5. Pańcamavaggo

1. Aggappas±dasuttavaŗŗan±

90. Pańcamavaggassa paµhame aggappas±d±ti ettha aya½ aggasaddo ±dikoµikoµµh±saseµµhesu dissati. Tath± hesa “ajjatagge, samma dov±rika, ±var±mi dv±ra½ nigaŗµh±na½ nigaŗµh²na½ (ma. ni. 2.70). Ajjatagge p±ŗupeta½ saraŗa½ gatan”ti (d². ni. 1.250; p±r±. 15) ca ±d²su ±dimhi dissati. “Teneva aŖgulaggena ta½ aŖgulagga½ par±maseyya (kath±. 441). Ucchagga½ ve¼aggan”ti ca ±d²su koµiya½. “Ambilagga½ v± madhuragga½ v± tittakagga½ v± (sa½. ni. 5.374). Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, vih±raggena v± pariveŗaggena v± bh±jetun”ti (c³¼ava. 318) ca ±d²su koµµh±se. “Aya½ imesa½ catunna½ puggal±na½ aggo ca seµµho ca uttamo ca pavaro ca (a. ni. 4.95). Aggohamasmi lokass±”ti ca ±d²su (d². ni. 2.31; ma. ni. 3.207) seµµhe. Sv±yamidh±pi seµµheyeva daµµhabbo. Tasm± aggesu seµµhesu pas±d±, aggabh³t± seµµhabh³t± v± pas±d± aggappas±d±ti attho.
Purimasmińca atthe aggasaddena buddh±diratanattaya½ vuccati. Tesu bhagav± t±va asadisaµµhena, guŗavisiµµhaµµhena, asamasamaµµhena ca aggo. So hi mah±bhin²h±ra½ dasanna½ p±ram²na½ pavicayańca ±di½ katv± tehi bodhisambh±raguŗehi ceva buddhaguŗehi ca sesajanehi asadisoti asadisaµµhena aggo. Ye cassa guŗ± mah±karuŗ±dayo, te sesasatt±na½ guŗehi visiµµh±ti guŗavisiµµhaµµhenapi sabbasattuttamat±ya aggo. Ye pana purimak± samm±sambuddh± sabbasattehi asam±, tehi saddhi½ ayameva r³pak±yaguŗehi ceva dhammak±yaguŗehi ca samoti asamasamaµµhenapi aggo. Tath± dullabhap±tubh±vato acchariyamanussabh±vato bahujanahitasukh±vahato adutiya-asah±y±dibh±vato ca bhagav± loke aggoti vuccati. Yath±ha–
“Ekapuggalassa bhikkhave, p±tubh±vo dullabho lokasmi½, katamassa ekapuggalassa? Tath±gatassa arahato samm±sambuddhassa.
“Ekapuggalo bhikkhave, loke uppajjam±no uppajjati acchariyamanusso.
“Ekapuggalo, bhikkhave, loke uppajjam±no uppajjati bahujana…pe… samm±sambuddho.
“Ekapuggalo, bhikkhave, loke uppajjam±no uppajjati, adutiyo asah±yo appaµimo appaµisamo appaµibh±go appaµipuggalo asamo asamasamo dvipad±na½ aggo. Katamo ekapuggalo? Tath±gato araha½ samm±sambuddho”ti (a. ni. 1.170-172, 174).
DhammasaŖgh±pi ańńadhammasaŖghehi asadisaµµhena visiµµhaguŗat±ya dullabhap±tubh±v±din± ca agg±. Tath± hi tesa½ sv±kkh±tat±disuppaµipannat±diguŗavisesehi ańńadhammasaŖgh± sadis± appataranih²n± v± natthi, kuto seµµh±. Sayameva ca pana tehi visiµµhaguŗat±ya seµµh±. Tath± dullabhupp±da-acchariyabh±vabahujanahitasukh±vah± adutiya-asah±y±disabh±v± ca te. Yadaggena hi bhagav± dullabhap±tubh±vo, tadaggena dhammasaŖgh±p²ti. Acchariy±dibh±vepi eseva nayo. Eva½ aggesu seµµhesu uttamesu pavaresu guŗavisiµµhesu pas±d±ti aggappas±d±.
Dutiyasmi½ pana atthe yath±vuttesu aggesu buddh±d²su uppattiy± aggabh³t± pas±d± aggappas±d±. Ye pana ariyamaggena ±gat± aveccappas±d±, te ekanteneva aggabh³t± pas±d±ti aggappas±d±. Yath±ha “idha bhikkhave, ariyas±vako buddhe aveccappas±dena samann±gato hot²”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 5.1027). Aggavip±katt±pi cete aggappas±d±. Vuttańhi “agge kho pana pasann±na½ aggo vip±ko”ti.
