Y± pana “upekkh±sambojjhaªga½ bh±veti vivekanissitan”ti (ma. ni. 2.247) evam±gat± sahaj±t±na½ dhamm±na½ majjhatt±k±rabh³t± upekkh±, aya½ bojjhaªgupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana “k±lena k±la½ upekkh±nimitta½ manasi karot²”ti (a. ni. 3.103) evam±gat± anacc±raddhan±tisithilav²riyasaªkh±t± upekkh±, aya½ v²riyupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana “kati saªkh±rupekkh± samathavasena uppajjanti, kati saªkh±rupekkh± vipassan±vasena uppajjanti? Aµµha saªkh±rupekkh± samathavasena uppajjanti, dasa saªkh±rupekkh± vipassan±vasena uppajjant²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.57) evam±gat± n²varaº±dipaµisaªkh±santiµµhan±gahaºe majjhattabh³t± upekkh±, aya½ saªkh±rupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana “yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti upekkh±sahagatan”ti (dha. sa. 150) evam±gat± adukkhamasukhasaªkh±t± upekkh±, aya½ vedanupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana “yadatthi ya½ bh³ta½, ta½ pajahati, upekkha½ paµilabhat²”ti (ma. ni. 3.71-72; a. ni. 7.55) evam±gat± vicinane majjhattabh³t± upekkh±, aya½ vipassanupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana chand±d²su yev±panakesu ±gat± sahaj±t±na½ samav±hitabh³t± upekkh±, aya½ tatramajjhattupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana “upekkhako ca viharat²”ti evam±gat± aggasukhepi tasmi½ apakkhap±tajanan² upekkh±, aya½ jh±nupekkh± n±ma.
Y± pana “upekkh±satip±risuddhi½ catuttha½ jh±nan”ti (dha. sa. 165; d². ni. 1.232) evam±gat± sabbapaccan²kaparisuddh± paccan²kav³pasamanepi aby±p±rabh³t± upekkh±, aya½ p±risuddhupekkh± n±ma.
Tattha cha¼aªgupekkh± ca brahmavih±rupekkh± ca bojjhaªgupekkh± ca tatramajjhattupekkh± ca jh±nupekkh± ca p±risuddhupekkh± ca atthato ek±, tatramajjhattupekkh±va hoti. Tena tena avatth±bhedena panass± aya½ bhedo Ekass±pi sato sattassa kum±rayuvatherasen±patir±j±divasena bhedo viya, tasm± t±su yattha cha¼aªgupekkh±, na tattha bojjhaªgupekkh±dayo. Yattha v± pana bojjhaªgupekkh±, na tattha cha¼aªgupekkh±dayo hont²ti veditabb±.
Yath± cet±sa½ atthato ek²bh±vo, eva½ saªkh±rupekkh±vipassanupekkh±nampi. Paññ± eva hi es±, kiccavasena dvidh± bhinn±, yath± hi purisassa s±ya½ geha½ paviµµha½ sappa½ ajapadadaº¹a½ gahetv± pariyesam±nassa ta½ thusakoµµhake nipanna½ disv± “sappo nu kho no”ti avalokentassa sovatthikattaya½ disv± nibbematikassa “sappo na sappo”ti vicinane majjhattat± uppajjati, evameva y± ±raddhavipassakassa vipassan±ñ±ºena lakkhaºattaye diµµhe saªkh±r±na½ aniccabh±v±divicinane majjhattat± uppajjati, aya½ vipassanupekkh±. Yath± pana tassa purisassa ajapadadaº¹akena g±¼ha½ sappa½ gahetv± “kint±ha½ ima½ sappa½ aviheµhento att±nañca imin± a¹a½s±pento muñceyyan”ti muñcan±k±rameva pariyesato gahaºe majjhattat± hoti, evameva y± lakkhaºattayassa diµµhatt± ±ditte viya tayo bhave passato saªkh±raggahaºe majjhattat±, aya½ saªkh±rupekkh±. Iti vipassanupekkh±ya siddh±ya saªkh±rupekkh±pi siddh±va hoti. Imin± panes± vicinanaggahaºesu majjhattat±saªkh±tena kiccena dvidh± bhinn±ti. V²riyupekkh± pana vedanupekkh± ca aññamaññañca avases±hi ca atthato bhinn±yev±ti. ¾ha cettha–
“Majjhattabrahmabojjhaªgacha¼aªgajh±nasuddhiyo;
vipassan± ca saªkh±ravedan±v²riya½ iti.
“Vitth±rato dasopekkh±-chamajjhatt±dito tato;
duve paññ± tato dv²hi, catassova bhavantim±”ti.
