buddh±d²su sa½sayasseta½ n±ma½. K±macchando eva n²varaºa½ k±macchandan²varaºa½. Eva½ sesesupi.
Cha dhamm±, chaddhamm±ti v± p±µho. Cha taºh±k±y±ti r³pataºh± saddataºh± gandhataºh± rasataºh± phoµµhabbataºh± dhammataºh±. R³pe taºh± r³pataºh±. S± eva k±mataºh±dibhedena anekabhedatt± r±saµµhena k±yoti vutt±. Eva½ sesesupi.
Satt±nusay±ti k±mar±g±nusayo paµigh±nusayo m±n±nusayo diµµh±nusayo vicikicch±nusayo bhavar±g±nusayo avijj±nusayo. Appah²naµµhena anusent²ti anusay±. K±mesu r±go k±mar±go, k±mo eva v± r±goti k±mar±go. ¾rammaºasmi½ paµihaññat²ti paµigha½. Ay±th±vadassanaµµhena diµµhi. Seyy±divasena maññat²ti m±no. Bhavesu r±go bhavar±go. Th±magato k±mar±go k±mar±g±nusayo. Eva½ sesesupi.
Aµµha micchatt±ti micch±diµµhi micch±saªkappo micch±v±c± micch±kammanto micch±-±j²vo micch±v±y±mo micch±sati micch±sam±dhi. “Hitasukh±vah± me bhavissant²”ti eva½ ±s²sit±pi tath±-abh±vato asubh±d²suyeva subhanti-±divipar²tappavattito ca micch±sabh±v±ti micchatt±. Micch± passati, micch± v± et±ya passant²ti micch±diµµhi. Atha v± vipar²t± diµµh²ti micch±diµµhi, ay±th±vadiµµh²ti v± micch±diµµhi, virajjhitv± gahaºato v± vitath± diµµh²ti micch±diµµhi, anatt±vahatt± paº¹itehi kucchit± diµµh²ti v±micch±diµµhi. Micch±saªkapp±d²supi eseva nayo. Micch±diµµh²ti sassatucched±bhiniveso. Micch±saªkappoti k±mavitakk±ditividho vitakko. Micch±v±c±ti mus±v±d±dicatubbidh± cetan±. Micch±kammantoti p±º±tip±t±ditividh± cetan±. Micch±-±j²voti micch±j²vapayogasamuµµh±pik± cetan±. Micch±v±y±moti akusalacittasampayutta½ v²riya½. Micch±sat²ti satipaµipakkhabh³to akusalacittupp±do. Micch±sam±dh²ti akusalasam±dhi.
Nava taºh±m³lak±ti (d². ni. 2.103; 3.359) taºha½ paµicca pariyesan±, pariyesana½ paµicca l±bho, l±bha½ paµicca vinicchayo, vinicchaya½ paµicca chandar±go, chandar±ga½ paµicca ajjhos±na½, ajjhos±na½ paµicca pariggaho, pariggaha½ paµicca macchariya½, macchariya½ paµicca ±rakkho, ±rakkh±dhikaraºa½ daº¹±d±nasatth±d±nakalahaviggahaviv±datuva½tuva½pesuññamus±v±d± aneke p±pak± akusal± dhamm± sambhavanti (d². ni. 2.104; 3.359). Ime nava taºh±m³lak± dhamm±. Taºh± m³la½ etesanti taºh±m³lak±. Pariyesan±dayo akusal± eva. Taºha½, paµicc±ti taºha½ niss±ya. Pariyesan±ti r³p±di-±rammaºapariyesan±. S± hi taºh±ya sati hoti. L±bhoti r³p±di-±rammaºapaµil±bho, so hi pariyesan±ya sati hoti. Vinicchayo pana ñ±ºataºh±diµµhivitakkavasena catubbidho. Tattha “sukhavinicchaya½ jaññ±, sukhavinicchaya½ ñatv± ajjhatta½ sukhamanuyuñjeyy±”ti (ma. ni. 3.323) aya½ ñ±ºavinicchayo. “Vinicchayoti