Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samm±sambuddhassa.

Khuddakanik±ye

Mah±niddesa-aµµhakath±

Ganth±rambhakath±

Avijj±laªgi½ gh±tento, nandir±gañca m³lato;
bh±ventaµµhaªgika½ magga½, phusi yo amata½ pada½.
P±puºitv± jino bodhi½, migad±ya½ vig±hiya;
dhammacakka½ pavattetv±, thera½ koº¹aññam±dito.
Aµµh±rasanna½ koµ²na½, bodhesi t±paso tahi½;
vandeha½ siras± tañca, sabbasatt±namuttama½.
Tath± dhammuttamañceva, saªghañc±pi anuttara½;
sa½khittena hi yo vutta½, dhammacakka½ vibh±gaso.
S±riputto mah±pañño, satthukappo jinatrajo;
dhammacakka½ vibh±jetv±, mah±niddesamabravi;
p±µho visiµµho niddeso, ta½n±mavisesito ca.
Ta½ s±riputta½ jinar±japutta½, thera½ thir±nekaguº±dhiv±sa½;
paññ±pabh±vuggatac±rukitti½, sun²cavuttiñca atho namitv±.
Kham±day±diyuttena yuttamutt±div±din±;
bahussutena therena, devena abhiy±cito.
Mah±vih±rav±s²na½ sajjh±yamhi patiµµhito;
gahetabba½ gahetv±na, por±ºesu vinicchaya½.
Avokkamento samaya½ sakañca, an±masanto samaya½ parañca;
pubbopadesaµµhakath±nayañca, yath±nur³pa½ upasa½haranto.
ѱºappabhed±vahanassa tassa, yog²hi nekehi nisevitassa;
attha½ apubba½ anuvaººayanto, suttañca yuttiñca anukkamento.
¾rabhissa½ sam±sena, mah±niddesavaººana½;
saddhammabahum±nena, n±ttukka½sanakamyat±.
Vakkh±maha½ aµµhakatha½ janassa, hit±ya saddhammaciraµµhitattha½;
sakkacca saddhammapajotika½ ta½, suº±tha dh±retha ca s±dhu santoti.
Tattha “p±µho visiµµho niddeso, ta½n±mavisesito c±”ti vuttatt± duvidho p±µho– byañjanap±µho, atthap±µho ca. Tesu byañjanap±µho akkharapadabyañjana-±k±raniruttiniddesavasena chabbidho. Atthap±µho saªk±sanapak±sanavivaraºavibhajana-utt±n²karaºapaññattivasena chabbidho. Tattha t²su dv±resu parisuddhapayogabh±vena visuddhakaruº±na½ cittena pavattitadesan± v±c±hi akathitatt± adesitatt± akkharamiti saññit±, ta½ p±r±yanikabr±hmaº±na½ manas± pucchitapañh±na½ vasena bhagavat± ratanaghare nis²ditv± sammasitapaµµh±namah±pakaraºavasena ca akkhara½ n±m±ti gahetabba½.
