Tath± hi buddh± bhagavanto paccekabuddh± aggas±vak± mah±s±vak± cakkavattino aññe ca mah±nubh±v± satt± ettheva uppajjanti. Tehi sam±nar³p±dit±ya pana saddhi½ parittad²pav±s²hi itaramah±d²pav±sinopi “manuss±”tveva paññ±yi½s³ti eke.
Apare pana bhaºanti– lobh±d²hi alobh±d²hi ca sahitassa manassa ussannat±ya manuss±. Ye hi satt± manussaj±tik±, tesu visesato lobh±dayo alobh±dayo ca ussann±, te lobh±di-ussannat±ya ap±yamagga½, alobh±di-ussannat±ya sugatimagga½ nibb±nag±mimaggañca p³renti, tasm± lobh±d²hi alobh±d²hi ca sahitassa manassa ussannat±ya parittad²pav±s²hi saddhi½ catumah±d²pav±sino sattavises± “manuss±”ti vuccant²ti.
Lokiy± pana “manuno apaccabh±vena manuss±”ti vadanti. Manu n±ma paµhamakappiko lokamariy±d±ya ±dibh³to hit±hitavidh±yako satt±na½ pituµµh±niyo, yo s±sane “mah±sammato”ti vuccati. Paccakkhato parampar±ya ca tassa ov±d±nus±saniya½ µhit± satt± puttasadisat±ya “manuss±”ti vuccanti. Tato eva hi te m±ºav± “manuj±”ti ca vohar²yanti. Manussesu bh³t± j±t±, manussabh±va½ v± patt±ti manussabh³t±.
Kimak±si puññanti ki½ d±nas²l±dippabhedesu k²disa½ pujjabh±vaphalanibbattanato, yattha saya½ uppanna½, ta½ sant±na½ pun±ti visodhet²ti ca “puññan”ti laddhan±ma½ sucarita½ kusalakamma½ ak±si, upacini nibbattes²ti attho. Jalit±nubh±v±ti sabbaso vijjotam±napuññiddhik±.
Kasm± panettha “manussabh³t± kimak±si puññan”ti vutta½, ki½ aññ±su gat²su puññakiriy± natth²ti? No natthi. Yasm± nirayepi n±ma k±m±vacarakusalacittapavatti kad±ci labbhateva, kimaªga½ panaññattha, nanu avocumh± “diµµhasa½sandan± pucch±”ti. Tasm± mah±thero manussattabh±ve µhatv± puññakamma½ katv± uppanna½ ta½ disv± bh³tatthavasena pucchanto “manussabh³t± kimak±si puññan”ti avoca.
Atha v± aññ±su gat²su ekantasukhat±ya ekantadukkhat±ya dukkhabahulat±ya ca puññakiriy±ya ok±so na sulabhar³po sappuris³panissay±dipaccayasamav±yassa sudullabhabh±vato. Kad±ci uppajjam±nopi yath±vuttak±raºena u¼±ro vipulo na ca hoti, manussagatiya½ pana sukhabahulat±ya puññakiriy±ya ok±so sulabhar³po sappuris³panissay±dipaccayasamav±yassa yebhuyyena sulabhabh±vato. Yañca tattha dukkha½ uppajjati, tampi visesato puññakiriy±ya upanissayo hoti. Dukkh³panissay± hi saddh±ti. Yath± hi ayoghanena satthake nipph±diyam±ne tassa ekantato na aggimhi t±pana½ udakena v± temana½ chedanakiriy±samatthat±ya visesapaccayo, t±petv± pana pam±ºayogato udakatemana½ tass± visesapaccayo, evameva sattasant±nassa ekantadukkhasamaªgit± dukkhabahulat± ekantasukhasamaªgit± ca puññakiriy±ya na visesapaccayo hoti. Sati pana dukkhasant±pane pam±ºayogato sukh³pabr³hane ca laddh³panissay± puññakiriy± uppajjati, uppajjam±n± ca mah±jutik± mah±vipph±r± paµipakkhachedanasamatth± ca hoti, tasm± manussabh±vo puññakiriy±ya visesapaccayo Tena vutta½ “manussabh³t± kimak±si puññan”ti. Sesa½ suviññeyyameva.
4. Eva½ pana therena pucchit± s± devat± pañha½ vissajjesi. Tamattha½ dassetu½ “s± devat± attaman±”ti g±th± vutt±. Kena pan±ya½ g±th± vutt±? Dhammasaªg±hakehi. Tattha ti y± pubbe “pucch±mi ta½ devi mah±nubh±ve”ti vutt±, s±. Devat±ti devaputtopi brahm±pi devadh²t±pi vuccati. “Atha kho aññatar± devat± abhikkant±ya rattiy± abhikkantavaºº±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.1; khu. p±. 5.1) hi devaputto “devat±”ti vutto devoyeva devat±ti katv±. Tath± “t± devat± sattasat± u¼±r±, brahmavim±n± abhinikkhamitv±”ti-±d²su brahm±no.
