Soceyyapaccupaµµh±na½, tayida½ tassa viññubhi;
ottappañca hir² ceva, padaµµh±nanti vaººita½.
Tañhida½ s²la½ “k±yasoceyya½ vac²soceyya½ manosoceyyan”ti eva½ vuttasoceyyapaccupaµµh±na½, soceyyabh±vena paccupaµµh±ti gahaºabh±va½ gacchati. Hirottappañca pana tassa viññ³hi padaµµh±nanti vaººita½, ±sannak±raºanti attho. Hirottappe hi sati s²la½ uppajjati ceva tiµµhati ca, asati neva uppajjati ceva na tiµµhati c±ti eva½vidhena s²lena s²lav± hoti. Eta½ s²la½ n±ma p±º±tip±t±d²hi v± viramantassa, vattapaµipatti½ v± p³rentassa cetan±dayo dhamm± veditabb±. Vuttañheta½ paµisambhid±ya½ “ki½ s²lanti? Cetan± s²la½, cetasika½ s²la½, sa½varo s²la½, av²tikkamo s²lan”ti (paµi. ma. 1.39).
Tattha cetan± s²la½ n±ma p±º±tip±t±d²hi v± viramantassa vattapaµipatti½ v± p³rentassa cetan±. Cetasika½ s²la½ n±ma p±º±tip±t±d²hi viramantassa virati. Api ca cetan± s²la½ n±ma p±º±tip±t±d²ni pajahantassa sattakammapathacetan±. Cetasika½ s²la½ n±ma “abhijjha½ pah±ya vigat±bhijjhena cetas± viharat²”ti-±din± (d². ni. 1.217) nayena sa½yuttamah±vagge vutt± anabhijjh±by±p±dasamm±diµµhidhamm±. Sa½varo s²lanti ettha pañcavidhena sa½varo veditabbo– p±timokkhasa½varo satisa½varo ñ±ºasa½varo khantisa½varo v²riyasa½varo. Tassa n±n±karaºa½ upari ±vi bhavissati. Av²tikkamo s²lanti sam±dinnas²lassa k±yikav±casiko av²tikkamo. Ettha ca sa½varas²la½, av²tikkamas²lanti idameva nippariy±yato s²la½. Cetan±s²la½, cetasika½ s²lanti pariy±yato s²lanti veditabba½.
P±timokkhanti sikkh±padas²la½. Tañhi yo na½ p±ti rakkhati, ta½ mokkheti moceti ±p±yik±d²hi dukkhehi, tasm± “p±timokkhan”ti vutta½. P±timokkhasa½varasa½vutoti p±timokkhasa½varas²lena samann±gato. ¾c±ragocarasampannoti ±c±rena ceva gocarena ca sampanno. Aºumattes³ti appamattakesu. Vajjes³ti akusaladhammesu. Bhayadass±v²ti bhayadass². Sam±d±y±ti samm± ±diyitv±. Sikkhati sikkh±pades³ti ta½ ta½ sikkh±pada½ sam±diyitv± sikkhati. Api ca sam±d±ya sikkhati sikkh±pades³ti ya½kiñci sikkh±padesu sikkh±koµµh±sesu sikkhitabba½ k±yika½ v± cetasika½ v±, ta½ sabba½ sam±d±ya sikkhati.
Khuddako s²lakkhandhoti saªgh±dises±dis±vaseso s²lakkhandho. Mahantoti p±r±jik±diniravaseso. Yasm± pana p±timokkhas²lena bhikkhu s±sane patiµµh±ti n±ma tasm± ta½ “patiµµh±”ti vutta½. Patiµµhahati v± ettha bhikkhu, kusal± dhamm± eva v± ettha patiµµhahant²ti patiµµh±. Ayamattho “s²le patiµµh±ya naro sapañño”ti (sa½. ni. 1.23, 192) ca, “patiµµh±nalakkhaºa½, mah±r±ja, s²la½ sabbesa½ kusal±na½ dhamm±nan”ti (mi. pa. 2.1.9) ca “s²le patiµµhito kho, mah±r±ja…pe… sabbe kusal± dhamm± na parih±yant²”ti (mi. pa. 2.1.9) ca ±disuttavasena veditabbo.
