5. Puttasuttavaººan±

74. Pañcame putt±ti atraj± orasaputt±, dinnak±dayopi v±. Santoti bhavant± sa½vijjam±n± lokasminti imasmi½ loke upalabbham±n±. Atthibh±vena santo, p±kaµabh±vena vijjam±n±. Atij±toti attano guºehi m±t±pitaro atikkamitv± j±to, tehi adhikaguºoti attho. Anuj±toti guºehi m±t±pit³na½ anur³po hutv± j±to, tehi sam±naguºoti attho. Avaj±toti guºehi m±t±pit³na½ adhamo hutv± j±to, tehi h²naguºoti attho. Yehi pana guºehi yutto m±t±pit³na½ adhiko samo h²noti ca adhippeto, te vibhajitv± dassetu½ “kathañca, bhikkhave, putto atij±to hot²”ti kathetukamyat±ya puccha½ katv± “idha, bhikkhave, puttass±”ti-±din± niddeso ±raddho.
Tattha na buddha½ saraºa½ gat±ti-±d²su buddhoti sabbadhammesu appaµihatañ±ºanimitt±nuttaravimokkh±dhigamaparibh±vita½ khandhasant±na½, sabbaññutaññ±ºapadaµµh±na½ v± sacc±bhisambodhi½ up±d±ya paññattiko satt±tisayo buddho. Yath±ha–
“Buddhoti yo so bhagav± sayambh³ an±cariyako pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu s±ma½ sacc±ni abhisambujjhi, tattha ca sabbaññuta½ patto, balesu ca vas²bh±van”ti (c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddesa 97; paµi. ma. 1.161)–

Aya½ t±va atthato buddhavibh±van±.