“Abhikkantena vaººena, y± tva½ tiµµhasi devate;
obh±sent² dis± sabb±, osadh² viya t±rak±”ti. (Vi. va. 75)–

¾d²su devadh²t±. Idh±pi devadh²t± eva daµµhabb±. Attaman±ti tuµµhaman± p²tisomanassehi gahitaman±. P²tisomanassasahagatañhi citta½ domanassassa anok±sato tehi ta½ saka½ katv± gahita½ viya hoti. Attaman±ti v± sakaman±. Anavajjap²tisomanassasampayuttañhi citta½ sampati ±yatiñca ta½samaªgino hitasukh±vahato “sakan”ti vattabbata½ labhati, na itara½.

Moggall±nen±ti moggall±nagottassa br±hmaºamah±s±lassa puttabh±vato so mah±thero gottavasena “moggall±no”ti paññ±to, tena moggall±nena Pucchit±ti diµµhasa½sandanavasena pucchit±, attaman± s± devat± pañha½ by±k±s²ti yojan±. Attamanat± cass± “tampi n±ma parittakampi kamma½ eva½ mahatiy± dibbasampattiy± k±raºa½ ahos²”ti pubbepi s± attano puññaphala½ paµicca antarantar± somanassa½ paµisa½vedeti, id±ni pana “aññatarassa therassa katopi n±ma k±ro eva½ u¼±raphalo, aya½ pana buddh±na½ aggas±vako u¼±raguºo mah±nubh±vo imampi passitu½ nipaccak±rañca k±tu½ labh±mi, mama puññaphalapaµisa½yuttameva ca puccha½ karot²”ti dv²hi k±raºehi uppann±. Eva½ sañj±tabalavap²tisomanass± s± therassa vacana½ siras± sampaµicchitv± pañha½ puµµh± by±k±si.
Pañhanti ñ±tu½ icchita½ ta½ attha½ viy±k±si kathesi vissajjesi. Katha½ pana by±k±si? Puµµh±ti puµµh±k±rato, pucchit±k±renev±ti attho. Ettha hi “pucchit±”ti vatv± puna “puµµh±”ti vacana½ visesatthaniyamana½ daµµhabba½. Siddhe hi sati ±rambho visesatthañ±pakova hoti. Ko paneso visesattho? By±karaºassa pucch±nur³pat±. Yañhi kammaphala½ dassetv± tassa k±raºabh³ta½ kamma½ pucchita½, tadubhayassa aññamaññ±nur³pabh±vavibh±van±. Yena ca ±k±rena pucch± pavatt± atthato ca byañjanato ca, tad±k±rassa by±karaºassa pucch±nur³pat±, tath± ceva vissajjana½ pavatta½. Iti imassa visesassa ñ±panattha½ “pucchit±”ti vatv± puna “puµµh±”ti vutta½.
“Pucchit±”ti v± t±ya devat±ya visesanamukhena puµµhabh±vassa pañhaby±karaºassa ca k±raºakittana½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– “kena tet±diso vaººo”ti-±din± therena pucch²yat²ti pucch±, t±ya devat±ya katakamma½, tass± pucch±ya k±rit± ±cikkhit± v±ti s± devat± “pucchit±”ti vutt±. Yasm± pucchit± pucchiyam±nassa kammassa k±rit±, tasm± pañha½ puµµh±. Yasm± ca pucchit± pucchiyam±nassa kammassa ±cikkhanasabh±v±, tasm± pañha½ by±k±s²ti. Yassa kammassida½ phalanti ida½ “pañhan”ti vuttassa atthassa sar³padassana½. Aya½ cettha attho– ida½ pucchantassa pucchiyam±n±ya ca paccakkhabh³ta½ anantara½ vuttappak±ra½ puññaphala½, yassa kammassa ta½ ñ±tu½ icchitatt± pañhanti vutta½ puññakamma½ by±k±s²ti.
5. Aha½ manusses³ti-±di pañhassa by±karaº±k±ro. Tattha ahanti devat± att±na½ niddisati. “Manusses³”ti vatv± puna “manussabh³t±”ti vacana½ tad± attani manussaguº±na½ vijjam±nat±dassanattha½. Yo hi manussaj±tikova sam±no p±º±tip±t±di½ akattabba½ katv± daº¹±raho tattha tattha r±j±dito hatthacched±dikammak±raºa½ p±puºanto mah±dukkha½ anubhavati, aya½ manussanerayiko n±ma. Aparo manussaj±tikova sam±no pubbekatakammun± gh±sacch±danampi na labhati, khuppip±s±bhibh³to dukkhabahulo katthaci patiµµha½ alabham±no vicarati, aya½ manussapeto n±ma. Aparo manussaj±tikova sam±no par±dh²navutti paresa½ bh±ra½ vahanto bhinnamariy±do v± an±c±ra½ ±caritv± parehi santajjito maraºabhayabh²to gahananissito dukkhabahulo vicarati hit±hita½ aj±nanto nidd±jighacch±dukkhavinodan±diparo, aya½ manussatiracch±no n±ma. Yo pana attano hit±hita½ j±nanto kammaphala½ saddahanto hirottappasampanno day±panno sabbasattesu sa½vegabahulo akusalakammapathe parivajjento kusalakammapathe sam±caranto puññakiriyavatth³ni parip³reti, aya½ manussadhamme patiµµhito paramatthato manusso n±ma. Ayampi t±dis± ahosi. Tena vutta½ “manussesu manussabh³t±”ti. Manusse sattanik±ye manussabh±va½ patt± manussadhammañca appah±ya µhit±ti attho.