Atha v± aparipuººa½ pada½ akkharamiti gahetabba½ “saµµhivassasahass±n²”ti evam±d²su (pe va. 802; j±. 1.4.54; netti. 120) viya. Ettha hi sak±ra nak±ra sok±r±d²ni akkharamiti, ekakkhara½ v± pada½ akkharamiti eke. “Y±ya½ taºh± ponobhavik±”ti evam±d²su (mah±va. 14; vibha. 203; ma. ni. 3.374; paµi. ma. 2.30) vibhatyanta½ atthajotaka½ akkharapiº¹a½ pada½. “N±mañca r³pañc±”ti evam±d²su (dha. sa. dukam±tik± 109; su. ni. 878; mah±ni. 107; c³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch±niddeso 6; netti. 45) bahu-akkharehi yutta½ pada½ n±ma. Sa½khittena vutta½ pada½ vibh±veti. Padena abhihita½ byañjayati byatta½ p±kaµa½ karot²ti byañjana½, v±kyameva. “Catt±ro iddhip±d±”ti saªkhepena kathitamattha½. “Katame catt±ro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu chandasam±dhipadh±nasaªkh±rasamann±gata½ iddhip±da½ bh±veti. V²riyacittav²ma½sasam±dhipadh±nasaªkh±rasamann±gata½ iddhip±da½ bh±vet²”ti-±d²su (vibha. 431; sa½. ni. 5.813; d². ni. 3.306; a. ni. 4.276) p±kaµakaraºabh±vena byañjana½ n±ma. Byañjanavibh±gapak±so ±k±ro. “Tattha katamo chando? Yo chando chandikat± kattukamyat±”ti evam±d²su (vibha. 433) kathitabyañjana½ anekavidhena vibh±gakaraºa½ ±k±ro n±ma. ¾k±r±bhihitassa nibbacana½ nirutti. “Phasso, vedan±”ti evam±d²su (dha. sa. 1) ±k±rena kathita½ “phusat²ti phasso. Vediyat²ti vedan±”ti n²haritv± vacana½ nirutti n±ma. Nibbacanavitth±ro nissesato desoti niddeso, vediyat²ti vedan±ti nibbacanaladdhapada½ “sukh± dukkh± adukkhamasukh±, sukhayat²ti sukh±, dukkhayat²ti dukkh±, neva dukkhayati na sukhayat²ti adukkhamasukh±”ti atthavitth±ro niravasesena kathitatt± niddeso n±ma.
Eva½ chabbidh±ni byañjanapad±ni j±nitv± ca chasu atthapadesu saªkhepato k±san± d²pan± saªk±san±, “maññam±no kho, bhikkhu, bandho m±rassa amaññam±no mutto p±pimato”ti evam±d²su saªkhepena atthad²pan± saªk±san± n±ma. Eso pana thero “buddhena bhagavat± eva½ saªkhepa½ katv± vuttamattha½ ‘aññ±ta½ bhagav±, aññ±ta½ sugat±”’ti kathetu½ samattho paµivijjhi.
Upari vattabbamattha½ ±dito k±san± d²pan± pak±san±, “sabba½, bhikkhave, ±dittan”ti evam±d²su (mah±va. 54; sa½. ni. 4.28) pacch± kathitabbamattha½ paµhamavacanena d²pan± pak±san± n±ma. Eva½ paµhama½ d²pita½ attha½ puna p±kaµa½ katv± d²panena “kiñca, bhikkhave, sabba½ ±ditta½? Cakkhu½, bhikkhave, ±ditta½, r³p± ±ditt±”ti evam±d²su (mah±va. 54; sa½. ni. 4.28) kathitesu “tikkhindriyo saªkhepena vutta½ paµivijjhat²”ti kathitatt± dve atthapad±ni tikkhindriyassa upak±ravasena vutt±ni.
Sa½khittassa vitth±r±bhidh±na½ saki½ vuttassa ca punapi abhidh±na½ vivaraºa½, “kusal± dhamm±”ti (dha. sa. 1) saªkhepena nikkhittassa. “Katame dhamm± kusal±? Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hot²”ti (dha. sa. 1) niddesavasena vitth±raºa½ vitth±ravasena puna kathana½ vivaraºa½ n±ma.
Ta½ vibh±gakaraºa½ vibhajana½, “yasmi½ samaye”ti (dha. sa. 1) vivarite kusale dhamme “tasmi½ samaye phasso hoti, vedan± hot²”ti (dha. sa. 1) vibh±gakaraºa½ vibhajana½ n±ma. Vivarassa vitth±r±bhidh±nena vibhattassa ca upam±bhidh±nena paµip±dana½ utt±n²karaºa½, vivaraºena vivaritatthassa “katamo tasmi½ samaye phasso hoti? Yo tasmi½ samaye phasso phusan± samphusan±”ti (dha. sa. 2) ativivaritv± kathanañca vibhajanena vibhattassa “seyyath±pi, bhikkhave, g±v² niccamm±, evameva khv±ha½, bhikkhave, phass±h±ro daµµhabboti vad±m²”ti (sa½. ni. 2.63) evam±di-upam±kathanañca utt±n²karaºa½ n±ma. Dhamma½ suºant±na½ dhammadesanena cittassa anekavidhena somanassa-upp±danañca atikhiºabuddh²na½ anekavidhena ñ±ºassa tikhiºabh±vakaraºañca paññatti n±ma, tesa½ suºant±na½ ta½cittatosanena ta½cittanis±manena ca paññ±yat²ti paññatti. Tattha bhagav± akkharehi saªk±sayati, padehi pak±sayati, byañjanehi vivarati, ±k±rehi vibhajati, nirutt²hi utt±n²karoti, niddesehi paññ±payat²ti. Ki½ vutta½ hoti? Buddh± bhagavanto ekacce veneyye ekasmi½ desane akkharehi atthasaªk±sana½ karonti…pe… niddesehi atthapaññ±pana½ karont²ti ayamettha adhipp±yo.