Byañjanato pana sav±san±ya kilesanidd±ya accantavigamena buddhav± paµibuddhav±ti buddho, buddhiy± v± vikasitabh±vena buddhav± vibuddhav±ti buddho, bujjhit±ti buddho, bodhet±ti buddhoti evam±din± nayena veditabbo. Yath±ha–
“Bujjhit± sacc±n²ti buddho, bodhet± paj±y±ti buddho, sabbaññut±ya buddho, sabbadass±vit±ya buddho, anaññaneyyat±ya buddho, visavit±ya buddho, kh²º±savasaªkh±tena buddho, nirupakkilesasaªkh±tena buddho, ekantav²tar±goti buddho, ekantav²tadosoti buddho, ekantav²tamohoti buddho, ekantanikkilesoti buddho, ek±yanamagga½ gatoti buddho, eko anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambuddhoti buddho, abuddhivihatatt± buddhipaµil±bh±ti buddho, buddhoti ceta½ n±ma½ na m±tar± kata½, na pitar± kata½, na bh±tar± kata½, na bhaginiy± kata½, na mitt±maccehi kata½, na ñ±tis±lohitehi kata½, na samaºabr±hmaºehi kata½, na devat±hi kata½, atha kho vimokkhantikameta½ buddh±na½ bhagavant±na½ bodhiy± m³le saha sabbaññutaññ±ºassa paµil±bh± sacchik± paññatti, yadida½ buddho”ti (c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddesa 97; paµi. ma. 1.162).
Hi½sat²ti saraºa½, sabba½ anattha½ ap±yadukkha½ sabba½ sa½s±radukkha½ hi½sati vin±seti viddha½set²ti attho. Saraºa½ gat±ti “buddho bhagav± amh±ka½ saraºa½ gati par±yaºa½ paµisaraºa½ aghassa hant± hitassa vidh±t±”ti imin± adhipp±yena buddha½ bhagavanta½ gacch±ma bhaj±ma sev±ma payirup±s±ma. Eva½ v± j±n±ma bujjh±m±ti eva½ gat± upagat± buddha½ saraºa½ gat±. Tappaµikkhepena na buddha½ saraºa½ gat±.
Dhamma½ saraºa½ gat±ti adhigatamagge sacchikatanirodhe yath±nusiµµha½ paµipajjam±ne cat³su ap±yesu apatam±ne katv± dh±ret²ti dhammo. So atthato ariyamaggo ceva nibb±nañca. Vuttañheta½–
“Y±vat±, bhikkhave, dhamm± saªkhat±, ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti vitth±ro (a. ni. 4.34).
Na kevalañca ariyamagganibb±n±ni eva, apica kho ariyaphalehi saddhi½ pariyattidhammo ca. Vuttañheta½ chattam±ºavakavim±ne–
“R±gavir±gamanejamasoka½,
dhammamasaªkhatamappaµik³la½;
madhuramima½ paguºa½ suvibhatta½,
dhammamima½ saraºatthamupeh²”ti. (Vi. va. 887).
Tattha hi r±gavir±goti maggo kathito, anejamasokanti phala½, dhammasaªkhatanti nibb±na½, appaµik³la½ madhuramima½ paguºa½ suvibhattanti piµakattayena vibhatt± sabbadhammakkhandh± kathit±. Ta½ dhamma½ vuttanayena saraºanti gat± dhamma½ saraºa½ gat±. Tappaµikkhepena na dhamma½ saraºa½ gat±.
Diµµhis²lasaªgh±tena sa½hatoti saªgho. So atthato aµµha-ariyapuggalasam³ho. Vuttañheta½ tasmi½ eva vim±ne–
“Yattha ca dinna mahapphalam±hu,
cat³su suc²su purisayugesu;
aµµha ca puggala dhammadas± te,
saªghamima½ saraºatthamupeh²”ti. (Vi. va. 888).
Ta½ saªgha½ vuttanayena saraºanti gat± saªgha½ saraºa½ gat±. Tappaµikkhepena na saªgha½ saraºa½ gat±ti.
Ettha ca saraºagamanakosallattha½ saraºa½ saraºagamana½, yo ca saraºa½ gacchati saraºagamanappabhedo, phala½, sa½kileso, bhedo, vod±nanti aya½ vidhi veditabbo.
Tattha padatthato t±va hi½sat²ti saraºa½, saraºagat±na½ teneva saraºagamanena bhaya½ sant±sa½ dukkha½ duggati½ parikilesa½ hanati vin±set²ti attho, ratanattayasseta½ adhivacana½. Atha v± hite pavattanena ahit± nivattanena ca satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sat²ti buddho saraºa½, bhavakant±rato utt±raºena ass±sad±nena ca dhammo, appak±nampi k±r±na½ vipulaphalapaµil±bhakaraºena saªgho. Tasm± imin±pi pariy±yena ratanattaya½ saraºa½. Tappas±dataggarut±hi vihatakileso tappar±yaºat±k±rappavatto cittupp±do saraºagamana½. Ta½samaªgisatto saraºa½ gacchati, vuttappak±rena cittupp±dena “et±ni me t²ºi ratan±ni saraºa½, et±ni par±yaºan”ti eva½ upet²ti attho. Eva½ t±va saraºa½ saraºagamana½, yo ca saraºa½ gacchat²ti ida½ taya½ veditabba½.
Pabhedato pana duvidha½ saraºagamana½– lokiya½, lokuttarañca. Tattha lokuttara½ diµµhasacc±na½ maggakkhaºe saraºagamanupakkilesasamucchedena ±rammaºato nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv± kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhati, lokiya½ puthujjan±na½ saraºagamanupakkilesavikkhambhanena ±rammaºato buddh±diguº±rammaºa½ hutv± ijjhati. Ta½ atthato buddh±d²su vatth³su saddh±paµil±bho saddh±m³lik± ca samm±diµµhi dasasu puññakiriyavatth³su diµµhijukammanti vuccati.
Tayida½ catudh± pavattati– attasanniyy±tanena, tappar±yaºat±ya, sissabh±v³pagamanena, paºip±ten±ti. Tattha attasanniyy±tana½ n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± aha½ att±na½ buddhassa niyy±temi, dhammassa, saªghass±”ti eva½ buddh±d²na½ attapariccajana½. Tappar±yaºa½ n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± aha½ buddhapar±yaºo, dhammapar±yaºo, saªghapar±yaºo iti ma½ dh±reh²”ti eva½ tappaµisaraºabh±vo tappar±yaºat±. Sissabh±v³pagamana½ n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± aha½ buddhassa antev±siko, dhammassa, saªghassa iti ma½ dh±ret³”ti eva½ sissabh±vassa upagamana½. Paºip±to n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± aha½ abhiv±danapaccuµµh±na-añjalikammas±m²cikamma½ buddh±d²na½ eva tiººa½ vatth³na½ karomi iti ma½ dh±ret³”ti eva½ buddh±d²su paramanipaccak±ro. Imesañhi catunna½ ±k±r±na½ aññatara½ karontena gahita½ eva hoti saraºagamana½.
Apica “bhagavato att±na½ pariccaj±mi, dhammassa, saªghassa att±na½ pariccaj±mi, j²vita½ pariccaj±mi, pariccatto eva me att± j²vitañca, j²vitapariyantika½ buddha½ saraºa½ gacch±mi, buddho me saraºa½ t±ºa½ leºan”ti evampi attasanniyy±tana½ veditabba½. “Satth±rañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyya½; sugatañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyya½; samm±sambuddhañca vat±ha½ passeyya½; bhagavantameva passeyyan”ti (sa½. ni. 2.154) eva½ mah±kassapattherassa saraºagamana½ viya sissabh±v³pagamana½ daµµhabba½.
“So aha½ vicariss±mi, g±m± g±ma½ pur± pura½;
namassam±no sambuddha½, dhammassa ca sudhammatan”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni. 194)–

