4. Pañcapubbanimittasuttavaººan±

83. Catutthe yad±ti yasmi½ k±le. Devoti upapattidevo. Tayo hi dev±– sammutidev±, upapattidev±, visuddhidev±ti. Tesu sammutidev± n±ma r±j±no khattiy±. Upapattidev± n±ma c±tumah±r±jikato paµµh±ya taduparidev±. Visuddhidev± n±ma kh²º±sav±. Idha pana k±m±vacaradevo adhippeto. Tena vutta½ “devoti upapattidevo”ti. Devak±y±ti devasam³hato, devaµµh±nato v±, devalokatoti attho. Sam³haniv±sav±cako hi aya½ k±yasaddo. Cavanadhammoti maraºadhammo, ±yukkhayena v± puññakkhayena v± upaµµhitamaraºoti attho.
Pañcassa pubbanimitt±ni p±tubhavant²ti assa upaµµhitamaraºassa devaputtassa pañca maraºassa pubbanimitt±ni uppajjanti, pak±s±ni v± honti. M±l± mil±yant²ti tena pi¼andhitam±l± majjhanhikasamaye ±tape khitt± viya mil±t± vihatasobh± honti.
Vatth±ni kilissant²ti saradasamaye vigataval±hake ±k±se abbhussakkam±nab±las³riyasadisappabh±ni n±n±vir±gavaºº±ni tena nivatthap±rutavatth±ni ta½ khaºa½yeva kaddame khipitv± maddit±ni viya vihatappabh±ni malin±ni honti.
Kacchehi sed± muccant²ti suparisuddhaj±timaºi viya susikkhitasipp±cariyaracitasuvaººapaµim± viya ca pubbe sedamalajallik±rahitasar²rassa tasmi½ khaºe ubhohi kacchehi sedadh±r± sandanti paggharanti. Na kevalañca kacchehiyeva, sakalasar²ratopi panassa sedajalakaººik± muccatiyeva, yena ±muttamutt±j±lagavacchito viya tassa k±yo hoti.
K±ye dubbaººiya½ okkamat²ti pubbe paµisandhito paµµh±ya yath±nubh±va½ ekayojana½ dviyojana½ y±va dv±dasayojanamattampi padesa½ ±bh±ya pharitv± vijjotam±no k±yo hoti khaº¹iccap±licc±divirahito, na s²ta½ na uºha½ upagh±taka½, devadh²t± so¼asavassuddesik± viya hoti, devaputto v²sativassuddesiko viya, ta½ khaºa½yeva nippabhe nitteje k±ye vir³pabh±vo anupavisati saºµh±ti.
Sake devo dev±sane n±bhiramat²ti attano acchar±gaºehi saddhi½ k²¼anaparicaraºakadibb±sane na ramati, na cittass±da½ labhati. Tassa kira manussagaºan±ya sattahi divasehi maraºa½ bhavissat²ti im±ni pubbanimitt±ni p±tubhavanti. So tesa½ uppattiy± “evar³p±ya n±ma sampattiy± vin± bhaviss±m²”ti balavasok±bhibh³to hoti. Tenassa k±ye mah±pari¼±ho uppajjati, tena sabbato gattehi sed± muccanti. Ciratara½ k±la½ aparicitadukkho ta½ adhiv±setu½ asakkonto ekacco “dayh±mi dayh±m²”ti kandanto paridevanto katthaci ass±da½ alabhanto vijappanto vilapanto tahi½ tahi½ ±hiº¹ati. Ekacco sati½ upaµµhapetv± k±yav±c±hi vik±ra½ akarontopi piyavippayogadukkha½ asahanto vihaññam±no vicarati.
Im±ni pana pubbanimitt±ni yath± loke mah±puññ±na½ r±jar±jamah±matt±d²na½yeva ukk±p±tabh³mic±lacandagg±h±d²ni nimitt±ni paññ±yanti, na sabbesa½; evameva mahesakkhadev±na½yeva paññ±yati. Uppann±ni ca t±ni “im±ni maraºassa pubbanimitt±ni n±m±”ti keci dev± j±nanti, na sabbe. Tattha yo mandena kusalakammena nibbatto, so “id±ni ko j±n±ti, ‘kuhi½ nibbattiss±m²”’ti bh±yati. Yo pana mah±puñño, so “bahu½ may± d±na½ dinna½, s²la½ rakkhita½, puñña½ upacita½, ito cutassa me sugatiyeva p±µikaªkh±”ti na bh±yati na vikampati. Eva½ upaµµhitapubbanimitta½ pana ta½ gahetv± devat± nandanavana½ pavesenti sabbadevalokesu nandanavana½ atthiyeva.
T²hi v±c±hi anumodent²ti id±ni vuccam±nehi t²hi vacanehi anumodenti, moda½ pamoda½ upp±denti, ass±senti, abhivadanavasena v± ta½khaº±nur³pa½ pamoda½ karonti. Keci pana “anumodent²”ti padassa “ovadant²”ti vadanti. Itoti devalokato. Bhoti ±lapana½. Sugatinti sundaragati½, manussaloka½ sandh±ya vadanti. Gacch±ti paµisandhiggahaºavasena upehi.