Y±vat±ti yattak±. Satt±ti p±ŗino. Apad±ti ap±dak±. Dvipad±ti dvip±dak±. Sesapadadvayepi eseva nayo. V±-saddo samuccayattho, na vikappattho. Yath± “anuppanno v± k±m±savo uppajjati, uppanno v± k±m±savo pava¹¹hat²”ti (ma. ni. 1.17) ettha anuppanno ca uppanno c±ti attho. Yath± ca “bh³t±na½ v± satt±na½ µhitiy± sambhaves²na½ v± anuggah±y±”ti (ma. ni. 1.402; sa½. ni. 2.12) ettha bh³t±nańca sambhaves²nańc±ti attho. Yath± ca “aggito v± udakato v± mithubhedato v±”ti (d². ni. 2.152; ud±. 76; mah±va. 286) ettha aggito ca udakato ca mithubhedato c±ti attho, eva½ “apad± v±…pe… aggamakkh±yat²”ti etth±pi apad± ca dvipad± c±ti sampiŗ¹anavasena attho daµµhabbo. Tena vutta½ “v±-saddo samuccayattho, na vikappattho”ti.
R³pinoti r³pavanto. Na r³pinoti ar³pino. Sańńinoti sańń±vanto. Na sańńinoti asańńino. Nevasańńin±sańńino n±ma bhavaggapariy±pann±. Ett±vat± ca k±mabhavo, r³pabhavo, ar³pabhavo, ekavok±rabhavo, catuvok±rabhavo, pańcavok±rabhavo, sańń²bhavo, asańń²bhavo, nevasańń²n±sańń²bhavoti navavidhepi bhave satte anavasesato pariy±diyitv± dassesi dhammar±j±. Ettha hi r³piggahaŗena k±mabhavo r³pabhavo pańcavok±rabhavo ekavok±rabhavo ca dassito, ar³piggahaŗena ar³pabhavo catuvok±rabhavo ca dassito. Sańń²bhav±dayo pana sar³peneva dassit±. Apad±diggahaŗena k±mabhavapańcavok±rabhavasańń²bhav±na½ ekadeso dassitoti.
Kasm± panettha yath± adutiyasutte “dvipad±na½ aggo”ti dvipad±na½ gahaŗameva akatv± apad±diggahaŗa½ katanti? Vuccate– adutiyasutte t±va seµµhataravasena dvipadaggahaŗameva kata½. Imasmińhi loke seµµho n±ma uppajjam±no apadacatuppadabahuppadesu na uppajjati, dvipadesuyeva uppajjati. Kataresu dvipadesu? Manussesu ceva devesu ca. Manussesu uppajjam±no sakalaloka½ vase vattetu½ samattho buddho hutv± uppajjati. AŖguttaraµµhakath±ya½ pana “tisahassimah±sahassilokadh±tu½ vase vattetu½ samattho”ti (a. ni. aµµha. 1.1.174) vutta½. Devesu uppajjam±no dasasahassilokadh±tu½ vase vattanako mah±brahm± hutv± uppajjati, so tassa kappiyak±rako v± ±r±miko v± sampajjati. Iti tatopi seµµhataravasenesa “dvipad±na½ aggo”ti tattha vutto, idha pana anavasesapariy±d±navasena eva½ vutta½. Y±vattak± hi satt± attabh±vapariy±pann± apad± v±…pe… nevasańń²n±sańńino v±, tath±gato tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²ti. Niddh±raŗe ceta½ s±mivacana½, mak±ro padasandhikaro. Aggo akkh±yat²ti padavibh±go.
Aggo vip±ko hot²ti agge samm±sambuddhe pasann±na½ yo pas±do, so aggo seµµho uttamo koµibh³to v±, tasm± tassa vip±kopi aggo seµµho uttamo koµibh³to u¼±ratamo paŗ²tatamo hoti. So pana pas±do duvidho lokiyalokuttarabhedato. Tesu lokiyassa t±va–
“Ye keci buddha½ saraŗa½ gat±se, na te gamissanti ap±yabh³mi½;
pah±ya m±nusa½ deha½, devak±ya½ parip³ressanti. (D². ni. 2.332; sa½. ni. 1.37).
“Buddhoti kittayantassa, k±ye bhavati y± p²ti;
varameva hi s± p²ti, kasiŗenapi jambud²passa.
“Sata½ hatth² sata½ ass±, sata½ assatar² rath±;
sata½ kańń±sahass±ni, ±mukkamaŗikuŗ¹al±;
ekassa padav²tih±rassa, kala½ n±gghanti so¼asi½”. (Sa½. ni. 1.242; c³¼ava. 305).
“S±dhu kho, dev±naminda, buddha½ saraŗagamana½ hoti, buddha½ saraŗagamanahetu kho, dev±naminda, evamidhekacce satt± k±yassa bhed± para½ maraŗ± sugati½ sagga½ loka½ upapajjanti. Te ańńe deve dasahi µh±nehi adhigaŗhanti– dibbena ±yun±, dibbena vaŗŗena, dibbena sukhena, dibbena yasena, dibbena ±dhipateyyena, dibbehi r³pehi, dibbehi saddehi, dibbehi gandhehi, dibbehi rasehi, dibbehi phoµµhabbeh²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.341)–