Tadeta½ pubbuppatti-atthena ±di. Vuttampi ceta½ “tasm±tiha tva½ uttiya ±dimeva visodhehi kusalesu dhammesu. Ko c±di kusal±na½ dhamm±na½, s²lañca suvisuddha½ diµµhi ca ujuk±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.382). Yath± hi nagarava¹¹hak² nagara½ m±petuk±mo paµhama½ nagaraµµh±na½ sodheti, tato aparabh±ge v²thicatukkasiªgh±µak±diparicchedena vibhajitv±va nagara½ m±peti. Evameva yog±vacaro ±dito s²la½ visodheti, tato aparabh±ge sam±dhivipassan±maggaphalanibb±n±ni sacchikaroti. Yath± v± pana rajako paµhama½ t²hi kh±rehi vattha½ dhovitv± parisuddhe vatthe yadicchaka½ raªgaj±ta½ upaneti, yath± v± pana cheko cittak±ro r³pa½ likhituk±mo ±ditova bhittiparikamma½ karoti, tato aparabh±ge r³pa½ samuµµh±peti. Evameva yog±vacaro ±ditova s²la½ visodhetv± aparabh±ge samathavipassan±dayo dhamme sacchikaroti. Tasm± s²la½ “±d²”ti vutta½.
Tadeta½ caraºasarikkhat±ya caraºa½. Caraº±ti hi p±d± vuccanti. Yath± hi chinnacaraºassa purisassa disa½ gaman±bhisaªkh±ro na j±yati, paripuººap±dasseva j±yati, evameva yassa s²la½ bhinna½ hoti khaº¹a½ aparipuººa½, tassa nibb±nagaman±ya ñ±ºagamana½ na sampajjati. Yassa pana ta½ abhinna½ hoti akhaº¹a½ paripuººa½, tassa nibb±nagaman±ya ñ±ºagamana½ sampajjati. Tasm± s²la½ “caraºan”ti vutta½.
Tadeta½ sa½yamanavasena sa½yamo. Sa½varaºavasena sa½varoti ubhayen±pi s²lasa½yamo ceva s²lasa½varo ca kathito. Vacanattho panettha sa½yameti v²tikkamavipphandana½ puggala½ v± sa½yameti v²tikkamavasena tassa vipphanditu½ na det²ti sa½yamo. V²tikkamassa pavesanadv±ra½ sa½varati pidahat²ti sa½varo.
Mokkhanti uttama½ mukhabh³ta½ v±. Yath± hi satt±na½ catubbidho ±h±ro mukhena pavisitv± aªgamaªg±ni pharati, eva½ yoginopi catubh³makakusala½ s²lamukhena pavisitv± atthasiddhi½ samp±deti. Tena “mokkhan”ti. Pamukhe s±dh³ti p±mokkha½, pubbaªgama½ seµµha½ padh±nanti attho. Kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±pattiy±ti catubh³makakusal±na½ paµil±bhatth±ya p±mokkha½ pubbaªgama½ seµµha½ padh±nanti veditabba½.
Vivicceva k±meh²ti k±mehi vivicca vin± hutv± apakkamitv±. Yo pan±yamettha evak±ro, so niyamatthoti veditabbo. Yasm± ca niyamattho, tasm± tasmi½ paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharaºasamaye avijjam±n±nampi k±m±na½ tassa paµhamajjh±nassa paµipakkhabh±va½ k±maparicc±geneva cassa adhigama½ d²peti. Katha½? “Vivicceva k±meh²”ti evañhi niyame kariyam±ne ida½ paññ±yati, n³nimassa jh±nassa k±m± paµipakkhabh³t±, yesu sati ida½ na pavattati andhak±re sati pad²pobh±so viya, tesa½ paricc±geneva cassa adhigamo hoti orimat²raparicc±gena p±rimat²rasseva. Tasm± niyama½ karot²ti.
