Katha½ tathadhamme y±th±vato abhisambuddhoti tath±gato? Tathadhamm± n±ma catt±ri ariyasacc±ni. Yath±ha–
“Catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni. Katam±ni catt±ri? ‘Ida½ dukkhan’ti, bhikkhave, tathameta½ avitathameta½ anaññathametan”ti vitth±ro (sa½. ni. 5.1090).
T±ni ca bhagav± abhisambuddhoti tath±na½ abhisambuddhatt± tath±gatoti vuccati. Abhisambuddhattho hi ettha gatasaddo.
Api ca jar±maraºassa j±tipaccayasambh³tasamud±gataµµho tatho avitatho anaññatho…pe… saªkh±r±na½ avijj±paccayasambh³tasamud±gataµµho tatho avitatho anaññatho. Tath± avijj±ya saªkh±r±na½ paccayaµµho…pe… j±tiy± jar±maraºassa paccayaµµho tatho avitatho anaññatho. Ta½ sabba½ bhagav± abhisambuddho, tass±pi tath±na½ abhisambuddhatt± tath±gato. Eva½ tathadhamme y±th±vato abhisambuddhoti tath±gato.
Katha½ tathadassit±ya tath±gato? Bhagav± ya½ sadevake loke…pe… sadevamanuss±ya paj±ya aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ cakkhudv±re ±p±tha½ ±gacchanta½ r³p±rammaºa½ n±ma atthi, ta½ sabb±k±rena j±n±ti passati. Eva½ j±nat± passat± ca tena ta½ iµµh±niµµh±divasena v± diµµhasutamutaviññ±tesu labbham±nakapadavasena v± “katama½ ta½ r³pa½ r³p±yatana½? Ya½ r³pa½ catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±ya vaººanibh± sanidassana½ sappaµigha½ n²la½ p²takan”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 616) nayena anekehi n±mehi terasahi v±rehi dvipaññ±s±ya nayehi vibhajjam±na½ tathameva hoti, vitatha½ natthi. Esa nayo sotadv±r±d²supi ±p±tham±gacchantesu sadd±d²su. Vuttampi ceta½ bhagavat±–
“Ya½, bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa…pe… sadevamanuss±ya paj±ya diµµha½ suta½ muta½ viññ±ta½ patta½ pariyesita½ anuvicarita½ manas±, tamaha½ j±n±mi…pe… tamaha½ abbhaññ±si½. Ta½ tath±gatassa vidita½, ta½ tath±gato na upaµµh±s²”ti (a. ni. 4.24).
Eva½ tathadassit±ya tath±gato. Tattha tathadass²-atthe tath±gatoti padasambhavo veditabbo.
Katha½ tathav±dit±ya tath±gato? Ya½ ratti½ bhagav± bodhimaº¹e apar±jitapallaªke nisinno catunna½ m±r±na½ matthaka½ madditv± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambuddho, yañca ratti½ yamakas±l±namantare anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±yi, etthantare pañcacatt±l²savassaparim±ºe k±le paµhamabodhiyampi majjhimabodhiyampi pacchimabodhiyampi ya½ bhagavat± bh±sita½ sutta½ geyya½…pe… vedalla½. Sabba½ ta½ atthato byañjanato ca anupavajja½ an³namanadhika½ sabb±k±raparipuººa½ r±gamadanimmadana½ dosamohamadanimmadana½, natthi tattha v±laggamattampi pakkhalita½, sabba½ ta½ ekamuddik±ya lañchita½ viya, ekan±¼iy± mita½ viya, ekatul±ya tulita½ viya ca tathameva hoti avitatha½ anaññatha½. Yath±ha–
“Yañca, cunda, ratti½ tath±gato anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambujjhati, yañca ratti½ anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±yati, ya½ etasmi½ antare bh±sati lapati niddisati, sabba½ ta½ tatheva hoti no aññath±, tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (d². ni. 3.188).
Gada-attho hi ettha gatasaddo. Eva½ tathav±dit±ya tath±gato.
