“P±passa p±pakamm±di-nimittamanupassato;
bhaddass±pasahantassa, viyoga½ piyavatthuka½;
m²yam±nassa ya½ dukkha½, m±nasa½ avisesato.
“Sabbesañc±pi ya½ sandhi-bandhanacchedan±dika½;
vitujjam±namamm±na½, hoti dukkha½ sar²raja½.
“Asayhamappatik±ra½, dukkhassetassida½ yato;
maraºa½ vatthu teneta½, dukkhamicceva bh±sitan”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 193; visuddhi. 2.543).
Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassup±y±sadukkhanti ettha sok±d²su soko n±ma ñ±tibyasan±d²hi phuµµhassa antonijjh±nalakkhaºo cittasant±po. Dukkho panassa dukkhadukkhatt± ceva dukkhassa ca vatthubh±vato. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Satt±na½ hadaya½ soko, salla½ viya vitujjati;
aggitattova n±r±co, bhusañca ¹ahate puna.
“Sam±vahati ca by±dhi-jar±maraºabhedana½;
dukkhampi vividha½ yasm±, tasm± dukkhoti vuccat²”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 194; visuddhi. 2.544).
Paridevo n±ma ñ±tibyasan±d²hi phuµµhassa vac²pal±po. Dukkho panassa sa½s±radukkhabh±vato dukkhavatthuto ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Ya½ sokasallavihato paridevam±no, kaºµhoµµhat±lutalasosajamappasayha½;
bhiyyodhimattamadhigacchatiyeva dukkha½, dukkhoti tena bhagav± paridevam±h±”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 195; visuddhi. 2.545).
Dukkha½ n±ma k±yap²¼analakkhaºa½ k±yika½ dukkha½. Dukkha½ panassa dukkhadukkhatt± ceva m±nasadukkh±vahanato ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“P²¼eti k±yikamida½, dukkha½ dukkhañca m±nasa½ bhiyyo;
janayati yasm± tasm±, dukkhanti visesato vuttan”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 196-197; visuddhi. 2.546).
Domanassa½ n±ma cittap²¼analakkhaºa½ m±nasa½ dukkha½. Dukkha½ panassa dukkhadukkhatt± ceva k±yikadukkh±vahanato ca. Cetodukkhasamappit± hi kese pakiriya kandanti, ur±ni patipisenti, ±vaµµanti, vivaµµanti, chinnapap±ta½ papatanti, sattha½ ±haranti, visa½ kh±danti, rajjuy± ubbandhanti, aggi½ pavisanti, n±nappak±ra½ dukkha½ anubhavanti. Teneta½ vuccati–
“P²¼eti yato citta½, k±yassa ca p²¼ana½ sam±vahati;
dukkhanti domanassampi, domanassa½ tato ah³”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 196-197; visuddhi. 2.547).
Up±y±so n±ma ñ±tibyasan±d²hi phuµµhassa adhimattacetodukkhappabh±vito dosoyeva. Saªkh±rakkhandhapariy±panno eko dhammoti eke. Dukkho panassa saªkh±radukkhabh±vato citta½ paridahanato k±yassa vihananato ca. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Cittassa ca paridahan±, k±yassa vihananato ca adhimatta½;
ya½ dukkhamup±y±so, janeti dukkho tato vutto”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 198; visuddhi. 2.548).
Ettha ca mandaggin± antobh±jane p±ko viya soko, tikkhaggin± paccam±nassa bh±janato bahi nikkhamana½ viya paridevo, bahi nikkhant±vasesassa nikkhamitumpi appahontassa antobh±janeyeva y±va parikkhay± p±ko viya up±y±so daµµhabbo.
Nerayika½ dukkhanti niraye pañcavidhabandhan±dika½ dukkha½ anveti, ta½ devad³tasuttena d²petabba½. Teneta½ vuccati–
“J±yetha no ce narakesu satto, tatthaggid±h±dikamappasayha½;
labhetha dukkha½ nu kuhi½ patiµµha½, icc±ha dukkh±ti mun²dha j±tin”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 191; visuddhi. 2.541).
Tiracch±nayonika½ dukkhanti tiracch±nesu kas±patodat±¼anavijjhan±dika½ anekavidha½ dukkha½ anveti, ta½ b±lapaº¹itasuttato gahetabba½. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Dukkha½ tiracchesu kas±patodadaº¹±bhigh±t±dibhava½ aneka½;
ya½ ta½ katha½ tattha bhaveyya j±ti½, vin± tahi½ j±ti tatopi dukkh±”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 191; visuddhi. 2.541).
