Adukkhamasukhanti dukkh±bh±vena adukkha½, sukh±bh±vena asukha½. Etenettha sukhadukkhapaµipakkhabh³ta½ tatiyavedana½ d²peti, na dukkhasukh±bh±vamatta½. Tatiyavedan± n±ma adukkhamasukh±, upekkh±tipi vuccati. S± iµµh±niµµhavipar²t±nubhavanalakkhaº±, majjhattaras±, avibh³tapaccupaµµh±n±, sukhanirodhapadaµµh±n±ti veditabb±.
Upekkh±satip±risuddhinti upekkh±ya janitasatip±risuddhi½. Imasmiñhi jh±ne suparisuddh± sati, y± ca tass± satiy± p±risuddhi, s± upekkh±ya kat±, na aññena. Tasm± eta½ “upekkh±satip±risuddhin”ti vuccati. Y±ya ca upekkh±ya ettha sati p±risuddhi hoti, s± atthato tatramajjhattat±ti veditabb±. Na kevalañcettha t±ya satiyeva parisuddh±, api ca kho sabbepi sampayuttadhamm±, satis²sena pana desan± vutt±.
Tattha kiñc±pi aya½ upekkh± heµµh±pi t²su jh±nesu vijjati, yath± pana div± s³riyappabh±bhibhav± sommabh±vena ca attano upak±rakattena v± sabh±g±ya rattiy± al±bh± div± vijjam±n±pi candalekh± aparisuddh± hoti apariyod±t±, evamayampi tatramajjhattupekkh±candalekh± vitakk±dipaccan²kadhammatej±bhibhav± sabh±g±ya ca upekkh±vedan±rattiy± apaµil±bh± vijjam±n±pi paµhamajjh±n±dibhedesu aparisuddh± hoti. Tass± ca aparisuddh±ya div± aparisuddhacandalekh±ya pabh± viya sahaj±t±pi sati-±dayo aparisuddh±va honti. Tasm± tesu ekampi “upekkh±satip±risuddhin”ti na vutta½. Idha pana vitakk±dipaccan²kadhammatej±bhibhav±bh±v± sabh±g±ya ca upekkh±vedan±rattiy± paµil±bh± aya½ tatramajjhattupekkh±candalekh± ativiya parisuddh±, tass± parisuddhatt± parisuddhacandalekh±ya pabh± viya sahaj±t±pi sati-±dayo parisuddh± honti pariyod±t±. Tasm± idameva “upekkh±satip±risuddhin”ti vuttanti veditabba½. Catutthanti gaºan±nupubbat± catuttha½. Ida½ catuttha½ uppannantipi catuttha½.
Paññav± hot²ti paññ± assa atth²ti paññav±. Udayatthag±miniy±ti udayag±miniy± ceva atthag±miniy± ca. Samann±gatoti paripuººo. Ariy±y±ti niddos±ya. Nibbedhik±y±ti nibbedhapakkhik±ya. Dukkhakkhayag±miniy±ti nibb±nag±miniy±. So ida½ dukkhanti evam±d²su “ettaka½ dukkha½ na ito bhiyyo”ti sabbampi dukkhasacca½ sarasalakkhaºapaµivedhena yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti paµivijjhati. Tassa ca dukkhassa nibbattika½ taºha½ “aya½ dukkhasamudayo”ti. Tadubhayampi ya½ µh±na½ patv± nirujjhati, ta½ tesa½ appavatti½ nibb±na½ “aya½ dukkhanirodho”ti. Tassa ca samp±paka½ ariyamagga½ “aya½ dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±”ti sarasalakkhaºapaµivedhena yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti paµivijjhat²ti evamattho veditabbo.
Eva½ sar³pato sacc±ni dassetv± id±ni kilesavasena pariy±yato dassento “ime ±sav±”ti-±dim±ha. Te vuttanayeneva veditabb±. Eva½ tisso sikkh±yo dassetv± id±ni t±sa½ p±rip³rikkama½ dassetu½ “im± tisso sikkh±yo ±vajjanto sikkheyy±”ti-±dim±ha. Tassattho– pacceka½ parip³retu½ ±vajjantopi sikkheyya, ±vajjitv±pi “aya½ n±ma sikkh±”ti j±nantopi sikkheyya, j±nitv± punappuna½ passantopi sikkheyya, passitv± yath±diµµha½ paccavekkhantopi sikkheyya, paccavekkhitv± tattheva citta½ acala½ katv± patiµµhapentopi sikkheyya, ta½ta½sikkh±sampayuttasaddh±v²riyasatisam±dhipaññ±hi sakasakakicca½ karontopi sikkheyya, abhiññeyy±bhij±nanak±lepi ta½ ta½ kicca½ karontopi tisso sikkh±yo sikkheyya, adhis²la½ ±careyya, adhicitta½ samm± careyya, adhipañña½ sam±d±ya vatteyya.
