1. ѱºakath±

M±tik±vaººan±

1. Tattha uddese t±va sot±vadh±ne paññ± sutamaye ñ±ºanti ettha sotasaddo anekatthappabhedo. Tath± hesa–
Ma½saviññ±ºañ±ºesu, taºh±d²su ca dissati;
dh±r±ya½ ariyamagge, cittasantatiyampi ca.
“Sot±yatana½ sotadh±tu sotindriyan”ti-±d²su (vibha. 157) hi aya½ sotasaddo ma½sasote dissati. “Sotena sadda½ sutv±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.295) sotaviññ±ºe. “Dibb±ya sotadh±tuy±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 3.356) ñ±ºasote. “Y±ni sot±ni lokasminti y±ni et±ni sot±ni may± kittit±ni pakittit±ni ±cikkhit±ni desit±ni paññapit±ni paµµhapit±ni vivarit±ni vibhatt±ni utt±n²kat±ni pak±sit±ni. Seyyathida½– taºh±soto diµµhisoto kilesasoto duccaritasoto avijj±soto”ti-±d²su (c³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa 4) taºh±d²su pañcasu dhammesu. “Addas± kho bhagav± mahanta½ d±rukkhandha½ gaªg±ya nadiy± sotena vuyham±nan”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.241) udakadh±r±ya½. “Ariyasseta½, ±vuso, aµµhaªgikassa maggassa adhivacana½, yadida½ soto”ti-±d²su ariyamagge. “Purisassa ca viññ±ºasota½ paj±n±ti ubhayato abbocchinna½ idha loke patiµµhitañca paraloke patiµµhitañc±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 3.149) cittasantatiya½ Idha pan±ya½ ma½sasote daµµhabbo. Tena sotena hetubh³tena, karaºabh³tena v± avadh²yati avatth±p²yati app²yat²ti sot±vadh±na½. Ki½ ta½? Suta½. Sutañca n±ma “bahussuto hoti sutadharo sutasannicayo”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.339) viya sotadv±r±nus±rena viññ±ta½ avadh±rita½ dhammaj±ta½, ta½ idha sot±vadh±nanti vutta½. Tasmi½ sot±vadh±nasaªkh±te sute pavatt± paññ± sot±vadh±ne paññ±. Paññ±ti ca tassa tassa atthassa p±kaµakaraºasaªkh±tena paññ±panaµµhena paññ±, tena tena v± anicc±din± pak±rena dhamme j±n±t²tipi paññ±.
Sutamaye ñ±ºanti ettha sutasaddo t±va sa-upasaggo anupasaggo ca–
Gamane vissute tintenuyogopacitepi ca;
sadde ca sotadv±r±nus±rañ±te ca dissati.
Tath± hissa “sen±ya pasuto”ti-±d²su gacchantoti attho. “Sutadhammassa passato”ti-±d²su (ud±. 11; mah±va. 5) vissutadhammass±ti attho. “Avassut± avassutassa purisapuggalass±”ti-±d²su (p±ci. 657) tint± tintass±ti attho. “Ye jh±napasut± dh²r±”ti-±d²su (dha. pa. 181) anuyutt±ti attho. “Tumhehi puñña½ pasuta½ anappakan”ti-±d²su (khu. p±. 7.12; pe va. 25) upacitanti attho. “Diµµha½ suta½ muta½ viññ±tan”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.241) saddoti attho. “Bahussuto hoti sutadharo sutasannicayo”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.339) sotadv±r±nus±raviññ±tadharoti attho. Idha panassa sotadv±r±nus±rena viññ±ta½ upadh±ritanti attho. Sutamaye ñ±ºanti y± es± eta½ suta½ viññ±ta½ avadh±rita½ saddhamma½ ±rabbha ±rammaºa½ katv± sabbapaµhamañca apar±parañca pavatt± paññ±, ta½ “sutamaye ñ±ºan”ti vutta½ hoti, sutamaya½ ñ±ºanti attho. Sutamayeti ca paccattavacanameta½, yath± “na heva½ vattabbe” (kath±. 1, 15-18). “Vanappagumbe yath± phussitagge” (khu. p±. 6.13; su. ni. 236). “Natthi attak±re natthi parak±re natthi purisak±re”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.168) paccattavacana½, evamidh±pi daµµhabba½. Tena vutta½– “sutamaya½ ñ±ºanti attho”ti.
Atha v± sutena pakato phass±diko dhammapuñjo sutamayo, tasmi½ sutamaye dhammapuñje pavatta½ ta½sampayutta½ ñ±ºa½ sutamaye ñ±ºa½. Sabh±vas±maññalakkhaºavasena dhamme j±n±t²ti ñ±ºa½. Ta½yeva ñ±ºa½ pariy±yavacanena adhipp±yapak±sanattha½ aniyamena “paññ±”ti vatv± pacch± adhippeta½ “ñ±ºan”ti niyametv± vuttanti veditabba½. ѱºañca n±ma sabh±vapaµivedhalakkhaºa½, akkhalitapaµivedhalakkhaºa½ v± kusaliss±sakhitta-usupaµivedho viya, visayobh±sanarasa½ pad²po viya, asammohapaccupaµµh±na½ araññagatasudesako viya. “Sam±hito, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1071) vacanato sam±dhipadaµµh±na½. Lakkhaº±d²su hi sabh±vo v± s±mañña½ v± lakkhaºa½ n±ma, kicca½ v± sampatti v± raso n±ma, upaµµh±n±k±ro v± phala½ v± paccupaµµh±na½ n±ma, ±sannak±raºa½ padaµµh±na½ n±m±ti veditabba½.
2. Sutv±na sa½vare paññ±ti–
P±timokkho sat² ceva, ñ±ºa½ khanti tatheva ca;
v²riya½ pañcime dhamm±, sa½var±ti pak±sit±.
“Imin± p±timokkhasa½varena upeto hoti samupeto up±gato samup±gato upapanno sampanno samann±gato”ti (vibha. 511) ±gato p±timokkhasa½varo. “Cakkhun± r³pa½ disv± na nimittagg±h² hoti n±nubyañjanagg±h². Yatv±dhikaraºamena½ cakkhundriya½ asa½vuta½ viharanta½ abhijjh±domanass± p±pak± akusal± dhamm± anv±ssaveyyu½, tassa sa½var±ya paµipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriya½, cakkhundriye sa½vara½ ±pajjat²”ti-±din± (d². ni. 1.213; ma. ni. 1.295; sa½. ni. 4.239; a. ni. 3.16) nayena ±gato satisa½varo.
“Y±ni sot±ni lokasmi½ (ajit±ti bhagav±),
sati tesa½ niv±raºa½;
sot±na½ sa½vara½ br³mi, paññ±yete pidh²yare”ti (C³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch± 60; su. ni. 1041)–

