12. Dv±dasakanip±to

1. S²lavattherag±th±vaŗŗan±

Dv±dasakanip±te s²lamev±ti-±dik± ±yasmato s²lavattherassa g±th±. K± uppatti? Ayampi purimabuddhesu kat±dhik±ro tattha tattha bhave vivaµµ³panissaya½ kusala½ upacinitv± imasmi½ buddhupp±de r±jagahe bimbis±rarańńo putto hutv± nibbatti, s²lav±tissa n±ma½ ahosi. Ta½ vayappatta½ r±j± aj±tasattu m±retuk±mo caŗ¹a½ mattahatthi½ ±ropetv± n±n±vidhehi up±yehi upakkamantopi m±retu½ n±sakkhi pacchimabhavikassa arahatta½ appatv± antar± j²vitantar±y±bh±vato. Tassa pavatti½ disv± bhagav± mah±moggall±natthera½ ±ŗ±pesi– “s²lavakum±ra½ ±neh²”ti. Thero iddhibalena saddhi½ hatthin± ta½ ±nesi. Kum±ro hatthito oruyha bhagavanta½ abhiv±detv± ekamanta½ nis²di. Bhagav± tassa ajjh±say±nur³pa½ dhamma½ desesi. So dhamma½ sutv± paµiladdhasaddho pabbajitv± vipassan±ya kamma½ karonto nacirasseva arahatta½ patv± kosalaraµµhe vasati. Atha na½ aj±tasattu “m±reth±”ti purise ±ŗ±pesi. Te therassa santika½ gantv± µhit± therena kathita½ dhammakatha½ sutv± sańj±tasa½veg± pasannacitt± hutv± pabbaji½su. Thero tesa½–
608. “S²lamevidha sikkhetha, asmi½ loke susikkhita½;
s²lańhi sabbasampatti½, upan±meti sevita½.
609. “S²la½ rakkheyya medh±v², patthay±no tayo sukhe;
pasa½sa½ vittil±bhańca, pecca sagge pamodana½.
610. “S²lav± hi bah³ mitte, sańńamen±dhigacchati;
duss²lo pana mittehi, dha½sate p±pam±cara½.
611. “Avaŗŗańca akittińca, duss²lo labhate naro;
vaŗŗa½ kitti½ pasa½sańca, sad± labhati s²lav±.
612. “¾di s²la½ patiµµh± ca, kaly±ŗ±nańca m±tuka½;
pamukha½ sabbadhamm±na½, tasm± s²la½ visodhaye.
613. “Vel± ca sa½vara½ s²la½, cittassa abhih±sana½;
titthańca sabbabuddh±na½, tasm± s²la½ visodhaye.
614. “S²la½ bala½ appaµima½, s²la½ ±vudhamuttama½;
s²lam±bharaŗa½ seµµha½, s²la½ kavacamabbhuta½.
615. “S²la½ setu mahesakkho, s²la½ gandho anuttaro;
s²la½ vilepana½ seµµha½, yena v±ti disodisa½.
616. “S²la½ sambalamevagga½, s²la½ p±theyyamuttama½;
s²la½ seµµho ativ±ho, yena y±ti disodisa½.
617. “Idheva ninda½ labhati, pecc±p±ye ca dummano;
sabbattha dummano b±lo, s²lesu asam±hito.
618. “Idheva kitti½ labhati, pecca sagge ca summano;
sabbattha sumano dh²ro, s²lesu susam±hito.
619. “S²lameva idha agga½, pańńav± pana uttamo;
manussesu ca devesu, s²lapańń±ŗato jayan”ti.–

Im±hi g±th±hi dhamma½ desesi.