Eva½ vutteti eva½ tad± tehi devehi tassa “ito bho sugati½ gacch±”ti-±din± vattabbavacane bhagavat± vutte aññataro n±magottena ap±kaµo tassa½ paris±ya½ nisinno anusandhikusalo eko bhikkhu “ete sugati-±dayo bhagavat± avisesato vutt± avibh³t±, handa te vibh³tatare k±r±pess±m²”ti eta½ “ki½nu kho, bhante”ti-±divacana½ avoca. Saddh±diguºavisesapaµil±bhak±raºato dev³papattihetuto ca manussatta½ dev±na½ abhisammatanti ±ha “manussatta½ kho bhikkhu dev±na½ sugatigamanasaªkh±tan”ti.
Sugatigamanasaªkh±tanti “sugatigamanan”ti samm± kathita½, vaººita½ thomitanti attho. Ya½ manussabh³toti ettha yanti kiriy±par±masana½, tena paµilabhat²ti ettha paµilabhanakiriy± ±mas²yati, yo saddh±paµil±bhoti attho. Manussabh³toti manussesu uppanno, manussabh±va½ v± patto. Yasm± devaloke uppann±na½ tath±gatassa dhammadesan± yebhuyyena dullabh± savan±ya, na tath± manuss±na½, tasm± vutta½ “manussabh³to”ti. Tath±gatappavedite dhammavinayeti tath±gatena bhagavat± desite sikkhattayasaªgahe s±sane. Tañhi dhammato anapetatt± dhammo ca, ±say±nur³pa½ vineyy±na½ vinayanato vinayo c±ti dhammavinayo, upanissayasampattiy± v± dhammato anapetatt± dhamma½ apparajakkhaj±tika½ vinet²ti dhammavinayo. Dhammeneva v± vinayo, na daº¹asattheh²ti dhammavinayo, dhammayutto v± vinayoti dhammavinayo, dhamm±ya v± saha maggaphalanibb±n±ya vinayoti dhammavinayo, mah±karuº±sabbaññutaññ±º±didhammato v± pavatto vinayoti dhammavinayo. Dhammo v± bhagav± dhammabh³to dhammak±yo dhammass±m², tassa dhammassa vinayo, na takkiy±nanti dhammavinayo, dhamme v± maggaphale nipph±detabbavisayabh³te v± pavatto vinayoti dhammavinayoti vuccati. Tasmi½ dhammavinaye.
Saddha½ paµilabhat²ti “sv±kkh±to bhagavat± dhammo”ti-±din± saddha½ upp±deti. Saddho hi imasmi½ dhammavinaye yath±nusiµµha½ paµipajjam±no diµµhadhammikasampar±yikaparamatthe ±r±dhessati. Suladdhal±bhasaªkh±tanti ettha yath± hiraññasuvaººakhettavatth±dil±bho satt±na½ upabhogasukha½ ±vahati, khuppip±s±didukkha½ paµib±hati, dhanad±liddiya½ v³pasameti, mutt±diratanapaµil±bhahetu hoti, lokasantatiñca ±vahati; eva½ lokiyalokuttar± saddh±pi yath±sambhava½ lokiyalokuttara½ vip±kasukham±vahati, saddh±dhurena paµipann±na½ j±tijar±didukkha½ paµib±hati, guºad±liddiya½ v³pasameti, satisambojjhaªg±diratanapaµil±bhahetu hoti, lokasantatiñca ±vahati. Vuttañheta½–
“Saddho s²lena sampanno, yaso bhogasamappito;
ya½ ya½ padesa½ bhajati, tattha tattheva p³jito”ti. (Dha. pa. 303).
Eva½ saddh±paµil±bhassa suladdhal±bhat± veditabb±. Yasm± pan±ya½ saddh±paµil±bho anug±miko anaññas±dh±raºo sabbasampattihetu, lokiyassa ca hiraññasuvaºº±didhanal±bhassa k±raºa½. Saddhoyeva hi d±n±d²ni puññ±ni katv± u¼±ru¼±ravitt³pakaraº±ni adhigacchati, tehi ca attano paresañca atthameva samp±deti. Assaddhassa pana t±ni anatth±vah±ni honti, idha ceva sampar±ye c±ti, evampi saddh±ya suladdhal±bhat± veditabb±. Tath± hi–
“Saddh± bandhati p±theyya½”. (Sa½. ni. 1.79).
“Saddh± dutiy± purisassa hot²”ti ca. (Sa½. ni. 1.36, 59).
“Saddh²dha vitta½ purisassa seµµhan”ti ca. (Sa½. ni. 1.73; su. ni. 184).
“Saddh±hattho mah±n±go”ti ca. (A. ni. 6.43; therag±. 694).
“Saddh± b²ja½ tapo vuµµh²”ti ca. (Sa½. ni. 1.197; su. ni. 77).
“Saddhesiko, bhikkhave, ariyas±vako”ti (a. ni. 7.67) ca.