¾gato ñ±ºasa½varo. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, ±sav± paµisevan± pah±tabb±? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paµisaªkh± yoniso c²vara½ paµisevat²”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.23; a. ni. 6.58) nayena ±gato paccayapaµisevan±sa½varo, sopi ñ±ºasa½vareneva saªgahito. “Khamo hoti s²tassa uºhassa jighacch±ya pip±s±ya ¹a½samakasav±t±tapasarisapasamphass±na½ durutt±na½ dur±gat±na½ vacanapath±na½ uppann±na½ s±r²rik±na½ vedan±na½ dukkh±na½ tibb±na½ khar±na½ kaµuk±na½ as±t±na½ aman±p±na½ p±ºahar±na½ adhiv±sakaj±tiko hot²”ti (ma. ni. 1.24; a. ni. 4.114; 6.58) ±gato khantisa½varo. “Uppanna½ k±mavitakka½ n±dhiv±seti pajahati vinodeti byant²karoti anabh±va½ gamet²”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.26; a. ni. 4.114; 6.58) nayena ±gato v²riyasa½varo. “Idha ariyas±vako micch±-±j²va½ pah±ya samm±-±j²vena j²vika½ kappet²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.8) ±gato ±j²vap±risuddhisa½varo, sopi v²riyasa½vareneva saªgahito. Tesu sattasu sa½varesu p±timokkhasa½vara-indriyasa½vara-±j²vap±risuddhipaccayapaµisevanasaªkh±t± catt±ro sa½var± idh±dhippet±, tesu ca visesena p±timokkhasa½varo. Sabbopi c±ya½ sa½varo yath±saka½ sa½varitabb±na½ k±yaduccarit±d²na½ sa½varaºato sa½varoti vuccati. Sutamayañ±ºe vutta½ dhamma½ sutv± sa½varantassa sa½vara½ karontassa tasmi½ sa½vare pavatt± ta½sampayutt± paññ± “sutv±na sa½vare paññ±”ti vutt±. Atha v± hetu-atthe sutv±ti vacanassa sambhavato sutahetun± sa½vare paññ±tipi attho.