Evam±d²na½ suttapad±na½ vasena pas±dassa phalavisesayogo veditabbo. Tasm± so ap±yadukkhavinivattanena saddhi½ sampattibhavesu sukhavip±kad±yakoti daµµhabbo. Lokuttaro pana s±mańńaphalavip±kad±yako vaµµadukkhavinivattako ca. Sabbopi c±ya½ pas±do parampar±ya vaµµadukkha½ vinivattetiyeva. Vuttańheta½–

“Yasmi½ bhikkhave, samaye ariyas±vako attano saddha½ anussarati, nevassa tasmi½ samaye r±gapariyuµµhita½ citta½ hoti, na dosapariyuµµhita½, na mohapariyuµµhita½ citta½ hoti, ujugatamevassa tasmi½ samaye citta½ hoti. Ujugatacittassa p±mojja½ j±yati, pamuditassa p²ti j±yati…pe… n±para½ itthatt±y±ti paj±n±t²”ti (a. ni. 6.10; 26).
Dhamm±ti sabh±vadhamm±. SaŖkhat±ti samecca sambhuyya paccayehi kat±ti saŖkhat±, sappaccayadhamm±. Het³hi paccayehi ca na kehici kat±ti asaŖkhat±, appaccayanibb±na½. SaŖkhat±na½ paµiyogibh±vena “asaŖkhat±”ti puthuvacana½. Vir±go tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²ti tesa½ saŖkhat±saŖkhatadhamm±na½ yo vir±gasaŖkh±to asaŖkhatadhammo, so sabh±veneva saŗhasukhumabh±vato santatarapaŗ²tatarabh±vato gambh²r±dibh±vato madanimmadan±dibh±vato ca agga½ seµµha½ uttama½ pavaranti vuccati. Yadidanti nip±to, yo ayanti attho. Madanimmadanoti-±d²ni sabb±ni nibb±navevacan±niyeva. Tath± hi ta½ ±gamma m±namadapurisamad±diko sabbo mado nimmad²yati pamadd²yati, k±mapip±s±dik± sabb± pip±s± vin²yati, k±m±lay±dik± sabbepi ±lay± samuggh±t²yanti, sabbepi kammavaµµakilesavaµµavip±kavaµµ± upacchijjanti, aµµhasatabhed± sabb±pi taŗh± kh²yati, sabbepi kiles± virajjanti, sabba½ dukkha½ nirujjhati, tasm± madanimmadano…pe… nirodhoti vuccati. Y± panes± taŗh± bhavena bhava½, phalena kamma½ vinati sa½sibbat²ti katv± v±nanti vuccati. Ta½ v±na½ ettha natthi, etasmi½ v± adhigate ariyapuggalassa na hot²ti nibb±na½.
Aggo vip±ko hot²ti etth±pi–
“Ye keci dhamma½ saraŗa½ gat±se…pe…. (D². ni. 2.332; sa½. ni. 1.37).
“Dhammoti kittayantassa, k±ye bhavati y± p²ti…pe….
“S±dhu kho, dev±naminda, dhamma½ saraŗagamana½ hoti. Dhamma½ saraŗagamanahetu kho, dev±naminda, evamidhekacce…pe… dibbehi phoµµhabbeh²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.341)–

Evam±d²na½ suttapad±na½ vasena dhamme pas±dassa phalavisesayogo veditabbo. Evamettha asaŖkhatadhammavaseneva aggabh±vo ±gato, sabbasaŖkhatanissaraŗadassanattha½ ariyamaggavasenapi ayamattho labbhateva. Vuttańheta½–