Api ca ±gadana½ ±gado, vacananti attho. Tatho avipar²to ±gado ass±ti dak±rassa tak±ra½ katv± tath±gatoti evametasmi½ atthe padasiddhi veditabb±.
Katha½ tath±k±rit±ya tath±gato? Bhagavato hi v±c±ya k±yo anulometi, k±yass±pi v±c±. Tasm± yath±v±d² tath±k±r², yath±k±r² tath±v±d² ca hoti. Eva½bh³tassa cassa yath± v±c± k±yopi tath± gato pavattoti attho. Yath± ca k±yo, v±c±pi tath± gat± pavatt±ti tath±gato. Tenev±ha– “yath±v±d², bhikkhave, tath±gato tath±k±r², yath±k±r² tath±v±d². Iti yath±v±d² tath±k±r², yath±k±r² tath±v±d². ‘Tasm± tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (a. ni. 4.23). Eva½ tath±k±rit±ya tath±gato.
Katha½ abhibhavanaµµhena tath±gato? Upari bhavagga½ heµµh± av²ci½ pariyanta½ katv± tiriya½ aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su sabbasatte abhibhavati s²lena sam±dhin± paññ±ya vimuttiy± vimuttiñ±ºadassanena, na tassa tul± v± pam±ºa½ v± atthi, atha kho atulo appameyyo anuttaro r±j±tir±j± dev±na½ atidevo sakk±na½ atisakko brahm±na½ atibrahm±. Ten±ha–
“Sadevake bhikkhave, loke…pe… sadevamanuss±ya paj±ya tath±gato abhibh³ anabhibh³to aññadatthudaso vasavatt², tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (a. ni. 4.23).
Tattheva½ padasiddhi veditabb±– agado viya agado. Ko panesa? Desan±vil±so ceva puññussayo ca. Tena hesa mah±nubh±vo bhisakko dibb±gadena sappe viya sabbaparappav±dino sadevakañca loka½ abhibhavati. Iti sabbalok±bhibhavane tatho avipar²to desan±vil±samayo ceva puññamayo ca agado ass±ti dak±rassa tak±ra½ katv± tath±gatoti veditabbo. Eva½ abhibhavanaµµhena tath±gato.
Api ca tath±ya gatotipi tath±gato, tatha½ gatotipi tath±gato. Gatoti avagato, at²to patto paµipannoti attho. Tattha sakala½ loka½ t²raºapariññ±ya tath±ya gato avagatoti tath±gato, lokasamudaya½ pah±napariññ±ya tath±ya gato at²toti tath±gato, lokanirodha½ sacchikiriy±ya tath±ya gato pattoti tath±gato, lokanirodhag±mini½ paµipada½ tatha½ gato paµipannoti tath±gato. Tena ya½ vutta½ bhagavat±–
“Loko, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddho, lokasm± tath±gato visa½yutto. Lokasamudayo, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddho, lokasamudayo tath±gatassa pah²no. Lokanirodho, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddho, lokanirodho tath±gatassa sacchikato. Lokanirodhag±min² paµipad±, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddh±, lokanirodhag±min² paµipad± tath±gatassa bh±vit±. Ya½, bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa…pe… anuvicarita½ manas±, sabba½ ta½ tath±gatena abhisambuddha½. Tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (a. ni. 4.23).
Tassa evampi attho veditabbo. Idampi ca tath±gatassa tath±gatabh±vad²pena mukhamattameva. Sabb±k±rena pana tath±gatova tath±gatassa tath±gatabh±va½ vaººeyya. Yasm± pana sabbabuddh± tath±gataguºen±pi samasam±, tasm± sabbesa½ vasena “tath±gat±”ti ±ha.
Arahantoti kilesehi ±rakatt±, ar²na½ ar±nañca hatatt±, paccay±d²na½ arahatt±, p±pakaraºe rah±bh±v± tath±gato araha½. ¾rak± hi so sabbakilesehi suvid³ravid³re µhito maggena sav±san±na½ kiles±na½ viddha½sitatt±ti ±rakatt± araha½.