S²lamaye ñ±ºanti ettha s²lanti s²lanaµµhena s²la½. Kimida½ s²lana½ n±ma? Sam±dh±na½ v±, k±yakamm±d²na½ sus²lyavasena avippakiººat±ti attho. Upadh±raºa½ v±, kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ patiµµh±vasena ±dh±rabh±voti attho. Etadeva hi ettha atthadvaya½ saddalakkhaºavid³ anuj±nanti. Aññe pana “adhisevanaµµhena ±c±raµµhena tass²laµµhena siraµµhena s²talaµµhena sivaµµhena s²lan”ti vaººayanti.
S²lana½ lakkhaºa½ tassa, bhinnass±pi anekadh±;
sanidassanatta½ r³passa, yath± bhinnassa nekadh±.
Yath± hi n²lap²t±dibhedena anekadh± bhinnass±pi r³p±yatanassa sanidassanatta½ lakkhaºa½ n²l±dibhedena bhinnass±pi sanidassanabh±v±natikkamanato, tath± s²lassa cetan±dibhedena anekadh± bhinnass±pi yadeta½ k±yakamm±d²na½ sam±dh±navasena kusal±nañca dhamm±na½ patiµµh±navasena vutta½ s²lana½, tadeva lakkhaºa½ cetan±dibhedena bhinnass±pi sam±dh±napatiµµh±nabh±v±natikkamanato. Eva½lakkhaºassa panassa–
“Duss²lyaviddha½sanat±, anavajjaguºo tath±;
kiccasampatti atthena, raso n±ma pavuccati”.
Tasm± ida½ s²la½ n±ma kiccaµµhena rasena duss²lyaviddha½sanarasa½, sampatti-atthena rasena anavajjarasanti veditabba½.
Soceyyapaccupaµµh±na½ tayida½ tassa viññuhi;
ottappañca hir² ceva, padaµµh±nanti vaººita½.–

Tayida½ s²la½ “k±yasoceyya½ vac²soceyya½ manosoceyyan”ti (itivu. 66) eva½ vuttasoceyyapaccupaµµh±na½, sucibh±vena paccupaµµh±ti gahaºabh±va½ gacchati. Hirottappañca pana tassa viññ³hi padaµµh±nanti vaººita½, ±sannak±raºanti attho. Hirottappe hi sati s²la½ uppajjati ceva tiµµhati ca, asati neva uppajjati na tiµµhat²ti eva½vidhena s²lena sahagata½ ta½sampayutta½ ñ±ºa½ s²lamaye ñ±ºa½. Atha v± s²lameva pakata½ s²lamaya½, tasmi½ s²lamaye ta½sampayutta½ ñ±ºa½. Asa½vare ±d²navapaccavekkhaº± ca, sa½vare ±nisa½sapaccavekkhaº± ca, sa½varap±risuddhipaccavekkhaº± ca, sa½varasa½kilesavod±napaccavekkhaº± ca s²lamayañ±ºeneva saªgahit±.

3. Sa½varitv± sam±dahane paññ±ti s²lamayañ±ºe vuttas²lasa½varena sa½varitv± sa½vara½ katv± s²le patiµµh±ya sam±dahantassa upac±rappan±vasena cittekaggata½ karontassa tasmi½ sam±dahane pavatt± ta½sampayutt± paññ±. Sama½ samm± ca ±dahana½ µhapananti ca sam±dahana½, sam±dhisseveta½ pariy±yavacana½.
Sam±dhibh±van±maye ñ±ºanti ettha kusalacittekaggat± sam±dhi. Kenaµµhena sam±dhi? Sam±dh±naµµhena sam±dhi. Kimida½ sam±dh±na½ n±ma? Ek±rammaºe cittacetasik±na½ sama½ samm± ca ±dh±na½, µhapananti vutta½ hoti. Tasm± yassa dhammass±nubh±vena ek±rammaºe cittacetasik± sama½ samm± ca avikkhipam±n± avippakiºº± ca hutv± tiµµhanti, ida½ sam±dh±nanti veditabba½. Tassa kho pana sam±dhissa–
Lakkhaºa½ tu avikkhepo, vikkhepaviddha½sana½ raso;
akampanamupaµµh±na½, padaµµh±na½ sukha½ pana.
Bh±v²yati va¹¹h²yat²ti bh±van±, sam±dhi eva bh±van± sam±dhibh±van±, sam±dhissa v± bh±van± va¹¹han± sam±dhibh±van±. Sam±dhibh±van±vacanena añña½ bh±vana½ paµikkhipati. Pubbe viya upac±rappan±vasena sam±dhibh±van±maye ñ±ºa½.
4. Paccayapariggahe paññ±ti ettha paµicca phalamet²ti paccayo. Paµicc±ti na vin± tena, apaccakkhitv±ti attho. Et²ti uppajjati ceva pavattati c±ti attho. Apica upak±rakattho paccayattho, tassa paccayassa bahuvidhatt± paccay±na½ pariggahe vavatth±pane ca paññ± paccayapariggahe paññ±.
Dhammaµµhitiñ±ºanti ettha dhammasaddo t±va sabh±vapaññ±puññapaññatti-±pattipariyattinissattat±vik±raguºapaccayapaccayuppann±d²su dissati. Ayañhi “kusal± dhamm± akusal± dhamm± aby±kat± dhamm±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. tikam±tik± 1) sabh±ve dissati.
“Yassete caturo dhamm±, saddhassa gharamesino;
sacca½ dhammo dhiti c±go, sa ve pecca na socat²”ti. (Su. ni. 190)–

¾d²su paññ±ya½.

“Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavip±kino;