Idh±ti m³lapada½. Imiss± diµµhiy±ti-±d²hi dasahi padehi sikkhattayasaªkh±ta½ sabbaññubuddhas±sanameva kathita½. Tañhi buddhena bhagavat± diµµhatt± diµµh²ti vuccati. Tasseva khamanavasena khanti, ruccanavasena ruci, gahaºavasena ±d±yo, sabh±vaµµhena dhammo, sikkhitabbaµµhena vinayo, tadubhayenapi dhammavinayo, pavuttavasena p±vacana½, seµµhacariyaµµhena brahmacariya½, anusiµµhid±navasena satthus±sananti vuccati. Tasm± “imiss± diµµhiy±”ti-±d²su imiss± buddhadiµµhiy± imiss± buddhakhantiy± imiss± buddharuciy± imasmi½ buddha-±d±ye imasmi½ buddhadhamme imasmi½ buddhavinaye.
“Ye kho tva½, gotami, dhamme j±neyy±si ‘ime dhamm± sar±g±ya sa½vattanti, no vir±g±ya, saññog±ya sa½vattanti, no visaññog±ya, ±cay±ya sa½vattanti, no apacay±ya, mahicchat±ya sa½vattanti, no appicchat±ya, asantuµµhiy± sa½vattanti, no santuµµhiy±, saªgaºik±ya sa½vattanti no pavivek±ya, kosajj±ya sa½vattanti, no v²riy±rambh±ya, dubbharat±ya sa½vattanti, no subharat±y±’ti. Eka½sena, gotami, dh±reyy±si ‘neso dhammo, neso vinayo, neta½ satthus±sanan’ti.
“Ye ca kho tva½, gotami, dhamme j±neyy±si ‘ime dhamm± vir±g±ya sa½vattanti, no sar±g±ya…pe… subharat±ya sa½vattanti, no dubbharat±y±’ti. Eka½sena, gotami, dh±reyy±si ‘eso dhammo, eso vinayo, eta½ satthus±sana”n’ti (a. ni. 8.53; c³¼ava. 406)–
Eva½ vutte imasmi½ buddhadhammavinaye imasmi½ buddhap±vacane imasmi½ buddhabrahmacariye imasmi½ buddhas±saneti evamattho veditabbo.
Api ceta½ sikkhattayasaªkh±ta½ sakala½ s±sana½ bhagavat± diµµhatt± samm±diµµhipaccayatt± samm±diµµhipubbaªgamatt± ca diµµhi. Bhagavato khamanavasena khanti. Ruccanavasena ruci. Gahaºavasena ±d±yo. Attano k±raka½ ap±yesu apatam±na½ katv± dh±ret²ti dhammo. Sova sa½kilesapakkha½ vinet²ti vinayo. Dhammo ca so vinayo c±ti dhammavinayo. Kusaladhammehi v± akusaladhamm±na½ esa vinayoti dhammavinayo. Teneva vutta½–
“Ye ca kho tva½, gotami, dhamme j±neyy±si ‘ime dhamm± vir±g±ya sa½vattanti, no sar±g±ya…pe… eka½sena gotami dh±reyy±si ‘eso dhammo, eso vinayo, eta½ satthus±sana”n’ti (a. ni. 8.53; c³¼ava. 406).
Dhammena v± vinayo, na daº¹±d²h²ti dhammavinayo. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Daº¹eneke damayanti, aªkusehi kas±hi ca;
adaº¹ena asatthena, n±go danto mahesin±”ti. (C³¼ava. 342; ma. ni. 2.352).
Tath±
“Dhammena n²yam±n±na½, k± us³y± vij±natan”ti. (Mah±va. 63).
Dhamm±ya v± vinayo dhammavinayo. Anavajjadhammatthañhesa vinayo, na bhavabhog±misattha½. Ten±ha bhagav± “nayida½, bhikkhave, brahmacariya½ vussati janakuhanatthan”ti (a. ni. 4.25) vitth±ro. Puººattheropi ±ha “anup±d±parinibb±nattha½ kho, ±vuso, bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussat²”ti (ma. ni. 1.259). Visiµµha½ v± nayat²ti vinayo. Dhammato vinayo dhammavinayo. Sa½s±radhammato hi sok±didhammato v± esa visiµµha½ nibb±na½ nayati. Dhammassa v± vinayo, na titthakar±nanti dhammavinayo. Dhammabh³to hi bhagav±, tasseva vinayo.
Yasm± v± dhamm± eva abhiññeyy± pariññeyy± pah±tabb± bh±vetabb± sacchik±tabb± ca, tasm± esa dhammesu vinayo, na sattesu na j²vesu c±ti dhammavinayo. S±tthasabyañjanat±d²hi aññesa½ vacanato padh±na½ vacananti pavacana½, pavacanameva p±vacana½. Sabbacariy±hi visiµµhacariyabh±vena brahmacariya½. Devamanuss±na½ satthubh³tassa bhagavato s±sananti satthus±sana½. Satthubh³ta½ v± s±sanantipi satthus±sana½. “So vo mamaccayena satth±ti (d². ni. 2.216) hi dhammavinayova satth±”ti vuttoti evametesa½ pad±na½ attho veditabbo.