Tattha s²lamevidha sikkhetha, asmi½ loketi idh±ti, nip±tamatta½, imasmi½ sattaloke atthak±mo kulaputto c±rittav±ritt±dibheda½ ±dito s²lameva sikkheyya, sikkhanto ca na½ susikkhita½ akhaŗ¹±dibh±v±p±danena suµµhu sikkhita½ suparisuddha½ paripuŗŗańca katv± sikkheyya. Asmi½ loketi v± imasmi½ saŖkh±raloke sikkhitabbadhammesu s²la½ ±dito sikkheyya. Diµµhisampattiy±pi s²lassa patiµµh±bh±vato ±ha “s²la½ h²”ti-±di. Tattha ti k±raŗavacana½. Yasm± s²la½ sevita½ paricita½ rakkhita½ manussasampatti, dibbasampatti, nibb±nasampatt²ti eta½ sabbasampatti½ ta½samaŖgino sattassa upan±meti ±vahati.
S²la½ sabbasampatti½ upan±met²ti saŖkhepato vuttamattha½ vitth±rato dassento “s²la½ rakkheyy±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha rakkheyy±ti gopeyya. P±ŗ±tip±t±dito hi viramanto vattapaµivattańca p³rento paµipakkh±bhibhavanato ta½ rakkhati n±ma. Medh±v²ti pańńav±, ida½ tassa rakkhanup±yadassana½ ń±ŗabalena hissa sam±d±na½ avikopanańca hoti. Patthay±noti icchanto. Tayo sukheti t²ŗi sukh±ni. Sukhanimitta½ v± “sukhan”ti adhippeta½. Pasa½santi kitti½, vińń³hi v± pasa½sana½. Vittil±bhanti tuµµhil±bha½. “Vittal±bhan”ti ca paµhanti, dhanal±bhanti attho. S²lav± hi appamattat±ya mahanta½ bhogakkhandha½ adhigacchati. Pecc±ti k±laŖkatv±. Sagge pamodananti devaloke iµµhehi k±maguŗehi, modanańca patthayam±noti sambandho. Idhaloke pasa½sa½ vittil±bha½ paraloke dibbasampattiy± modanańca icchanto s²la½ rakkheyy±ti yojan±.
Sańńamen±ti k±y±d²na½ sa½yamena. Sa½yato hi k±yaduccarit±d²hi kańci aviheµhento abhayad±na½ dadanto piyaman±pat±ya mitt±ni ganthati. Dha½sateti apeti. P±pam±caranti p±ŗ±tip±t±dip±pakamma½ karonto. Duss²lańhi puggala½ atthak±m± satt± na bhajanti, ańńadatthu parivajjenti.
Avaŗŗanti aguŗa½, sammukh± garaha½ v±. Akittinti, ayasa½ asiloka½. Vaŗŗanti guŗa½. Kittinti siloka½ patthaµayasata½. Pasa½santi sammukh± thomana½.
¾d²ti m³la½. S²lańhi kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ ±di. Yath±ha– “tasm±tiha tva½, bhikkhu, ±dimeva visodhehi kusalesu dhammesu. Ko c±di kusal±na½ dhamm±na½? S²lańca suvisuddhan”ti (sa½. ni. 5.369). Patiµµh±ti adhiµµh±na½. S²lańhi sabbesa½ uttarimanussadhamm±na½ patiµµh±. Ten±ha– “s²le patiµµh±y±”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 1.23; 192; peµako. 22; mi. pa. 2.1.9). Kaly±ŗ±nańca m±tukanti samathavipassan±d²na½ kaly±ŗadhamm±na½ m±tubh³ta½ janakanti, attho. Pamukha½ sabbadhamm±nanti, sabbesa½ p±mojj±d²na½ anavajjadhamm±na½ pamukha½ mukhabh³ta½, pavattidv±ranti attho. Tasm±ti ±dibh±v±dito. Visodhayeti akkhaŗ¹±dibh±vena samp±deyya.
Vel±ti duccaritehi anatikkaman²yaµµhena vel±, s²m±ti attho Vel±yati v± dussilya½ calayati viddha½set²ti vel±. Sa½vara½ s²la½ k±yaduccarit±d²na½ uppattidv±rassa pidahanato. Abhih±sananti tosana½ avippaµis±rahetut±ya cittass±bhippamodanato. Titthańca sabbabuddh±nanti s±vakabuddh±, paccekabuddh±, samm±sambuddh±ti sabbesa½ buddh±na½ kilesamalappav±hane nibb±namah±samudd±vag±haŗe ca titthabh³tańca.
S²la½ bala½ appaµimanti m±rasenappamaddane asadisa½ bala½ sen±th±mo ca. ¾vudhamuttamanti sa½kilesadhamm±na½ chedane uttama½ paharaŗa½. Guŗasar²ropasobhanaµµhena ±bharaŗa½. Seµµhanti sabbak±la½ uttama½ dabbańca. Sap±ŗaparitt±nato kavacamabbhuta½. “Abbhidan”ti ca paµhanti, abhejjanti attho.