“So tato ±rak± n±ma, yassa yen±samaªgit±;
asamaªg² ca dosehi, n±tho ten±raha½ mato”.

Te c±nena kiles±rayo maggena hat±ti ar²na½ hatatt±pi araha½.

“Yasm± r±g±disaªkh±t±, sabbepi arayo hat±;
paññ±satthena n±thena, tasm±pi araha½ mato”.
Yañceta½ avijj±bhavataºh±mayan±bhi½ puññ±di-abhisaªkh±r±na½ jar±maraºanemi½ ±savasamudayamayena akkhena vijjhitv± tibhavarathe sam±yojita½ an±dik±lappavatta½ sa½s±racakka½, tass±nena bodhimaº¹e v²riyap±dehi s²lapathaviya½ patiµµh±ya saddh±hatthena kammakkhayakara½ ñ±ºapharasu½ gahetv± sabbe ar± hat±ti araha½.
“Ar± sa½s±racakkassa, hat± ñ±º±sin± yato;
lokan±thena tenesa, ‘arahan’ti pavuccati”.
Aggadakkhiºeyyatt± ca c²var±dipaccaye arahati p³j±visesañca, teneva ca uppanne tath±gate ye keci mahesakkh± devamanuss±, na te aññattha p³ja½ karonti. Tath± hi brahm± sahampati sinerumattena ratanad±mena tath±gata½ p³jesi, yath±balañca aññe dev± ca manuss± ca bimbis±rakosalar±j±dayo. Parinibbutampi ca bhagavanta½ uddissa channavutikoµidhana½ vissajjetv± asokamah±r±j± sakalajambud²pe catur±s²tivih±rasahass±ni patiµµh±pesi. Ko pana v±do aññesa½ p³j±vises±nanti paccay±d²na½ arahatt±pi araha½.
“P³j±visesa½ saha paccayehi, yasm± aya½ arahati lokan±tho;
atth±nur³pa½ arahanti loke, tasm± jino arahati n±mameta½”.
Yath± ca loke ye keci paº¹itam±nino b±l± asilokabhayena raho p±pa½ karonti, evamesa na kad±ci p±pa½ karot²ti p±pakaraºe rah±bh±vatopi araha½.
“Yasm± natthi raho n±ma, p±pakammesu t±dino;
rah±bh±vena tenesa, araha½ iti vissuto”.
Eva½ sabbath±pi–
“¾rakatt± hatatt± ca, kiles±r²na so muni;
hatasa½s±racakk±ro, paccay±d²na c±raho;
na raho karoti p±p±ni, araha½ tena vuccat²”ti.
Yasm± pana sabbe buddh± arahattaguºen±pi samasam±, tasm± sabbesampi vasena “arahanto”ti ±ha. Samm±sambuddh±ti samm± s±mañca sabbadhamm±na½ buddhatt± samm±sambuddho. Tath± hesa sabbadhamme samm±sambuddho, abhiññeyye dhamme abhiññeyyato, pariññeyye dhamme pariññeyyato, pah±tabbe dhamme pah±tabbato, sacchik±tabbe dhamme sacchik±tabbato, bh±vetabbe dhamme bh±vetabbato. Tenev±ha–
“Abhiññeyya½ abhiññ±ta½, bh±vetabbañca bh±vita½;
pah±tabba½ pah²na½ me, tasm± buddhosmi br±hmaº±”ti. (Su. ni. 563; ma. ni. 2.399).