Atha v± akkharehi saªk±sayitv± padehi pak±sayati, byañjanehi vivaritv± ±k±rehi vibhajati, nirutt²hi utt±n²katv± niddesehi paññ±payati Ki½ vutta½ hoti? Evar³pena dhammadesanena ekaccesu µh±nesu ekacc±na½ veneyy±na½ vinayat²ti.
Atha v± akkharehi uggh±µayitv± padehi pak±sento vinayati ugghaµitaññu½, byañjanehi vivaritv± ±k±rehi vibhajanto vinayati vipañcitaññu½, nirutt²hi utt±n²katv± niddesehi paññ±pento vinayati neyya½. Iti veneyyavasenapi yojetabbameva.
Atthato panettha katamo byañjanap±µho, katamo atthap±µhoti? Buddh±na½ bhagavant±na½ dhamma½ desent±na½ yo atth±vagamako saviññattikasaddo, so byañjanap±µho Yo tena abhisametabbo lakkhaºaras±disahito dhammo, so atthap±µhoti veditabbo. Punapi sandh±yabh±sito byañjanabh±sito s±vasesap±µho anavasesap±µho n²to neyyoti chabbidho p±µho. Tattha anekatthavatt± sandh±yabh±sito “m±tara½ pitara½ hantv±, r±j±no dve ca khattiye”ti evam±di (dha. pa. 294). Ekatthavatt± byañjanabh±sito ‘manopubbaªgam± dhamm±”ti evam±di (dha. pa. 1.2; netti. 89, 92; peµako. 14). S±vaseso “sabba½, bhikkhave, ±dittan”ti evam±di (mah±va. 54; sa½. ni. 4.28). Vipar²to anavaseso “sabbe dhamm± sabb±k±rena buddhassa bhagavato ñ±ºamukhe ±p±tha½ ±gacchant²”ti evam±di (mah±ni. 156; c³¼ani. moghar±jam±ºavapucch±niddeso 85; paµi. ma. 3.5). Yath± vacana½, tath± avagantabbo n²to “anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±”ti evam±di. Yuttiy± anussaritabbo neyyo “ekapuggalo bhikkhave”ti evam±di (a. ni. 1.170).