Ap±yamahogh±tikkamane sa½s±ramahogh±tikkamane ca kilesehi asa½s²danaµµhena setu. Mahesakkhoti mahabbalo. Gandho anuttaroti paµiv±ta½ sabbadis±su v±yanato anuttaro gandho sabbajanamanoharatt±. Ten±ha “yena v±ti disodisan”ti yena s²lagandhena ta½samaŖg² disodisa½ sabb± dis± v±yati. “Disodis±”tipi p±¼i, dasa dis±ti attho.
Sambalamevagganti sambala½ n±ma puµabhatta½. Yath± puµabhatta½ gahetv± magga½ gacchanto puriso antar±magge jighacch±dukkhena na kilamati, eva½ s²lasampannopi suddha½ s²lasambala½ gahetv± sa½s±rakant±ra½ paµipanno gatagataµµh±ne na kilamat²ti s²la½ agga½ sambala½ n±ma. Tath± s²la½ p±theyyamuttama½ cor±d²hi as±dh±raŗatt± tattha tattha icchitabbasampattinipph±danato ca. Atikk±mento ta½ ta½ µh±na½ yathicchitaµµh±na½ v± v±heti samp±pet²ti ativ±ho, y±na½. Kenaci anupadduta½ hutv± icchitaµµh±nappattihetut±ya s²la½ seµµha½ ativ±ho. Yen±ti yena ativ±hena y±ti disodisanti agati½ gatińc±pi ta½ ta½ disa½ sukheneva gacchati.
Idheva ninda½ labhat²ti idhalokepi dummano r±g±d²hi d³sitacitto “duss²lo p±padhammo”ti ninda½ garaha½ labhati. Pecca paralokepi ap±ye “purisattakali avaj±t±”ti-±din± yamapuris±d²hi ca ninda½ labhati. Na kevala½ nindameva labhati, atha kho sabbattha dummano b±lo idhaloke duccaritacaraŗena d³sitacitto paraloke kammak±raŗ±divasena dukkhuppattiy±ti sabbattha b±lo dummano hoti. Katha½? S²lesu asam±hito samm± s²lesu na µhapitacitto appatiµµhitacitto.
Idheva kitti½ labhat²ti idhalokepi sumano “sappuriso s²lav± kaly±ŗadhammo”ti kitti½ labhati. Pecca paralokepi sagge “aya½ sappuriso s²lav± kaly±ŗadhammo. Tath± hi dev±na½ sahabyata½ upapanno”ti-±din± kitti½ labhati. Na kevala½ kittimeva labhati, atha kho dh²ro dhitisampanno s²lesu suµµhu sam±hito appitacitto supatiµµhitacitto sabbattha idhaloke sucaritacaraŗena, paraloke sampattipaµil±bhena sumano somanassappatto hoti. S²lameva idha agganti duvidha½ s²la½ lokiya½ lokuttaranti. Tattha lokiya½ t±va k±maloke khattiyamah±s±l±d²su, devaloke brahmaloke ca upapattivisesa½ ±vahati, l±bh²bh±v±dikassa ca k±raŗa½ hoti. Lokuttara½ pana sakalampi vaµµadukkha½ atikk±met²ti s²la½ aggameva. Tath± hi vutta½–
“H²nena brahmacariyena, khattiye upapajjati;
majjhimena ca devatta½, uttamena visujjhat²”ti. (J±. 1.8.75).
¾kaŖkheyya ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu– “l±bh² assa½ c²varapiŗ¹ap±tasen±sanagil±napaccayabhesajjaparikkh±r±nan”ti (ma. ni. 1.65), “s²lesvevassa parip³rak±r²”ti (ma. ni. 1.65), “ijjhati, bhikkhave, s²lavato cetopaŗidhi visuddhatt±”ti (a. ni. 8.35; d². ni. 3.337) ca.
Lokuttaras²lassa pana sabbaso pah²napaµipakkhassa sattamabhavato paµµh±ya sa½s±radukkha½ vinivattentassa aggabh±ve vattabbameva natthi. Pańńav± pana uttamoti “pańńav± pana puggalo uttamo paramo seµµhoyev±”ti puggal±dhiµµh±nena pańń±ya eva seµµhabh±va½ vadati. Id±ni s²lapańń±na½ seµµhabh±va½ kiccato dassento “s²lapańń±ŗato jayan”ti ±ha. Jayanti ca liŖgavipall±so daµµhabbo, ah³ti v± vacanaseso. Tattha paj±nanaµµhena pańń±ŗa½, s²lato pańń±ŗato ca paµipakkhajayo. Na hi s²lena vin± pańń± sambhavati, pańń±ya ca vin± s²la½ kiccakara½, ańńamańńopak±rakańceta½. Vuttańhi “s²laparidhot± pańń±, pańń±paridhota½ s²lan”ti (d². ni. 1.317) manussesu ca deves³ti ida½ nesa½ µh±navisesadassana½. Tattha hi t±ni savises±ni vattanti, sam±dhi panettha s²lapakkhiko pańń±ya adhiµµh±nabh±vato, pańń±pakkhiko v± bh±vetabbato s²l±dhiµµh±nato ca.
Eva½ thero tesa½ bhikkh³na½ s²lamukhena dhamma½ desento attano suvisuddhas²l±diguŗat±d²panena ańńa½ by±k±si.

S²lavattherag±th±vaŗŗan± niµµhit±.