Atha v± cakkhu dukkhasacca½, tassa m³lak±raºabh±vena samuµµh±pik± purimataºh± samudayasacca½, ubhinna½ appavatti nirodhasacca½, nirodhapaj±nan± paµipad± maggasaccanti eva½ ekekapaduddh±ren±pi sabbadhamme samm± s±mañca buddho. Esa nayo sotagh±najivh±k±yamanesu. Eteneva ca nayena r³p±d²ni cha ±yatan±ni, cakkhuviññ±º±dayo cha viññ±ºak±y±, cakkhusamphass±dayo cha phass±, cakkhusamphassaj± vedan±dayo cha vedan±, r³pasaññ±dayo cha saññ±, r³pasañcetan±dayo cha cetan±, r³pataºh±dayo cha taºh±k±y±, r³pavitakk±dayo cha vitakk±, r³pavic±r±dayo cha vic±r±, r³pakkhandh±dayo pañcakkhandh±, dasa kasiº±ni, dasa anussatiyo, uddhum±takasaññ±divasena dasa saññ±, kes±dayo dvatti½s±k±r±, dv±das±yatan±ni, aµµh±rasa dh±tuyo, k±mabhav±dayo nava bhav±, paµham±d²ni catt±ri jh±n±ni, mett±bh±van±dayo catasso appamaññ±yo, catasso ar³pasam±pattiyo, paµilomato jar±maraº±d²ni, anulomato avijj±d²ni paµiccasamupp±daªg±ni ca yojetabb±ni.
Tatr±ya½ ekapadayojan±– jar±maraºa½ dukkhasacca½, j±ti samudayasacca½, ubhinna½ nissaraºa½ nirodhasacca½, nirodhapaj±nan± paµipad± maggasaccanti eva½ ekekapaduddh±rena sabbadhamme samm± s±mañca buddho anubuddho paµividdho. Ya½ v± pana kiñci atthi neyya½ n±ma, sabbassa samm± sambuddhatt± vimokkhantikañ±ºavasena samm±sambuddho. Tesa½ pana vibh±go upari ±vi bhavissati. Yasm± pana sabbabuddh± samm±sambuddhaguºen±pi samasam±, tasm± sabbesampi vasena “samm±sambuddh±”ti ±ha.
Monen±ti k±mañhi moneyyapaµipad±saªkh±tena maggañ±ºamonena muni n±ma hoti, idha pana tuºh²bh±va½ sandh±ya “na monen±”ti vutta½. M³¼har³poti tucchar³po. Aviddas³ti aviññ³. Evar³po hi tuºh²bh³topi muni n±ma na hoti. Atha v± moneyyamuni n±ma na hoti, tucchabh±vo ca pana aññ±º² ca hot²ti attho. Yo ca tula½va paggayh±ti yath± hi tula½ gahetv± µhito atireka½ ce hoti, harati, ³na½ ce hoti, pakkhipati; evameva so atireka½ haranto viya p±pa½ harati parivajjeti, ³nake pakkhipanto viya kusala½ parip³reti. Evañca pana karonto s²lasam±dhipaññ±vimuttivimuttiñ±ºadassanasaªkh±ta½ vara½ uttamameva ±d±ya p±p±ni akusalakamm±ni parivajjeti sa muni n±m±ti attho. Tena so mun²ti kasm± pana so mun²ti ce? Ya½ heµµh± vuttak±raºa½, tena so mun²ti attho. Yo mun±ti ubho loketi yo puggalo imasmi½ khandh±diloke tula½ ±ropetv± minanto viya “ime ajjhattik± khandh±, ime b±hir±”ti-±din± nayena ime ubho atthe mun±ti. Muni tena pavuccat²ti tena pana k±raºena “mun²”ti vuccatiyev±ti attho.
Asatañc±ti g±th±ya aya½ saªkhepattho– yv±ya½ akusalakusalappabhedo, asatañca satañca dhammo, ta½ “ajjhatta½ bahiddh±”ti imasmi½ sabbaloke pavicayañ±ºena asatañca satañca ñatv± dhamma½. Tassa ñ±tatt± eva, r±g±dibhedato sattavidha½ saªga½ taºh±diµµhibhedato duvidha½ j±lañca aticca atikkamitv± µhito, so tena monasaªkh±tena pavicayañ±ºena samann±gatatt± muni. Devamanussehi p³jitoti ida½ panassa thutivacana½. So hi kh²º±savamunitt± devamanuss±na½ p³j±raho hoti, tasm± eva½ vuttoti.