dve vinicchay± taºh±vinicchayo ca diµµhivinicchayo c±”ti (mah±ni. 102) eva½ ±gat±ni aµµhasatataºh±vicarit±ni taºh±vinicchayo Dv±saµµhi diµµhiyo diµµhivinicchayo. “Chando kho, dev±naminda, vitakkanid±no”ti (d². ni. 2.358) imasmi½ pana sutte idha vinicchayoti vutto vitakkoyeva ±gato. L±bha½ labhitv± hi iµµh±niµµha½ sundar±sundarañca vitakkeneva vinicchin±ti “ettaka½ me r³p±rammaºatth±ya bhavissati, ettaka½ sadd±di-±rammaºatth±ya, ettaka½ mayha½ bhavissati, ettaka½ parassa, ettaka½ paribhuñjiss±mi, ettaka½ nidahiss±m²”ti. Tena vutta½– “l±bha½ paµicca vinicchayo”ti. Chandar±goti eva½ akusalavitakkena vitakkite vatthusmi½ dubbalar±go ca balavar±go ca uppajjati. Chandoti ettha dubbalar±gass±dhivacana½, r±goti balavar±gassa. Ajjhos±nanti aha½ mam±ti balavasanniµµh±na½. Pariggahoti taºh±diµµhivasena pariggahakaraºa½. Macchariyanti parehi s±dh±raºabh±vassa asahanat±. Tenevassa por±º± eva½ vacanattha½ vadanti “ida½ acchariya½ mayhameva hotu, m± aññassa acchariya½ hot³ti pavattatt± macchariyanti vuccat²”ti. ¾rakkhoti dv±rapidahanamañj³sagopan±divasena suµµhu rakkhaºa½. Adhikarot²ti adhikaraºa½. K±raºasseta½ n±ma½. ¾rakkh±dhikaraºanti bh±vanapu½saka½, ±rakkhahet³ti attho. Daº¹±d±n±d²su paranisedhanattha½ daº¹assa ±d±na½ daº¹±d±na½. Ekatodh±r±din± satthassa ±d±na½ satth±d±na½. K±yakalahopi v±c±kalahopi kalaho. Purimo purimo virodho viggaho. Pacchimo pacchimo viv±do. Tuva½tuvanti ag±ravavasena tuva½tuva½vacana½.
Dasa micchatt±ti micch±diµµhi…pe… micch±sam±dhi micch±ñ±ºa½ micch±vimutti. Tattha micch±ñ±ºanti p±pakiriy±su up±yacint±vasena p±pa½ katv± sukata½ may±ti paccavekkhaº±k±rena ca uppanno moho. Micch±vimutt²ti avimuttasseva sato vimuttisaññit±.
24. Id±ni anekabhedena pah±nena pah±tabbe dassetu½ dve pah±n±n²ti-±di ±raddha½. Pah±nesu hi viññ±tesu tena tena pah±tabb± dhamm± suviññeyy± honti. Pañcasu pah±nesu lokik±ni ca dve pah±n±ni appayoga½ nissaraºappah±nañca µhapetv± appayog±neva dve lokuttarapah±n±ni paµhama½ vutt±ni. Samm± ucchijjanti etena kiles±ti samucchedo, pah²yanti etena kiles±ti pah±na½. Samucchedasaªkh±ta½ pah±na½, na sesappah±nanti samucchedappah±na½. Kiles±na½ paµippassaddhatt± paµippassaddhi, pah²natt± pah±na½, paµippassaddhisaªkh±ta½ pah±na½ paµippassaddhippah±na½. Loka½ uttarat²ti lokuttaro. Nibb±nasaªkh±ta½ khaya½ gacchat²ti khayag±m², khayag±m² ca so maggo c±ti khayag±mimaggo, ta½ bh±vayato so maggo samucchedappah±nanti attho. Tath± phalakkhaºe lokuttaraphalameva paµippassaddhippah±na½.