Iti im±su upekkh±su jh±nupekkh± idha adhippet±. S± majjhattalakkhaº±, an±bhogaras± aby±p±rapaccupaµµh±n±, p²tivir±gapadaµµh±n±ti. Etth±ha– “nanu c±ya½ atthato tatramajjhattupekkh±va hoti, s± ca paµhamadutiyajjh±nesupi atthi. Tasm± tatr±pi ‘upekkhako ca viharat²’ti evamaya½ vattabb± siy±, s± kasm± na vutt±”ti? Aparibyattakiccato. Aparibyattañhi tass± tattha kicca½, vitakk±d²hi abhibh³tatt±. Idha pan±ya½ vitakkavic±rap²t²hi anabhibh³tatt± ukkhittasir± viya hutv± paribyattakicc± j±t±, tasm± vutt±ti.
Sato ca sampaj±noti ettha sarat²ti sato. Sampaj±n±t²ti sampaj±no. Iti puggalena sati ca sampajaññañca vutta½. Tattha saraºalakkhaº± sati, asammussanaras± ±rakkhapaccupaµµh±n±. Asammohalakkhaºa½ sampajañña½, t²raºarasa½, pavicayapaccupaµµh±na½.
Tattha kiñc±pi ida½ satisampajañña½ purimajjh±nesupi atthi, muµµhassatissa hi asampaj±nassa upac±ramattampi na sampajjati, pageva appan±. O¼±rikatt± pana tesa½ jh±n±na½ bh³miya½ viya purisassa cittassa gati sukh± hoti, abyatta½ tattha satisampajaññakicca½. O¼±rikaªgappah±nena pana sukhumatt± imassa jh±nassa purisassa khuradh±r±ya½ viya satisampajaññakiccapariggahit± eva cittassa gati icchitabb±ti idheva vutta½. Kiñca bhiyyo– yath± dhenupago vaccho dhenuto apan²to arakkhiyam±no punadeva dhenu½ upagacchati, evamida½ tatiyajjh±nasukha½ p²tito apan²tampi satisampajaññ±rakkhena arakkhiyam±na½ punadeva p²ti½ upagaccheyya, p²tisampayuttameva siy±, sukhe v±pi satt± s±rajjanti. Idañca atimadhurasukha½, tato para½ sukh±bh±v±. Satisampajaññ±nubh±vena panettha sukhe as±rajjan± hoti, no aññath±ti imampi atthavisesa½ dassetu½ idamidheva vuttanti veditabba½.
Id±ni sukhañca k±yena paµisa½vedet²ti ettha kiñc±pi tatiyajjh±nasamaªgino sukhapaµisa½vedan±bhogo natthi, eva½ santepi yasm± tassa n±mak±yena sampayutta½ sukha½. Ya½ v± ta½ n±mak±yasampayutta½ sukha½, ta½samuµµh±nenassa yasm± atipaº²tena r³pena r³pak±yo phuµo, yassa phuµatt± jh±n± vuµµhitopi sukha½ paµisa½vedeyya, tasm± etamattha½ dassento “sukhañca k±yena paµisa½vedet²”ti ±ha.
Id±ni ya½ ta½ ariy± ±cikkhanti upekkhako satim± sukhavih±r²ti ettha ya½jh±nahetu ya½jh±nak±raº± ta½ tatiyajjh±nasamaªg²puggala½ buddh±dayo ariy± ±cikkhanti desenti paññapenti paµµhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti utt±n²karonti pak±senti, pasa½sant²ti adhipp±yo. Kinti? Upekkhako satim± sukhavih±r²ti. Ta½ tatiyajjh±na½ upasampajja viharat²ti evamettha yojan± veditabb±.
Kasm± pana ta½ te eva½ pasa½sant²ti? Pasa½s±rahato. Ayañhi yasm± atimadhurasukhe sukhap±ramippattepi tatiyajjh±ne upekkhako, na tattha sukh±bhisaªgena ±ka¹¹h²yati. Yath± ca p²ti na uppajjati, eva½ upaµµhitasatit±ya satim±. Yasm± ca ariyakanta½ ariyajanasevitameva ca asa½kiliµµha½ sukha½ n±mak±yena paµisa½vedeti, tasm± pasa½s±raho. Iti pasa½s±rahato na½ ariy± te eva½ pasa½s±hetubh³te guºe pak±sento “upekkhako satim± sukhavih±r²”ti eva½ pasa½sant²ti veditabba½. Tatiyanti gaºan±nupubbat± tatiya½, ida½ tatiya½ uppannantipi tatiya½.
Sukhassa ca pah±n± dukkhassa ca pah±n±ti k±yikasukhassa ca k±yikadukkhassa ca pah±n±. Pubbev±ti tañca kho pubbeva, na catutthajjh±nakkhaºe. Somanassadomanass±na½ atthaªgam±ti cetasikasukhassa ca cetasikadukkhassa c±ti imesampi dvinna½ pubbeva atthaªgam±, pah±n± icceva vutta½ hoti.
Kad± pana nesa½ pah±na½ hoti? Catunna½ jh±n±na½ upac±rakkhaºe. Somanassañhi catutthajjh±nassa upac±rakkhaºeyeva pah²yati, dukkhadomanassasukh±ni paµhamadutiyatatiyajjh±n±na½ upac±rakkhaºesu. Evametesa½ pah±nakkamena avutt±na½, indriyavibhaªge pana indriy±na½ uddesakkameneva idh±pi vutt±na½ sukhadukkhasomanassadomanass±na½ pah±na½ veditabba½.