Sallanti m³lapada½. Satta sall±n²ti gaºanaparicchedo. R±gasallanti rañjanaµµhena r±go ca p²¼±janakat±ya antotudanat±ya dunn²haraºat±ya sallañc±ti r±gasalla½. Dosasall±d²supi eseva nayo. Abb³¼hasalloti m³lapada½. Abbahitasalloti n²haµasallo. Uddhatasalloti uddha½ haµasallo uddharitasallo. Samuddhatasalloti upasaggavasena vutto. Upp±µitasalloti luñcitasallo. Samupp±µitasalloti upasaggavaseneva.
Sakkaccak±r²ti d±n±d²na½ kusaladhamm±na½ bh±van±ya puggalassa v± deyyadhammassa v± sakkaccakaraºavasena sakkaccak±r². Satatabh±vakaraºena s±taccak±r². Aµµhitakaraºena aµµhitak±r². Yath± n±ma kakaºµako thoka½ gantv± thoka½ tiµµhati, na nirantara½ gacchati; evameva yo puggalo ekadivasa½ d±na½ datv± p³ja½ v± katv± dhamma½ v± sutv± samaºadhamma½ v± katv± puna cirassa½ karoti, ta½ na nirantara½ pavatteti. So “as±taccak±r², anaµµhitak±r²”ti vuccati. Aya½ eva½ na karot²ti aµµhitak±r². Anol²navuttikoti nirantarakaraºasaªkh±tassa vipph±rassa bh±vena na l²navuttikoti anol²navuttiko. Anikkhittacchandoti kusalakaraºe v²riyacchandassa anikkhittabh±vena anikkhittacchando. Anikkhittadhuroti v²riyadhurassa anoropanena anikkhittadhuro, anosakkitam±nasoti attho. Yo tattha chando ca v±y±mo c±ti yo tesu kusaladhammesu kattukamyat±dhammacchando ca payattasaªkh±to v±y±mo ca. Ussahanavasena uss±ho ca. Adhimattussahanavasena usso¼h² ca. V±y±mo ceso p±ra½ gamanaµµhena. Uss±ho ceso pubbaªgamanaµµhena. Usso¼h² ceso adhimattaµµhena. Appaµiv±ni c±ti anivattan± ca. Sati ca sampajaññanti sarat²ti sati. Sampaj±n±t²ti sampajañña½, samantato pak±rehi j±n±t²ti attho. S±tthakasampajañña½ sapp±yasampajañña½ gocarasampajañña½ asammohasampajaññanti imassa sampaj±nassa vasena bhedo veditabbo. ¾tappanti kilesat±panav²riya½. Padh±nanti uttamav²riya½. Adhiµµh±nanti kusalakaraºe patiµµh±bh±vo. Anuyogoti anuyuñjana½. Appam±doti nappamajjana½, satiy± avippav±so.
Ima½ loka½ n±s²sat²ti m³lapada½. Sakattabh±vanti attano attabh±va½. Parattabh±vanti paraloke attabh±va½. Sakar³pavedan±dayo attano pañcakkhandhe, parar³pavedan±dayo ca paraloke pañcakkhandhe. K±madh±tunti k±mabhava½. R³padh±tunti r³pabhava½. Ar³padh±tunti ar³pabhava½. Puna r³p±r³pavasena duka½ dassetu½ k±madh±tu½ r³padh±tu½ eka½ katv±, ar³padh±tu½ eka½ katv± vutta½. Gati½ v±ti patiµµh±navasena pañcagati vutt±. Upapatti½ v±ti nibbattivasena catuyoni vutt±. Paµisandhi½ v±ti tiººa½ bhav±na½ ghaµanavasena paµisandhi vutt±. Bhava½ v±ti kammabhavavasena. Sa½s±ra½ v±ti khandh±d²na½ abbocchinnavasena. Vaµµa½ v±ti tebh³makavaµµa½ n±s²sat²ti.

Saddhammappajjotik±ya mah±niddesaµµhakath±ya

Guhaµµhakasuttaniddesavaººan± niµµhit±.