“Y±vat± bhikkhave, dhamm± saŖkhat±, ariyo aµµhaŖgiko maggo tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti (a. ni. 4.34).
“Magg±naµµhaŖgiko seµµho”ti ca. (Dha. pa. 273).
SaŖgh± v± gaŗ± v±ti janasam³hasaŖkh±t± y±vat± loke saŖgh± v± gaŗ± v±. Tath±gatas±vakasaŖghoti aµµha-ariyapuggalasam³hasaŖkh±to diµµhis²las±mańńena sa½hato tath±gatassa s±vakasaŖgho. Tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²ti attano s²lasam±dhipańń±vimutti-±diguŗavisesena tesa½ saŖgh±na½ aggo seµµho uttamo pavaroti vuccati. Yadidanti y±ni im±ni. Catt±ri purisayug±n²ti yuga¼avasena paµhamamaggaµµho paµhamaphalaµµhoti idameka½ yuga¼a½, y±va catutthamaggaµµho catutthaphalaµµhoti idameka½ yuga¼anti eva½ catt±ri purisayug±ni. Aµµha purisapuggal±ti purisapuggalavasena eko paµhamamaggaµµho eko paµhamaphalaµµhoti imin± nayena aµµha purisapuggal±. Ettha ca purisoti v± puggaloti v± ekatth±ni et±ni pad±ni, veneyyavasena paneva½ vutta½. Esa bhagavato s±vakasaŖghoti y±nim±ni yugavasena catt±ri purisayug±ni, p±µekkato aµµha purisapuggal±, esa bhagavato s±vakasaŖgho.
¾huneyyoti-±d²su ±netv± hunitabbanti ±huna½, d³ratopi ±gantv± s²lavantesu d±tabbanti attho. Catunna½ paccay±nameta½ adhivacana½. Mahapphalabh±vakaraŗato ta½ ±huna½ paµiggahetu½ yuttoti ±huneyyo. Atha v± d³ratopi ±gantv± sabba½ s±pateyyampi ettha hunitabba½, sakk±d²nampi ±havana½ arahat²ti v± ±havan²yo. Yo c±ya½ br±hmaŗ±na½ ±havan²yo n±ma aggi, yattha huta½ mahapphalanti tesa½ laddhi, so ce hutassa mahapphalat±ya ±havan²yo, saŖghova ±havan²yo. SaŖghe hutańhi mahapphala½ hoti. Yath±ha–
“Yo ca vassasata½ jantu, aggi½ paricare vane;
ekańca bh±vitatt±na½, muhuttamapi p³jaye;
s± eva p³jan± seyyo, yańce vassasata½ hutan”ti. (Dha. pa. 107).
Tayida½ nik±yantare “±havan²yo”ti pada½ idha “±huneyyo”ti imin± padena atthato eka½, byańjanato pana kińcimattameva n±na½, tasm± evamatthavaŗŗan± kat±.
P±huneyyoti ettha pana p±huna½ vuccati dis±vidisato ±gat±na½ piyaman±p±na½ ń±timitt±na½ atth±ya sakk±rena paµiyatta½ ±gantukad±na½, tampi µhapetv± te tath±r³pe p±hunake saŖghasseva d±tu½ yutta½. Tath± hesa ekabuddhantarepi dissati abbokiŗŗańca. Aya½ panettha padattho– “piyaman±pattakarehi dhammehi samann±gato”ti eva½ p±hunamassa d±tu½ yutta½, p±hunańca paµiggahetu½ yuttoti p±huneyyo. Yesa½ pana p±havan²yoti p±¼i, tesa½ yasm± saŖgho pubbak±ra½ arahati, tasm± saŖgho sabbapaµhama½ ±netv± ettha hunitabbanti p±havan²yo, sabbappak±rena v± ±havana½ arahat²ti p±havan²yo. Sv±yamidha teneva atthena p±huneyyoti vuccati.
“Dakkhiŗ±”ti paraloka½ saddahitv± d±tabbad±na½, ta½ dakkhiŗa½ arahati dakkhiŗ±ya v± hito mahapphalabh±vakaraŗena visodhanatoti dakkhiŗeyyo. Ubho hatthe sirasi patiµµhapetv± sabbalokena kariyam±na½ ańjalikamma½ arahat²ti ańjalikaraŗ²yo. Anuttara½ puńńakkhetta½ lokass±ti sabbalokassa asadisa½ puńńavir³hanaµµh±na½. Yath± hi rattas±l²na½ v± yav±na½ v± vir³hanaµµh±na½ “rattas±likkhetta½ yavakkhettan”ti vuccati, eva½ saŖgho sadevakassa lokassa puńńavir³hanaµµh±na½. SaŖgha½ niss±ya hi lokassa n±nappak±rahitasukhanibbattak±ni puńń±ni vir³hanti, tasm± saŖgho anuttara½ puńńakkhetta½ lokassa. Idh±pi–
“Ye keci saŖgha½ saraŗa½ gat±se…pe…. (D². ni. 2.332; sa½. ni. 1.37).
“SaŖghoti kittayantassa, k±ye bhavati y± p²ti…pe…”.
“S±dhu kho, dev±naminda, saŖgha½ saraŗagamana½ hoti, saŖgha½ saraŗagamanahetu kho dev±naminda…pe… dibbehi phoµµhabbeh²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.341)–