Tattha siy± “kasm± panesa pubbapadeyeva vutto na uttarapade, ki½ akusalehi dhammehi avivicc±pi jh±na½ upasampajja vihareyy±”ti? Na kho paneta½ eva½ daµµhabba½. Ta½nissaraºato hi pubbapade eva esa vutto. K±madh±tusamatikkamanato hi k±mar±gapaµipakkhato ca ida½ jh±na½ k±m±nameva nissaraºa½. Yath±ha– “k±m±nameta½ nissaraºa½ yadida½ nekkhamman”ti (itivu. 72). Uttarapadepi pana yath± “idheva, bhikkhave, samaºo, idha dutiyo samaºo”ti (ma. ni. 1.139) ettha evak±ro ±netv± vuccati, eva½ vattabbo. Na hi sakk± ito aññehipi n²varaºasaªkh±tehi akusalehi dhammehi avivicca jh±na½ upasampajja viharitu½. Tasm± vivicceva k±mehi vivicceva akusalehi dhammeh²ti eva½ padadvayepi esa daµµhabbo. Padadvayepi ca kiñc±pi vivicc±ti imin± s±dh±raºavacanena tadaªgavivek±dayo k±yavivek±dayo ca sabbepi vivek± saªgaha½ gacchanti, tath±pi pubbabh±ge k±yavivekacittavivekavikkhambhanavivek± daµµhabb±. Lokuttaramaggakkhaºe k±yavivekacittavivekasamucchedavivekanissaraºavivek±.
K±meh²ti imin± pana padena ye ca idha “katame vatthuk±m± man±pik± r³p±”ti-±din± nayena vatthuk±m± vutt±, ye ca idheva vibhaªge “chando k±mo r±go k±mo chandar±go k±mo saªkappo k±mo r±go k±mo saªkappar±go k±mo”ti eva½ kilesak±m± vutt±, te sabbepi saªgahit± icceva daµµhabb±. Evañhi sati vivicceva k±meh²ti vatthuk±mehipi viviccev±ti attho yujjati. Tena k±yaviveko vutto hoti.
Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²ti kilesak±mehi sabb±kusalehi v± vivicc±ti attho yujjati. Tena cittaviveko vutto hoti. Purimena cettha vatthuk±mehi vivekavacanato eva k±masukhaparicc±go, dutiyena kilesak±mehi vivekavacanato nekkhammasukhapariggaho vibh±vito hoti Eva½ vatthuk±makilesak±mavivekavacanatoyeva ca etesa½ paµhamena sa½kilesavatthuppah±na½, dutiyena sa½kilesappah±na½. Paµhamena lolabh±vassa hetuparicc±go, dutiyena b±labh±vassa. Paµhamena ca payogasuddhi, dutiyena ±sayaposana½ vibh±vita½ hot²ti ñ±tabba½ Esa t±va nayo “k±meh²”ti ettha vuttak±mesu vatthuk±mapakkhe
Kilesak±mapakkhe pana chandoti ca r±goti ca evam±d²hi anekabhedo k±macchandova “k±mo”ti adhippeto. So ca akusalapariy±pannopi sam±no “tattha katamo k±macchando, k±mo”ti-±din± nayena vibhaªge jh±napaµipakkhato visu½ vutto. Kilesak±matt± v± purimapade vutto, akusalapariy±pannatt± dutiyapade. Anekabhedato cassa k±matoti avatv± k±meh²ti vutta½. Aññesampi ca dhamm±na½ akusalabh±ve vijjam±ne “tattha katame akusal± dhamm±, k±macchando”ti-±din± nayena vibhaªge (vibha. 564) uparijh±naªg±na½ paccan²kapaµipakkhabh±vadassanato n²varaº±neva vutt±ni. N²varaº±ni hi jh±naªgapaccan²k±ni tesa½ jh±naªg±neva paµipakkh±ni, viddha½sak±ni vigh±tak±n²ti vutta½ hoti. Tath± hi “sam±dhi k±macchandassa paµipakkho, p²ti by±p±dassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sukha½ uddhaccakukkuccassa, vic±ro vicikicch±y±”ti peµake vutta½.