Pettivisayika½ dukkhanti petesu pana khuppip±sa v±t±tap±dinibbatta½ dukkhañca lokantare tibbandhak±re asayhas²t±didukkhañca anveti. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Petesu dukkha½ pana khuppip±s±v±t±tap±dippabhava½ vicitta½;
yasm± aj±tassa na tattha atthi, tasm±pi dukkha½ muni j±tim±ha.
“Tibbandhak±re ca asayhas²te, lokantare ya½ asuresu dukkha½;
na ta½ bhave tattha na cassa j±ti, yato aya½ j±ti tatopi dukkh±”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 191; visuddhi. 2.541).
M±nusika½ dukkhanti manussesu vadhabandhan±dika½ dukkha½. Gabbhokkantim³laka½ dukkhanti “ayañhi satto m±tukucchimhi nibbattam±no na uppalapadumapuº¹arik±d²su nibbattat²”ti-±din± nayena ya½ j±tidukkha½ vutta½, ida½ t±va gabbhokkantim³laka½ dukkha½ anveti. Gabbhe µhitim³laka½ dukkhanti ya½ pana “so m±tu sahas± upakkhalanagamananis²dan±”ti-±din± nayena ya½ tibba½ dukkha½ vutta½, ida½ gabbhe µhitim³laka½ dukkha½ anveti. Gabbh± vuµµh±nam³laka½ dukkhanti “ya½ panassa m³¼hagabbh±ya m±tuy± mitt±maccasuhajj±d²hipi adassan±rahe dukkhuppattiµµh±ne”ti-±din± nayena ya½ dukkha½ vutta½, ida½ m±tukucchito bahi nikkhantam³laka½ dukkha½ anveti. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Yañc±pi g³thanarake viya m±tugabbhe,
satto vasa½ ciramato bahi nikkhamanañca;
pappoti dukkhamatighoramidampi natthi,
j±ti½ vin± itipi j±ti ayañhi dukkh±.
“Ki½ bh±sitena bahun± nanu ya½ kuhiñci,
atth²dha kiñcirapi dukkhamida½ kad±ci;
nevatthi j±tivirahe yadato mahesi,
dukkh±ti sabbapaµhama½ imam±ha j±tin”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 191; visuddhi. 2.541).
J±tass³panibandhaka½ dukkhanti j±tassa upanibandhana½ nh±nalepanakh±danapivan±dijagganadukkha½ anveti. J±tassa par±dheyyaka½ dukkhanti parassa aññassa ±yatta½ issariyadukkha½ anveti. “Sabba½ paravasa½ dukkhan”ti hi vutta½. Att³pakkama½ dukkhanti ya½ attan±va att±na½ vadhentassa acelakavat±divasena ±t±panaparit±pan±nuyogamanuyuttassa kodhavasena abhuñjantassa ubbandhantassa ca dukkha½ hoti, ida½ att³pakkama½ dukkha½ anveti. Par³pakkama½ dukkhanti ya½ parato vadhabandhan±d²ni anubhavantassa uppajjati, ida½ par³pakkama½ dukkha½ anveti. Dukkhadukkhanti k±yikacetasik± dukkh± vedan± sabh±vato ca n±mato ca dukkhatt± dukkhadukkha½, ida½ dukkhadukkha½ anveti. Saªkh±radukkhanti upekkh±vedan± ceva avases± ca tebh³makasaªkh±r± udayabbayap²¼itatt± saªkh±radukkha½, ida½ saªkh±radukkha½ anveti. Vipariº±madukkhanti sukhavedan± vipariº±madukkhassa hetuto vipariº±madukkha½, ida½ vipariº±madukkha½ anveti.
M±tumaraºanti m±tuy± maraºa½. Pitumaraºanti pituno maraºa½. Bh±tumaraºanti jeµµhakaniµµhabh±t³na½ maraºa½. Bhaginimaraºanti jeµµhakaniµµhabhagin²na½ maraºa½. Puttamaraºanti putt±na½ maraºa½. Dh²tumaraºanti dh²t³na½ maraºa½. ѱtibyasana½ dukkhanti ñ±t²na½ byasana½, corarogabhay±d²hi ñ±tikkhayo, ñ±tivin±soti attho. Tena ñ±tibyasanena phuµµhassa ajjhotthaµassa abhibh³tassa uppanna½ dukkha½ ñ±tibyasana½ dukkha½, ta½ ñ±tibyasana½ dukkha½ anveti. Sesesupi eseva nayo. Aya½ pana viseso– bhog±na½ byasana½ bhogabyasana½, r±jacor±divasena bhogakkhayo, bhogavin±soti attho. Vuttanayena ta½ bhogabyasana½ dukkha½ anveti. Rogabyasananti rogo eva byasana½ rogabyasana½. Rogo hi ±rogya½ byasati vin±set²ti byasana½, vuttanayena ta½ rogabyasana½ dukkha½ anveti. S²labyasana½ dukkhanti s²lassa byasana½ s²labyasana½, duss²lyasseta½ n±ma½. Vuttanayena ta½ s²labyasana½ dukkha½ anveti. Samm±diµµhi½ vin±sayam±n± uppann± diµµhiyeva byasana½ diµµhibyasana½, vuttanayena ta½ diµµhibyasana½ dukkha½ anveti. Ettha ca purim±ni dve anipphann±ni, pacchim±ni t²ºi nipphann±ni tilakkhaº±hat±ni. Purim±ni ca t²ºi neva kusal±ni n±kusal±ni. S²ladiµµhibyasanadvaya½ akusala½.