Attho pana anekappak±ro p±µhattho sabh±vattho ñ±yattho p±µh±nur³po nap±µh±nur³po s±vasesattho niravasesattho n²tattho neyyattho icc±di. Tattha yo appassatthassa ñ±panatthamucc±riyate, so p±µhattho “s±ttha½ sabyañjanan”ti-±d²su (p±r±. 1; d². ni. 1.190) viya. R³p±r³padhamm±na½ lakkhaºaras±disabh±vattho “samm±diµµhi½ bh±vet²”ti-±d²su (vibha. 485; sa½. ni. 5.3) viya. Yo ñ±yam±no hit±ya sa½vattati, so ñ±tu½ arahat²ti ñ±yattho– “atthav±d² dhammav±d²”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.9, 194; 3.238; ma. ni. 1.411) viya. Yath±p±µha½ bh±sito p±µh±nur³po “cakkhu bhikkhave, pur±ºakamman”ti (sa½. ni. 4.146) bhagavat± vutta½. Tasm± cakkhumapi kammanti. Byañjanacch±y±ya attha½ paµib±hayam±nena vutto attho nap±µh±nur³po, so p±µhato ananuññ±to akatapaµikkhepo viyutto. So ca saªgahetabbampi asaªgahetv±, parivajjetabbampi v± kiñci aparivajjetv± parisesa½ katv± vutto s±vasesattho “cakkhuñca paµicca r³pe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññ±ºa½ (sa½. ni. 4.60; mah±ni. 107). Sabbe tasanti daº¹assa, sabbe bh±yanti maccuno”ti-±d²su (dha. pa. 129) viya. Vipar²to niravasesattho “sandh±vita½ sa½sarita½ mamañceva tumh±kañca (d². ni. 2.155; mah±va. 287; netti. 114). Tatra, bhikkhave, ko mant± ko saddh±t±…pe… aññatra diµµhapadeh²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 7.66) viya. Saddavaseneva veditabbo n²tattho “r³p± sadd± ras± gandh±, phoµµhabb± ca manoram±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.151, 165; mah±va. 33) viya. Sammutivasena veditabbo neyyattho “catt±rome, bhikkhave, val±hak³pam± puggal±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 4.101-102) viya. Evamidha p±µhañca atthañca vivaritv± µhito asa½h²ro bhavati parav±d²hi d²gharatta½ titthav±sena.
Iti asa½h²rabh±vena y±va ±gam±dhigamasampada½, t±va vattu½ sakkoti. Saªkhepavitth±ranayena hetud±haraº±d²hi avabodhayitu½ samattho. Eva½vidho att±nañca parañca sodhetu½ samatthabh±vena duss²lyadiµµhimalavirahitatt± suci. Duss²lo hi att±na½ upahanati, tena n±deyyav±co ca bhavati sabyoh±ram±no idha nicc±turo vejjova. Duddiµµhi para½ upahanati, n±vassayo ca bhavati v±¼agah±kulo iva kamalasaº¹o. Ubhayavipanno pana sabbath±pi anup±san²yo bhavati g³thagatamiva chav±l±ta½ g³thagato viya ca kaºhasappo. Ubhayasampanno pana sabbath±pi up±san²yo sevitabbo ca viññ³hi, nirupaddavo iva ratan±karo, eva½ bh³to eva½ amaccharo ah²n±cariyamuµµhi. Suttasutt±nuloma-±cariyav±da-attanomatisaªkh±t±nañca catunna½ aparicc±g², tesa½ vasena by±khy±to.
“Eka½savacana½ eka½, vibhajjavacana½ pada½;
tatiya½ paµipuccheyya, catuttha½ pana µh±paye”ti.
Etesa½ v± aparicc±g². Tato eva sot³na½ hite niyuttatt± nesa½ avabodhana½ pati akil±su bhavat²ti. ¾ha cettha–
“P±µhatthavidasa½h²ro, vatt± suci amaccharo;
catunna½ aparicc±g², desakassa hit±nvito”ti.
Ettha desakass±ti desako assa, bhaveyy±ti attho. Hit±nvitoti hite anugato hitacitto. So eso sucitt± piyo, catunna½ aparicc±gitt± garu, asa½h²ratt± bh±van²yo, desakatt± vatt±, hit±nvitatt± vacanakkhamo, p±µhatthavidatt± gambh²rakatha½ katt±, amaccharatt± na c±µµh±ne niyojako iti–
“Piyo garu bh±van²yo, vatt± ca vacanakkhamo;
gambh²rañca katha½ katt±, no c±µµh±ne niyojako”ti. (A. ni. 7.37; netti. 113).
“Abhihito desako so, t±va d±ni abhidh²yate”.
Tattha dhammagarutt± katha½ na paribhavati, ±cariyagarutt± kathika½ na paribhavati, saddh±paññ±diguºapaµimaº¹itatt± att±na½ na paribhavati, asaµh±m±y±vitt± amat±bhimukhatt± ca avikkhittacitto bhavati, sumedhatt± yoniso manasi karot²ti. Vuttañheta½–
“Pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samann±gato suºanto saddhamma½ bhabbo niy±ma½ okkamitu½ kusalesu dhammesu sammatta½. Katamehi pañcahi? Na katha½ paribhoti, na kathika½ paribhoti, na att±na½ paribhoti, avikkhittacitto dhamma½ suº±ti ekaggacitto, yoniso manasi karot²”ti (a. ni. 5.151).