Evamettha vivicceva k±meh²ti imin± k±macchandassa vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hoti, vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²ti imin± pañcannampi n²varaº±na½. Aggahitaggahaºena pana paµhamena k±macchandassa, dutiyena sesan²varaº±na½. Tath± paµhamena t²su akusalam³lesu pañcak±maguºabhedavisayassa lobhassa, dutiyena ±gh±tavatthubhed±divisay±na½ dosamoh±na½. Ogh±d²su v± dhammesu paµhamena k±moghak±mayogak±m±savak±mup±d±na-abhijjh±k±yaganthak±mar±gasa½yojan±na½, dutiyena avasesa-oghayog±sava-up±d±naganthasa½yojan±na½. Paµhamena ca taºh±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca, dutiyena avijj±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca. Api ca paµhamena lobhasampayutta-aµµhacittupp±d±na½, dutiyena ses±na½ catunna½ akusalacittupp±d±na½ vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hot²ti veditabbo.
Ett±vat± ca paµhamassa jh±nassa pah±naªga½ dassetv± id±ni sampayogaªga½ dassetu½ “savitakka½ savic±ran”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ±rammaºe cittassa abhiniropanalakkhaºo vitakko, ±rammaº±numajjanalakkhaºo vic±ro. Santepi ca nesa½ katthaci aviyoge o¼±rikaµµhena pubbaªgamaµµhena ca ghaº¹±bhigh±to viya cetaso paµham±bhinip±to vitakko, sukhumaµµhena anumajjanasabh±vena ca ghaº¹±nuravo viya anupabandho vic±ro. Vipph±rav± cettha vitakko paµhamuppattik±le paripphandanabh³to cittassa, ±k±se uppatituk±massa pakkhino pakkhavikkhepo viya, padum±bhimukhap±to viya ca gandh±nubandhacetaso bhamarassa. Santavutti vic±ro n±tiparipphandanabh±vo cittassa, ±k±se uppatitassa pakkhino pakkhappas±raºa½ viya, paribbhamana½ viya ca padum±bhimukhapatitassa bhamarassa padumassa uparibh±ge.
Dukanip±taµµhakath±ya½ pana “±k±se gacchato mah±sakuºassa ubhohi pakkhehi v±ta½ gahetv± pakkhe sannis²d±petv± gamana½ viya ±rammaºe cetaso abhiniropanabh±vena pavatto vitakko, v±taggahaºattha½ pakkhe phand±payam±nassa gamana½ viya anumajjanabh±vena pavatto vic±ro”ti vutta½. Ta½ anuppabandhena pavattiya½ yujjati. So pana nesa½ viseso paµhamadutiyajjh±nesu p±kaµo hoti. Api ca malaggahita½ ka½sabh±jana½ ekena hatthena da¼ha½ gahetv± itarena hatthena cuººatelav±laº¹upakena parimajjantassa da¼haggahaºahattho viya vitakko. Parimajjanahattho viya vic±ro. Tath± kumbhak±rassa daº¹appah±rena cakka½ bhamayitv± bh±jana½ karontassa upp²¼anahattho viya vitakko. Ito cito ca sañcaraºahattho viya vic±ro. Tath± maº¹ala½ karontassa majjhe sannirumbhitv± µhitakaºµako viya abhiniropano vitakko. Bahi paribbhamanakaºµako viya anumajjam±no vic±ro. Iti imin± ca vitakkena imin± ca vic±rena saha vattati rukkho viya pupphena ca phalena c±ti ida½ jh±na½ “savitakka½ savic±ran”ti vuccati.
Vivekajanti ettha vivitti viveko, n²varaºavigamoti attho. Vivittoti v± viveko, n²varaºavivitto jh±nasampayuttadhammar±s²ti attho. Tasm± vivek±, tasmi½ v± viveke j±tanti vivekaja½. P²tisukhanti ettha piºayat²ti p²ti, s± sampiy±yanalakkhaº±. S± panes± khuddik±p²ti khaºik±p²ti, okkantik±p²ti, ubbeg±p²ti, pharaº±p²t²ti pañcavidh± hoti.