Abbh±gat±nanti abhi-±gat±na½, sampatta-±gantuk±nanti attho. Duvidh± hi ±gantuk± atithi abbh±gatoti. Tesu kataparicayo ±gantuko atithi, akataparicayo abbh±gato. Kataparicayo akataparicayopi v± puretara½ ±gato atithi, bhojanavel±ya½ upaµµhito sampati ±gato abbh±gato. Nimantito v± bhattena atithi, animantito abbh±gato. Aya½ pana akataparicayo animantito sampati ±gato ca, ta½ sandh±y±ha “abbh±gat±nan”ti, garuk±rena panettha bahuvacana½ vutta½. ¾sati nis²dati etth±ti ±sana½. Ya½kiñci nis²danayogga½, idha pana p²µha½ adhippeta½, tassa ca appakatt± anu¼±ratt± ca “±sanakan”ti ±ha. Ad±sinti “idamassa therassa dinna½ mayha½ mahapphala½ bhavissati mah±nisa½san”ti sañj±tasomanass± kamma½ kammaphalañca saddahitv± tassa therassa paribhogatth±ya ad±si½, nirapekkhaparicc±gavasena pariccajinti attho.
Abhiv±dayinti abhiv±danamak±si½, pañcapatiµµhitena dakkhiºeyyapuggale vandinti anto. Vandam±n± hi ta½ t±yeva vandanakiriy±ya vandiyam±na½ “sukhin² hohi, arog± hoh²”ti-±din± ±siv±da½ atthato vad±pesi n±ma. Añjalika½ ak±sinti dasanakhasamodh±nasamujjala½ añjali½ sirasi paggaºhant² guºavisiµµh±na½ apac±yana½ ak±sinti attho. Yath±nubh±vanti yath±bala½, tad± mama vijjam±navibhav±nur³panti attho. Ad±si d±nanti annap±n±dideyyadhammaparicc±gena dakkhiºeyya½ bhojent² d±namaya½ puñña½ pasavi½.
Ettha ca “ahan”ti ida½ kammassa phalassa ca ekasantatipatitat±dassanena sambandhabh±vadassana½, “manussesu manussabh³t±”ti ida½ tass± puññakiriy±ya adhiµµh±nabh³tasant±navisesadassana½, “abbh±gat±nan”ti ida½ cittasampattidassanañceva khettasampattidassanañca d±nassa viya paµiggahaºassa ca kiñci anapekkhitv± pavattitabh±vad²panato. “¾sanaka½ ad±si½ yath±nubh±vañca ad±si d±nan”ti ida½ bhogas±rad±nadassana½, “abhiv±dayi½ añjalika½ ak±sin”ti ida½ k±yas±rad±nadassana½.
6. Ten±ti tena yath±vuttena puññena hetubh³tena. Meti aya½ me-saddo “kicchena me adhigata½, hala½ d±ni pak±situn”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.65; ma. ni. 1.281; sa½. ni. 1.172) karaºe ±gato, may±ti attho. “S±dhu me, bhante, bhagav± sa½khittena dhamma½ deset³”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.182; a. ni. 4.257) sampad±ne, mayhanti attho. “Pubbeva me, bhikkhave, sambodh± anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattasseva sato”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.206; sa½. ni. 4.14; a. ni. 3.104) s±mi-atthe ±gato, idh±pi s±mi-atthe eva, mam±ti attho. Sv±ya½ me-saddo tena me puññen±ti ca me et±disoti ca ubhayattha sambandhitabbo. Sesa½ vuttanayameva.
Eva½ t±ya devat±ya pañhe by±kate ±yasm± mah±moggall±no vitth±rena dhamma½ desesi. S± desan± sapariv±r±ya tass± devat±ya s±tthik± ahosi. Thero tato manussaloka½ ±gantv± sabba½ ta½ pavatti½ bhagavato ±rocesi. Bhagav± ta½ aµµhuppatti½ katv± sampattaparis±ya dhamma½ desesi. G±th± eva pana saªgaha½ ±ru¼h±ti.

Paµhamap²µhavim±navaººan± niµµhit±.