K±m±nameta½ nissaraºanti-±d²su k±mato r³pato saªkhatato nissaranti eten±ti nissaraºa½, tehi v± nissaµatt± nissaraºa½. Asubhajjh±na½. K±mehi nikkhantatt± nekkhamma½. An±g±mimaggo v±. Asubhajjh±nañhi vikkhambhanato k±m±na½ nissaraºa½, ta½ jh±na½ p±daka½ katv± upp±dita-an±g±mimaggo pana samucchedato sabbaso k±m±na½ accantanissaraºa½. Ruppat²ti r³pa½, na r³pa½ ar³pa½ mittapaµipakkh± amitt± viya, lobh±dipaµipakkh± alobh±dayo viya ca r³papaµipakkhoti attho. Phalavasena v± natthettha r³panti ar³pa½, ar³pameva ±ruppa½. Ar³pajjh±n±ni. T±ni r³p±na½ nissaraºa½ n±ma. Ar³pehipi arahattamaggo puna uppattiniv±raºato sabbaso r³p±na½ nissaraºa½ n±ma. Bh³tanti j±ta½. Saªkhatanti paccayehi saªgamma kata½. Paµiccasamuppannanti te te paccaye paµicca samm± saha ca uppanna½. Paµhamena sañj±tattad²panena aniccat±, dutiyena aniccass±pi sato paccay±nubh±vad²panena par±yattat±, tatiyena par±yattass±pi sato paccay±na½ aby±p±rattad²panena eva½dhammat± d²pit± hoti. Nirodhoti nibb±na½. Nibb±nañhi ±gamma dukkha½ nirujjhat²ti nirodhoti vuccati. So eva ca sabbasaªkhatato nissaµatt± tassa saªkhatassa nissaraºa½ n±ma. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana–
“Nirodho tassa nissaraºanti idha arahattaphala½ nirodhoti adhippeta½. Arahattaphalena hi nibb±ne diµµhe puna ±yati½ sabbasaªkh±r± na hont²ti arahattasaªkh±tassa nirodhassa paccayatt± nirodhoti vuttan”ti vutta½.
Nekkhamma½ paµiladdhass±ti-±d²su asubhajjh±nassa nissaraºatte vikkhambhanappah±nena, an±g±mimaggassa nissaraºatte samucchedappah±nena k±m± pah²n± ceva honti pariccatt± ca. Ar³pajjh±n±na½ nissaraºatte ca arahattamaggassa nissaraºatte ca evameva r³p± yojetabb±. R³pesu hi chandar±gappah±nena r³p±na½ samucchedo hoti. R³p±ti cettha liªgavipall±so kato. Nibb±nassa nissaraºatte nissaraºappah±nena, arahattaphalassa nissaraºatte paµippassaddhippah±nena saªkh±r± pah²n± ceva honti pariccatt± ca. Nibb±nassa ca nissaraºatte ±rammaºakaraºavasena paµil±bho veditabbo.
Dukkhasaccanti-±d²su pariññ±paµivedhanti-±di bh±vanapu½sakavacana½. Pariññ±ya paµivedho pariññ±paµivedho. Ta½ pariññ±paµivedha½. Esa nayo sesesupi. Pajah±t²ti tath± tath± paµivijjhanto pah±tabbe kilese pajahat²ti attho gahetabbo. Lokiyalokuttaresupi chandar±gappah±nena v± t±ni pajahat²ti attho. Pajahat²tipi p±µho. Yath± n±v± apubba½ acarima½ ekakkhaºe catt±ri kicc±ni karoti, orima½ t²ra½ pajahati, sota½ chindati, bhaº¹a½ vahati, p±rima½ t²ra½ appeti, evameva½ maggañ±ºa½ apubba½ acarima½ ekakkhaºe catt±ri sacc±ni abhisameti, dukkha½ pariññ±bhisamayena abhisameti, samudaya½ pah±n±bhisamayena abhisameti, magga½ bh±van±bhisamayena abhisameti, nirodha½ sacchikiriy±bhisamayena abhisameti. Ki½ vutta½ hoti? “Nirodha½ ±rammaºa½ katv± catt±ri sacc±ni p±puº±ti passati paµivijjhat²”ti (visuddhi. 2.839) vuttatt± ekakkhaºepi visu½ visu½ viya pah±n±ni vutt±n²ti veditabb±ni.