Yasm± pana imasmi½yeva s±sane sabbappak±rajjh±nanibbattako bhikkhu dissati, na aññatra, tasm± tattha tattha “imiss±”ti ca “imasmin”ti ca aya½ niyamo katoti veditabbo.
J²vanti tena ta½sampayuttak± dhamm±ti j²vita½. Anup±lanalakkhaºe indaµµha½ k±ret²ti indriya½. J²vitameva indriya½ j²vitindriya½. Ta½ pavattasantat±dhipateyya½ hoti. Lakkhaº±d²hi pana attan± avinibhutt±na½ dhamm±na½ anup±lanalakkhaºa½ j²vitindriya½, tesa½ pavattanarasa½, tesa½yeva µhapanapaccupaµµh±na½, y±payitabbadhammapadaµµh±na½. Santepi ca anup±lanalakkhaº±dimhi vidh±ne atthikkhaºeyeva ta½ te dhamme anup±leti, udaka½ viya uppal±d²ni. Yath±saka½ paccayehi uppannepi ca dhamme p±leti, dh±ti viya kum±ra½, saya½pavattitadhammasambandheneva ca pavattati, niy±mako viya n±va½. Na bhaªgato uddha½ pavattayati, attano ca pavattayitabb±nañca abh±v±. Na bhaªgakkhaºe µhapeti, saya½ bhijjam±natt±, kh²yam±no viya vaµµisineho pad²pasikha½, na ca anup±lanapavattanaµµhapan±nubh±vavirahita½ yath±vuttakkhaºe tassa tassa s±dhanatoti daµµhabba½. Ýhitiparittat±ya v±ti µhitikkhaºassa mandat±ya thokat±ya. Appakanti manda½ l±maka½. Sarasaparittat±ya v±ti attano paccayabh³t±na½ kicc±na½ sampatt²na½ v± appat±ya dubbalat±ya.
Tesa½ dvinna½ k±raºa½ vibh±gato dassetu½ “katha½ µhitiparittat±y±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha “at²te cittakkhaºe j²vitth±ti evam±di pañcavok±rabhave pavattiya½ cittassa nirujjhanak±le sabbasmi½ r³p±r³padhamme anirujjhantepi r³pato ar³passa paµµh±nabh±vena ar³paj²vita½ sandh±ya, cuticittena v± saddhi½ sabbesa½ r³p±r³p±na½ nirujjhanabh±vena pañcavok±rabhave cuticitta½ sandh±ya, catuvok±rabhave r³passa abh±vena catuvok±rabhava½ sandh±ya kathitan”ti veditabba½. At²te cittakkhaºeti at²tacittassa bhaªgakkhaºasamaªg²k±le ta½samaªg²puggalo “j²vittha” iti vattu½ labbhati. Na j²vat²ti “j²vat²”tipi vattu½ na labbhati. Na j²vissat²ti “j²vissat²”tipi vattu½ na labbhati. An±gate cittakkhaºe j²vissat²ti an±gatacittassa anuppajjanakkhaºasamaªg²k±le “j²vissat²”ti vattu½ labbhati. Na j²vat²ti “j²vat²”ti vattu½ na labbhati. Na j²vitth±ti “j²vittha”itipi vattu½ na labbhati. Paccuppanne cittakkhaºeti paccuppannacittakkhaºasamaªg²k±le. J²vat²ti “id±ni j²vat²”ti vattu½ labbhati. Na j²vitth±ti “j²vittha”iti vattu½ na labbhati. Na j²vissat²ti “j²vissat²”tipi vattu½ na labbhati.
J²vita½ attabh±vo ca sukhadukkh± c±ti aya½ g±th± pañcavok±rabhava½ amuñcitv± labbham±n±ya dukkh±ya vedan±ya gahitatt± pañcavok±rabhavameva sandh±ya vutt±ti veditabb±. Katha½? J²vitanti j²vitas²sena saªkh±rakkhandho. Attabh±voti r³pakkhandho. “Upekkh± pana santatt±, sukhamicceva bh±sit±”ti (vibha. aµµha. 232) vuttatt± upekkh±vedan± antokaritv± sukhadukkh± c±ti vedan±kkhandho, citta½ iti viññ±ºakkhandho vutto. Imesa½ catunna½ khandh±na½ kathitatt±yeva khandhalakkhaºena ekalakkhaºabh±vena lakkhaº±k±ravasena saññ±kkhandhopi kathitoti veditabbo. Eva½ vuttesu pañcasu khandhesu ar³padhamma½ muñcitv± kammasamuµµh±n±dir³passa appavattanabh±vena ekacittasam±yutt±ti ar³papadh±nabh±vo kathito hoti. Katha½? Asaññasatte r³pampi idhupacitakammabala½ amuñcitv±va pavattati, nirodhasam±pann±na½ r³pampi paµhamasam±pannasam±pattibala½ amuñcitv±va pavattati. Eva½ attano appavattiµµh±nepi r³papavatti½ attano santakameva katv± pavattanasabh±vassa ar³padhammassa attano pavattiµµh±ne r³papavattiy± padh±nak±raºabh±vena ekacittasam±yutt±ti cittapadh±nabh±vo kathitoti veditabbo.