“Saddh±ya tarati oghan”ti ca. (Sa½. ni. 1.246)–

Anekesu µh±nesu anekehi k±raºehi saddh± sa½vaººit±.

Id±ni y±ya saddh±ya s±sane kusaladhammesu suppatiµµhito n±ma hoti niy±mokkantiy±, ta½ saddha½ dassetu½ “s± kho panass±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ass±ti imassa bhaveyy±ti attho. Niviµµh±ti abhiniviµµh± cittasant±na½ anupaviµµh±. M³laj±t±ti j±tam³l±. Ki½ pana saddh±ya m³la½ n±ma? Saddheyyavatthusmi½ okappanahetubh³to up±yamanasik±ro. Apica sappurisasevan± saddhammassavana½ yonisomanasik±ro dhamm±nudhammappaµipatt²ti catt±ri sot±pattiyaªg±ni m³l±ni veditabb±ni. Patiµµhit±ti ariyamagg±dhigamena kenaci akampan²yabh±vena avaµµhit±. Tenev±ha “da¼h± asa½h±riy±”ti. Da¼h±ti thir±. Asa½h±riy±ti kenaci sa½haritu½ v± h±petu½ v± apanetu½ v± asakkuºeyy±. Iti te dev± tassa sot±pattimaggasamadhigama½ ±s²sant± eva½ vadanti. Attano devaloke k±masukh³pabhog±rahameva hi ariyapuggala½ te icchanti. Ten±ha “ehi, deva, punappunan”ti.
G±th±su puññakkhayamaraºampi j²vitindriyupacchedeneva hot²ti ±ha “cavati ±yusaªkhay±”ti. Anumodatanti anumodant±na½. Manuss±na½ sahabyatanti manussehi sahabh±va½. Saha byet²ti sahabyo, sahapavattanako, tassa bh±vo sahabyat±. Niviµµhass±ti niviµµh± bhaveyya. Y±vaj²vanti y±va j²vitappavattiy±, y±va parinibb±n±ti attho.
Appam±ºanti sakkacca½ bahu½ u¼±ra½ bahukkhattuñca karaºavasena pam±ºarahita½. Nir³padhinti kiles³padhirahita½, suvisuddha½ nimmalanti attho. Yasm± pana te dev± mahaggatakusala½ na icchanti k±malokasamatikkamanato, k±m±vacarapuññameva icchanti, tasm± evamettha attho veditabbo– “ito devalokato cuto manussesu uppajjitv± viññuta½ patto k±yaduccarit±di½ sabba½ duccarita½ pah±ya k±yasucarit±di½ sabba½ sucarita½ u¼±ra½ vipula½ upacinitv± ariyamaggena ±gatasaddho bhav±h²”ti. Yasm± pana lokuttaresu paµhamamagga½ dutiyamaggampi v± icchanti attano devalok³papattiy± anativattanato, tasm± tesampi vasena “appam±ºa½ nir³padhin”tipad±na½ attho veditabbo– pam±ºakar±na½ diµµhekaµµha-o¼±rikak±mar±g±dikiles±na½ upacchedena appam±ºa½, sattamabhavato v± uppajjan±rahassa khandh³padhissa ta½nibbattaka-abhisaªkh±r³padhissa ta½ta½maggavajjhakiles³padhissa ca pah±nena tesa½ anibbattanato nirupadhisaªkh±tanibb±nasannissitatt± ca nirupadh²ti.
Eva½ accantameva ap±yadv±rapidh±yaka½ kamma½ dassetv± id±ni saggasampattinibbattakakamma½ dassetu½ “tato opadhikan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha opadhikanti upadhivepakka½ attabh±vasampattiy± ceva bhogasampattiy± ca nibbattakanti attho. Upadh²ti hi attabh±vo vuccati. Yath±ha “santekacc±ni p±pak±ni kammasam±d±n±ni upadhisampattipaµib±hit±ni na vipaccant²”ti (vibha. 810). K±maguº±pi. Yath±ha “upadh²hi narassa socan±”ti (sa½. ni. 1.12; su. ni. 34). Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– upadh²yati ettha sukhadukkhanti upadhi, attabh±vo k±maguº± ca. Upadhikaraºa½ s²la½ etassa, upadhi½ v± arahat²ti opadhika½, puñña½, ta½ bahu½ u¼±ra½ katv±. Katha½? D±nena. D±nañhi itarehi sukaranti eva½ vutta½. D±nen±ti v± padena abhayad±nampi vutta½, na ±misad±namev±ti s²lass±pi saªgaho daµµhabbo. Yasm± pana te dev± asurak±yah±ni½ ekanteneva devak±yap±rip³riñca icchanti, tasm± tassa up±ya½ dassent± “aññepi macce saddhamme, brahmacariye nivesay±”ti dhammad±ne niyojenti. Yad± vid³ti yasmi½ k±le dev± deva½ cavanta½ vid³ vij±neyyu½, tad± im±ya yath±vutt±ya anukamp±ya dukkh±panayanakamyat±ya “deva, ime devak±ye punappuna½ uppajjanavasena ehi ±gacch±h²”ti ca anumodent²ti.

Catutthasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.