Eva½ ±¼avak±d²na½ saraºagamana½ viya tappar±yaºat± veditabb±. “Atha kho, brahm±yu, br±hmaºo uµµh±y±san± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± bhagavato p±desu siras± nipatitv± bhagavato p±d±ni mukhena ca paricumbati, p±º²hi ca parisamb±hati, n±mañca s±veti ‘brahm±yu aha½, bho gotama, br±hmaºo, brahm±yu aha½, bho gotama, br±hmaºo”’ti (ma. ni. 2.394) eva½ paºip±to daµµhabbo.

So panesa ñ±tibhay±cariyadakkhiºeyyavasena catubbidho hoti. Tattha dakkhiºeyyapaºip±tena saraºagamana½ hoti, na itarehi. Seµµhavaseneva hi saraºa½ gayhati, seµµhavasena bhijjati. Tasm± yo “ayameva loke sabbasattuttamo aggadakkhiºeyyo”ti vandati, teneva saraºa½ gahita½ hoti, na ñ±tibhay±cariyasaññ±ya vandantena. Eva½ gahitasaraºassa up±sakassa v± up±sik±ya v± aññatitthiyesu pabbajitampi “ñ±tako me ayan”ti vandato saraºa½ na bhijjati, pageva apabbajita½. Tath± r±j±na½ bhayena vandato. So hi raµµhap³jitatt± avandiyam±no anatthampi kareyy±ti. Tath± ya½kiñci sippa½ sikkh±paka½ titthiyampi “±cariyo me ayan”ti vandatopi na bhijjati. Eva½ saraºagamanassa pabhedo veditabbo.
Ettha ca lokuttarassa saraºagamanassa catt±ri s±maññaphal±ni vip±kaphala½, sabbadukkhakkhayo ±nisa½saphala½. Vuttañheta½–
“Yo ca buddhañca dhammañca, saªghañca saraºa½ gato;
catt±ri ariyasacc±ni, sammappaññ±ya passati.
“Dukkha½ dukkhasamupp±da½, dukkhassa ca atikkama½;
ariya½ caµµhaªgika½ magga½, dukkh³pasamag±mina½.
“Eta½ kho saraºa½ khema½, eta½ saraºamuttama½;
eta½ saraºam±gamma, sabbadukkh± pamuccat²”ti. (Dha. pa. 190-192).
Apica niccato anupagaman±d²nipi etassa ±nisa½saphala½ veditabba½. Vuttañheta½–
“Aµµh±nameta½, bhikkhave, anavak±so, ya½ diµµhisampanno puggalo kañci saªkh±ra½ niccato upagaccheyya, sukhato upagaccheyya, kañci dhamma½ attato upagaccheyya, m±tara½ j²vit± voropeyya, pitara½ j²vit± voropeyya, arahanta½ j²vit± voropeyya, duµµhacitto tath±gatassa lohita½ upp±deyya, saªgha½ bhindeyya, añña½ satth±ra½ uddiseyya neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²”ti (ma. ni. 3.127-128; a. ni. 1.268-276; vibha. 809).
Lokiyassa pana saraºagamanassa bhavasampad±pi bhogasampad±pi phalameva. Vuttañheta½–
“Ye keci buddha½ saraºa½ gat±se,
na te gamissanti ap±yabh³mi½;
pah±ya m±nusa½ deha½,
devak±ya½ parip³ressant²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.37).
Aparampi vutta½–
“Atha kho sakko dev±namindo as²tiy± devat±sahassehi saddhi½ yen±yasm± mah±moggall±no tenupasaªkami…pe… ekamanta½ µhita½ kho sakka½ dev±naminda½ ±yasm± mah±moggall±no etadavoca– ‘s±dhu kho, dev±naminda, buddha½ saraºagamana½ hoti. Buddha½ saraºagamanahetu kho, dev±naminda, evamidhekacce satt± k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± sugati½ sagga½ loka½ upapajjanti. Te aññe deve dasahi µh±nehi adhigaºhanti– dibbena ±yun±, dibbena vaººena, dibbena sukhena, dibbena yasena, dibbena ±dhipateyyena, dibbehi r³pehi, dibbehi saddehi, dibbehi gandhehi, dibbehi rasehi, dibbehi phoµµhabbehi…pe… dhamma½, saªgha½…pe… phoµµhabbeh²”’ti (sa½. ni. 4.341).