Tattha khuddik±p²ti sar²re lomaha½samattameva k±tu½ sakkoti. Khaºik±p²ti khaºe khaºe vijjupp±dasadis± hoti. Okkantik±p²ti samuddat²ra½ v²ci viya, k±ya½ okkamitv± okkamitv± bhijjati. Ubbeg±p²ti balavat² hoti, k±ya½ uddhagga½ katv± ±k±se laªgh±panappam±ºapatt±.
Pharaº±p²ti atibalavat² hoti. T±ya hi uppann±ya sakalasar²ra½ dhamitv± p³ritavatthi viya mahat± udakoghena pakkhandapabbatakucchi viya ca anuparipphuµa½ hoti. S± panes± pañcavidh± p²ti gabbha½ gaºhant² parip±ka½ gacchant² duvidha½ passaddhi½ parip³reti k±yapassaddhiñca cittapassaddhiñca, passaddhi gabbha½ gaºhant² parip±ka½ gacchant² duvidhampi sukha½ parip³reti k±yika½ cetasikañca, sukha½ gabbha½ gaºhanta½ parip±ka½ gacchanta½ tividha½ sam±dhi½ parip³reti khaºikasam±dhi½ upac±rasam±dhi½ appan±sam±dhiñc±ti. T±su y± appan±sam±dhissa m³la½ hutv± va¹¹ham±n± sam±dhisampayogaªgat± pharaº±p²ti, aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippet± p²t²ti.
Itara½ pana sukhayat²ti sukha½, yassa uppajjati, ta½ sukhita½ karot²ti attho. Sukhana½ v± sukha½, suµµhu v± kh±dati khaºati ca k±yacitt±b±dhanti sukha½, somanassavedan±yeta½ n±ma½. Ta½ s±talakkhaºa½. Santepi ca nesa½ katthaci avippayoge iµµh±rammaºapaµil±bhatuµµhi p²ti, paµiladdharas±nubhavana½ sukha½. Yattha p²ti, tattha sukha½, yattha sukha½, tattha na niyamato p²ti. Saªkh±rakkhandhasaªgahit± p²ti, vedan±kkhandhasaªgahita½ sukha½. Kant±rakhinnassa vanantodakadassanasavanesu viya p²ti, vanacch±yappavesana-udakaparibhogesu viya sukha½. Tasmi½ tasmi½ samaye p±kaµabh±vato ceta½ vuttanti veditabba½. Iti ayañca p²ti idañca sukha½ assa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti ida½ jh±na½ “p²tisukhan”ti vuccati.
Atha v± p²ti ca sukhañca p²tisukha½ dhammavinay±dayo viya. Vivekaja½ p²tisukha½ assa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti evampi vivekaja½p²tisukha½. Yatheva hi jh±na½, eva½ p²tisukhampettha vivekajameva hoti, tañcassa atthi, tasm± alopasam±sa½ katv± ekapadeneva “vivekaja½p²tisukhan”tipi vattu½ yujjati.
Paµhamanti gaºan±nupubbat± paµhama½, ida½ paµhama½ uppannantipi paµhama½. Jh±nanti duvidha½ jh±na½ ±rammaº³panijjh±na½ lakkhaº³panijjh±nañc±ti. Tattha aµµha sam±pattiyo pathav²kasiº±di-±rammaºa½ upanijjh±yant²ti ±rammaº³panijjh±nanti saªkhya½ gat±. Vipassan±maggaphal±ni pana lakkhaº³panijjh±na½ n±ma. Tattha vipassan± anicc±dilakkhaºassa upanijjh±nato lakkhaº³panijjh±na½. Vipassan±ya katakiccassa maggena ijjhanato maggo lakkhaº³panijjh±na½, phala½ pana nirodhasacca½ tathalakkhaºa½ upanijjh±yat²ti lakkhaº³panijjh±na½. Tesu idha pubbabh±ge ±rammaº³panijjh±na½, lokuttaramaggakkhaºe lakkhaº³panijjh±na½ adhippeta½. Tasm± ±rammaº³panijjh±nato ca lakkhaº³panijjh±nato ca paccan²kajh±panato ca jh±nanti veditabba½.