Pañcasu pah±nesu ya½ sasev±le udake pakkhittena ghaµena sev±lassa viya tena tena lokiyasam±dhin± n²varaº±d²na½ paccan²kadhamm±na½ vikkhambhana½ d³r²karaºa½, ida½ vikkhambhanappah±na½ n±ma. Vikkhambhanappah±nañca n²varaº±na½ paµhama½ jh±na½ bh±vayatoti n²varaº±na½yeva pah±na½ p±kaµatt± vuttanti veditabba½. N²varaº±ni hi jh±nassa pubbabh±gepi pacch±bh±gepi na sahas± citta½ ajjhottharanti, ajjhotthaµesu ca tesu jh±na½ parih±yati, vitakk±dayo pana dutiyajjh±n±dito pubbe pacch± ca appaµipakkh± hutv± pavattanti. Tasm± n²varaº±na½ vikkhambhana½ p±kaµa½. Ya½ pana rattibh±ge samujjalitena pad²pena andhak±rassa viya tena tena vipassan±ya avayavabh³tena jh±naªgena paµipakkhavaseneva tassa tassa ca pah±tabbadhammassa pah±na½, ida½ tadaªgappah±na½ n±ma. Tadaªgappah±nañca diµµhigat±na½ nibbedhabh±giya½ sam±dhi½ bh±vayatoti diµµhigat±na½yeva pah±na½ o¼±rikavasena vuttanti veditabba½. Diµµhigatañhi o¼±rika½, niccasaññ±dayo sukhum±. Tattha diµµhigat±nanti diµµhiyeva diµµhigata½ “g³thagata½ muttagatan”ti-±d²ni (a. ni. 9.11) viya. Gantabb±bh±vato cadiµµhiy± gatamattamevetantipi diµµhigata½, dv±saµµhidiµµh²su antogadhatt± diµµh²su gatantipi diµµhigata½. Bahuvacanena tesa½ diµµhigat±na½. Nibbedhabh±giya½ sam±dhinti vipassan±sampayutta½ sam±dhi½. Ya½ pana asanivicakk±bhihatassa (visuddhi. 2.851) rukkhassa viya ariyamaggañ±ºena sa½yojan±na½ dhamm±na½ yath± na puna pavattati, eva½ pah±na½, ida½ samucchedappah±na½ n±ma. Nirodho nibb±nanti nirodhasaªkh±ta½ nibb±na½.
Eva½ pah±navasena pah±tabbe dhamme dassetv± id±ni sar³peneva puna pah±tabbe dhamme dassetu½ sabba½, bhikkhave, pah±tabbanti-±dim±ha. Tattha cakkh±d²ni chandar±gappah±nena pah±tabb±ni. R³pa½ passanto pajah±t²ti-±d²su r³pa½ anicc±dito passanto pah±tabbe kilese pajah±ti. Cakkhu½…pe… jar±maraºa½…pe… amatogadha½ nibb±nanti peyy±ladvaye anaññ±taññass±m²tindriya½ “passanto pajah±t²”ti-±d²su tesu lokuttaresu anaññ±taññass±m²tindriya½ passanto udikkhanto apekkham±no iccham±no vipassan±kkhaºesu pah±tabbe kilese pajah±t²ti ta½ta½dhamm±nur³pena yojetabba½.

Pah±tabbaniddesavaººan± niµµhit±.