¾d²na½ suttapad±na½ vasena saŖghe pas±dassa phalavisesayogo, tenassa aggat± aggavip±kat± ca veditabb±. Tath± anuttariyapaµil±bho sattamabhav±dito paµµh±ya vaµµadukkhasamucchedo anuttarasukh±dhigamoti evam±di-u¼±raphalanipph±danavasena aggavip±kat± veditabb±.

G±th±su aggatoti agge ratanattaye, aggabh±vato v± pasann±na½. Agga½ dhammanti aggasabh±va½ buddhasubuddhata½ dhammasudhammata½ saŖghasuppaµipatti½ ratanattayassa anańńas±dh±raŗa½ uttamasabh±va½ dasabal±disv±kkh±tat±disuppaµipannat±diguŗasabh±va½ v± vij±nata½ vij±nant±na½. Eva½ s±dh±raŗato aggappas±davatthu½ dassetv± id±ni as±dh±raŗato ta½ vibh±gena dassetu½ “agge buddhe”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha pasann±nanti aveccappas±dena itarappas±dena ca pasann±na½ adhimutt±na½. Vir±g³pasameti vir±ge upasame ca, sabbassa r±gassa sabbesa½ kiles±na½ accantavir±gahetubh³te accanta-upasamahetubh³te c±ti attho. Sukheti vaµµadukkhakkhayabh±vena saŖkh±r³pasamasukhabh±vena ca sukhe.
Aggasmi½ d±na½ dadatanti agge ratanattaye d±na½ dent±na½ deyyadhamma½ pariccajant±na½. Tattha dharam±na½ bhagavanta½ cat³hi paccayehi upaµµhahant± p³jent± sakkaront± parinibbutańca bhagavanta½ uddissa dh±tucetiy±dike upaµµhahant± p³jent± sakkaront± buddhe d±na½ dadanti n±ma. “Dhamma½ p³jess±m±”ti dhammadhare puggale cat³hi paccayehi upaµµhahant± p³jent± sakkaront± dhammańca ciraµµhitika½ karont± dhamme d±na½ dadanti n±ma. Tath± ariyasaŖgha½ cat³hi paccayehi upaµµhahant± p³jent± sakkaront± ta½ uddissa itarasmimpi tath± paµipajjant± saŖghe d±na½ dadanti n±ma. Agga½ puńńa½ pava¹¹hat²ti eva½ ratanattaye pasannena cetas± u¼±ra½ paricc±ga½ u¼±rańca p³j±sakk±ra½ pavattent±na½ divase divase agga½ u¼±ra½ kusala½ upac²yati. Id±ni tassa puńńassa aggavip±kat±ya aggabh±va½ dassetu½ “agga½ ±y³”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha agga½ ±y³ti dibba½ v± m±nusa½ v± agga½ u¼±ratama½ ±yu. Pava¹¹hat²ti upar³pari br³hati. Vaŗŗoti r³pasampad±. Yasoti pariv±rasampad±. Kitt²ti thutighoso. Sukhanti k±yika½ cetasikańca sukha½. Balanti k±yabala½ ń±ŗabalańca.
Aggassa d±t±ti aggassa ratanattayassa d±t±, atha v± aggassa deyyadhammassa d±na½ u¼±ra½ katv± tattha puńńa½ pavattet±. Aggadhammasam±hitoti aggena pas±dadhammena d±n±didhammena ca sam±hito samann±gato acalappas±dayutto, tassa v± vip±kabh³tehi bahujanassa piyaman±pat±didhammehi yutto. Aggappatto pamodat²ti yattha yattha sattanik±ye uppanno, tattha tattha aggabh±va½ seµµhabh±va½ adhigato, aggabh±va½ v± lokuttaramaggaphala½ adhigato pamodati abhiramati paritussat²ti.

Paµhamasuttavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.