Upasampajj±ti upagantv±, p±puºitv±ti vutta½ hoti. Upasamp±dayitv± v±, nipph±detv±ti vutta½ hoti. Viharat²ti tadanur³pena iriy±pathavih±rena iriyati, vuttappak±rajh±nasamaªg² hutv± attabh±vassa iriyana½ vutti½ abhinipph±deti.
Ta½ paneta½ paµhamajjh±na½ pañcaªgavippah²na½ pañcaªgasamann±gata½ tividhakaly±ºa½, dasalakkhaºasampanna½. Tattha k±macchando by±p±do thinamiddha½ uddhaccakukkucca½ vicikicch±ti imesa½ pañcanna½ n²varaº±na½ pah±navasena pañcaªgavippah²nat± veditabb±. Na hi etesu appah²nesu jh±na½ uppajjati. Tenasset±ni pah±naªg±n²ti vuccanti. Kiñc±pi hi jh±nakkhaºe aññepi akusal± dhamm± pah²yanti, tath±pi et±neva visesena jh±nantar±yakar±ni. K±macchandena hi n±n±visayappalobhita½ citta½ na ekatt±rammaºe sam±dhiyati, k±macchand±bhibh³ta½ v±, ta½ na k±madh±tuppah±n±ya paµipada½ paµipajjati. By±p±dena v± ±rammaºe paµihaññam±na½ na nirantara½ pavattati. Thinamiddh±bhibh³ta½ akammañña½ hoti. Uddhaccakukkuccapareta½ av³pasantameva hutv± paribbhamati. Vicikicch±ya upahata½ jh±n±dhigamas±dhika½ paµipada½ n±rohati. Iti visesena jh±nantar±yakaratt± et±neva pah±naªg±n²ti vutt±ni.
Yasm± pana vitakko ±rammaºe citta½ abhiniropeti, vic±ro anupabandhati, tehi avikkhep±ya samp±ditapayogassa cetaso payogasampattisambhav± p²ti p²ºana½ sukhañca upabr³hana½ karoti. Athassa sesasampayuttadhamm± etehi abhiniropan±nubandhanap²ºanupabr³hanehi anuggahit± ekaggat± ekatt±rammaºe sama½ samm± ca ±dhiyati. Tasm± vitakko vic±ro p²ti sukha½ cittekaggat±ti imesa½ pañcanna½ uppattivasena pañcaªgasamann±gatat± veditabb±. Uppannesu hi etesu pañcasu jh±na½ uppanna½ n±ma hoti. Tenassa et±ni pañcaªgasamann±gat±n²ti vuccanti. Tasm± na etehi samann±gata½ aññadeva jh±na½ n±ma atth²ti gahetabba½. Yath± pana aªgamattavaseneva caturaªgin² sen±, pañcaªgika½ t³riya½, aµµhaªgiko ca maggoti vuccati, evamidampi aªgamattavaseneva pañcaªgikanti v± pañcaªgasamann±gatanti v± vuccat²ti veditabba½.
Et±ni ca pañcaªg±ni kiñc±pi upac±rakkhaºepi atthi, atha kho upac±re pakaticittato balavatar±ni. Idha pana upac±ratopi balavatar±ni r³p±vacaralakkhaºappatt±ni nipphann±ni. Ettha hi vitakko suvisadena ±k±rena ±rammaºe citta½ abhiniropayam±no uppajjati. Vic±ro ativiya ±rammaºa½ anumajjam±no. P²tisukha½ sabb±vantampi k±ya½ pharam±na½ Tenev±ha– “n±ssa kiñci sabb±vato k±yassa vivekajena p²tisukhena apphuµa½ hot²”ti (d². ni. 1.226). Cittekaggat±pi heµµhimamhi samuggapaµale uparima½ samuggapaµala½ viya ±rammaºesu phusit± hutv± uppajjati, ayametesa½ itarehi viseso. Tattha cittekaggat± kiñc±pi “savitakka½ savic±ran”ti imasmi½ p±µhe na niddiµµh±, tath±pi vibhaªge (vibha. 565) “jh±nanti vitakko vic±ro p²ti sukha½ cittekaggat±”ti eva½ vuttatt± aªgameva. Yena hi adhipp±yena bhagavat± uddeso kato, soyeva tena vibhaªge pak±sitoti.