Yadi panet±ni tassa tassa jh±nassa upac±rakkhaºeyeva pah²yanti, atha kasm± “kattha cuppanna½ dukkhindriya½ aparisesa½ nirujjhati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva k±mehi…pe… paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharati, ettha cuppanna½ dukkhindriya½ aparisesa½ nirujjhati. Kattha cuppanna½ domanassindriya½… sukhindriya½… somanassindriya½ aparisesa½ nirujjhati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu, sukhassa ca pah±n±…pe… catuttha½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppanna½ somanassindriya½ aparisesa½ nirujjhat²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.510) eva½ jh±nesveva nirodho vuttoti. Atisayanirodhatt±. Atisayanirodho hi nesa½ paµhamajjh±n±d²su, na nirodhoyeva. Nirodhoyeva pana upac±rakkhaºe n±tisayanirodho.
Tath± hi n±n±vajjane paµhamajjh±n³pac±re niruddhass±pi dukkhindriyassa ¹a½samakas±disamphassena v± visam±sanupat±pena v± siy± uppatti, na tveva anto-appan±ya½. Upac±re v± niruddhampeta½ na suµµhu niruddha½ hoti, paµipakkhena avihatatt±. Anto-appan±ya½ pana p²tipharaºena sabbo k±yo sukhokkanto hoti, sukhokkantak±yassa ca suµµhu niruddha½ hoti dukkhindriya½, paµipakkhena vihatatt±. N±n±vajjaneyeva ca dutiyajjh±n³pac±re pah²nass±pi domanassindriyassa yasm± eta½ vitakkavic±rapaccayepi k±yakilamathe cittupagh±te ca sati uppajjati, vitakkavic±r±bh±ve neva uppajjati. Yattha pana uppajjati, tattha vitakkavic±rabh±ve. Appah²n±yeva ca dutiyajjh±n³pac±re vitakkavic±r±ti tatthassa siy± uppatti, na tveva dutiyajjh±ne, pah²nappaccayatt±. Tath± tatiyajjh±n³pac±re pah²nass±pi sukhindriyassa p²tisamuµµh±napaº²tar³paphuµak±yassa siy± uppatti, na tveva tatiyajjh±ne. Tatiyajjh±ne hi sukhassa paccayabh³t± p²ti sabbaso niruddh±ti. Tath± catutthajjh±n³pac±re pah²nass±pi somanassindriyassa ±sannatt±, appan±patt±ya upekkh±ya abh±vena samm± anatikkantatt± ca siy± uppatti, na tveva catutthajjh±ne. Tasm± eva ca “etthuppanna½ dukkhindriya½ aparisesa½ nirujjhat²”ti tattha tattha aparisesaggahaºa½ katanti.
Etth±ha– “atheva½ tassa tassa jh±nassupac±re pah²n±pi et± vedan± idha kasm± sam±haµ±”ti? Sukhaggahaºattha½. Y± hi aya½ adukkhamasukhanti ettha adukkhamasukh± vedan± vutt±, s± sukhum± dubbiññeyy±, na sakk± sukhena gahetu½, tasm± yath± n±ma duµµhassa yath± v± tath± v± upasaªkamitv± gahetu½ asakkuºeyyassa goºassa sukhagahaºattha½ gopo ekasmi½ vaje sabb± g±vo sam±harati, athekeka½ n²haranto paµip±µiy± ±gata½ “aya½ so gaºhatha nan”ti tampi g±h±peti, evameva bhagav± sukhaggahaºattha½ sabb± et± sam±har²ti. Evañhi sam±haµ± et± dassetv± “ya½ neva sukha½, na dukkha½, na somanassa½, na domanassa½, aya½ adukkhamasukh± vedan±”ti sakk± hoti es± g±hayitu½.
Api ca adukkhamasukh±ya cetovimuttiy± paccayadassanatthañc±pi et± vutt±ti veditabb±. Dukkhappah±n±dayo hi tass± paccay±. Yath±ha– “catt±ro kho, ±vuso, paccay± adukkhamasukh±ya cetovimuttiy± sam±pattiy±. Idh±vuso, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pah±n± …pe… catuttha½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharati. Ime kho, ±vuso, catt±ro paccay± adukkhamasukh±ya cetovimuttiy± sam±pattiy±”ti (ma. ni. 1.458). Yath± v± aññattha pah²n±pi sakk±yadiµµhi-±dayo tatiyamaggassa vaººabhaºanattha½ “tattha pah²n±”ti vutt±, eva½ vaººabhaºanatthampetassa jh±nasset± idha vutt±tipi veditabb±. Paccayagh±tena v± ettha r±gados±na½ atid³rabh±va½ dassetumpet± vutt±ti veditabb±. Et±su hi sukha½ somanassassa paccayo, somanassa½ r±gassa, dukkha½ domanassassa, domanassa½ dosassa. Sukh±digh±tena ca te sappaccay± r±gados± hat±ti atid³re hont²ti.