Yath±ti opamme. Bhinna½ n±vanti sithilabandhana½ n±va½, jajjar²bh³ta½ v± padaruggh±µima½ v±. Dakamesinti udakad±yi½ udakappavesani½. Tato tato udaka½ anvet²ti tato tato bhinnaµµh±nato udaka½ pavisati. Puratop²ti n±v±ya purimabh±gatopi. Pacchatop²ti tass± pacchimabh±gatopi. Heµµhatop²ti adhobh±gatopi. Passatop²ti ubhayapassatopi. Ya½ antarantar± na vutta½, ta½ p±µh±nus±rena veditabba½.
Tasm± k±yagat±sati-±dibh±van±ya jantu, sad± sato hutv± vikkhambhanasamucchedavasena r³p±d²su vatthuk±mesu sabbappak±rampi kilesak±ma½ parivajjento k±m±ni parivajjeyya. Eva½ te k±me pah±ya tappah±nakaramaggeneva catubbidhampi ogha½ tareyya taritu½ sakkuºeyya. Tato yath± puriso garuka½ n±va½ udaka½ siñcitv± lahuk±ya n±v±ya appakasireneva p±rag³ bhaveyya p±ra½ gaccheyya, evameva½ attabh±van±va½ kiles³dakagaruka½ siñcitv± lahukena attabh±vena p±rag³ bhaveyya. Sabbadhammap±ra½ nibb±na½ gato bhaveyya, arahattappattiy± gaccheyya anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±nen±ti arahattanik³µena desana½ niµµh±pesi.
Tasm±ti yasm± j±ti-±dika½ dukkha½ eta½ puggala½ anveti, tasm±. Ta½k±raº± ta½het³ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Yasm± vuttappak±radukkha½ eta½ anveti, ta½hetu. Yasm± anveti tappaccay±, yasm± anveti ta½nid±nanti eva½ padayojan± k±tabb±. Het³ti-±d²ni k±raºavevacan±ni. K±raºañhi tena tassa phala½ hinoti pavattat²ti hetu. Ta½ ta½ paµicca phala½ eti pavattat²ti paccayo. “Handa na½ gaºhath±”ti dassenta½ viya attano phala½ nidet²ti nid±na½.
“Ta½k±raº±ti ak±raºanikk±raºapaµisedho. Ta½het³ti ahetumah±bh³tahetupaµisedho. Tappaccay±ti appaccayena saddhi½ as±dh±raºapaccayapaµisedho Ta½nid±n±ti anid±nena saha ±gam±dhigamanid±napaµisedho”ti evameke vaººayanti. Eta½ ±d²nava½ sampassam±noti eta½ vuttappak±ra½ upaddava½ vipassan±ñ±ºena samm± passam±no dakkham±no.
Sad±ti m³lapada½. Puna sad±ti atthapada½. Sad±ti sabbadivase. Sabbad±ti sabbasmi½ k±le. Sabbak±lanti pubbaºh±disabbak±la½. Niccak±lanti divase divase. Dhuvak±lanti abbocchinnak±la½. Satatanti nirantara½. Samitanti ek²bh³ta½. Abbokiººanti aññena asammissa½. Poªkh±nupoªkhanti paµip±µiy± ghaµita½ “poªkh±nupoªkha½ avir±dhita½ upaµµh±t²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 5.1115) viya. Udak³mikaj±tanti nibbatta-udaka-³mitaraªga½ viya. Av²c²ti avira¼a½. Santat²ti anupacchinna½. Sahitanti ghaµita½ ek²bh³ta½ v± “sahita½ me, asahita½ te”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.202) viya. Phassitanti phusita½ “niv±te phusitaggale”ti-±d²su viya. Purebhatta½ pacch±bhattanti dve pad±ni div±k±lavibh±gavasena. Purima½ y±ma½ majjhima½ y±ma½ pacchima½ y±manti t²ºi rattivibh±gavasena. K±¼e juºheti a¹¹ham±savasena. Vasse…pe… gimheti t²ºi utuvasena. Purime vayokhandhe…pe… pacchime vayokhandheti t²ºi vayovibh±gavasena vutt±n²ti ñ±tabba½.