Ta½lakkhaºappattatt± bh±vana½ bhajat²ti. ¾ha cettha–
“Dhamm±cariyagaru saddh±paññ±diguºamaº¹ito;
asaµh±m±y±vikassa, sumedho amat±bhimukho”.–

Iti vatt± ca sot± ca.

Eva½ vuttappak±ra½ byañjanañca atthañca dassetv± id±ni yo ati-agga½ katv± kathitatt± mah±samuddamah±pathav² viya mah± ca so niddeso c±ti mah±niddeso, ta½ mah±niddesa½ vaººayiss±mi.
Tadeta½ mah±niddesa½ atthasampanna½ byañjanasampanna½ gambh²ra½ gambh²rattha½ lokuttarappak±saka½ suññatappaµisa½yutta½ paµipattimaggaphalavisesas±dhana½ paµipattipaµipakkhapaµisedhana½ yog±vacar±na½ ñ±ºavararatan±karabh³ta½ dhammakathik±na½ dhammakath±vil±savisesahetubh³ta½ sa½s±rabh²ruk±na½ dukkhanissaraºatadup±yadassanena ass±sajananattha½ tappaµipakkhan±sanatthañca gambh²ratth±nañca anekesa½ suttantapad±na½ atthavivaraºena sujanahadayaparitosajananattha½, tath±gatena arahat± samm±sambuddhena sabbattha appaµihatasabbaññutaññ±ºamah±d²pobh±sena sakalajanavitthatamah±karuº±sinehena veneyyajanahadayagatakilesandhak±ravidhamanattha½ samujjalitassa saddhammamah±pad²passa tadadhipp±yavik±sanasinehaparisekena pañcavassasahassamaticirasamujjalanamicchat± lok±nukampakena satthukappena dhammar±jassa dhammasen±patin± ±yasmat± s±riputtattherena bh±sita½ sutv± ±yasm± ±nando paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le yath±sutameva saªgaha½ ±ropesi.
So panesa vinayapiµaka½ suttantapiµaka½ abhidhammapiµakanti t²su piµakesu suttantapiµakapariy±panno, d²ghanik±yo majjhimanik±yo sa½yuttanik±yo aªguttaranik±yo khuddakanik±yoti pañcasu mah±nik±yesu khuddakamah±nik±yapariy±panno, sutta½ geyya½ veyy±karaºa½ g±th± ud±na½ itivuttaka½ j±taka½ abbhutadhamma½ vedallanti navasu satthus±sanaªgesu yath±sambhava½ g±thaªgaveyy±karaºaªgadvayasaªgahito.
“Dv±s²ti buddhato gaºhi½, dvesahass±ni bhikkhuto;
catur±s²ti sahass±ni, ye me dhamm± pavattino”ti. (Therag±. 1027)–

Dhammabhaº¹±g±rikattherena pañcasu µh±nesu etadagga½ ±ropitena paµiññ±t±na½ catur±s²tiy± dhammakkhandhasahass±na½ bhikkhuto gahitesu dv²su dhammakkhandhasahassesu anekasatadhammakkhandhasaªgahito. Tassa dve vagg± aµµhakavaggo p±r±yanavaggo khaggavis±ºasuttañca, ekekasmi½ vagge so¼asa so¼asa katv± khaggavis±ºasuttañc±ti tetti½sa sutt±ni k±masutt±dikhaggavis±ºasuttapariyos±n±ni Eva½ anekadh± vavatth±pitassa imassa mah±niddesassa anupubbapadatthavaººana½ kariss±mi. Ayañhi mah±niddeso p±µhato atthato ca uddisantena niddisantena ca sakkacca½ uddisitabbo niddisitabbo ca, uggaºhanten±pi sakkacca½ uggaºhitabbo dh±retabbo ca. Ta½ kissa hetu? Gambh²ratt± imassa mah±niddesassa lokahit±ya loke ciraµµhitatthanti.