1. Ekakanip±to

1. Paµhamavaggo

1. Lobhasuttavaŗŗan±

1. Id±ni ekadhamma½, bhikkhave, pajahath±ti-±din± nayena bhagavat± nikkhittassa suttassa vaŗŗan±ya ok±so anuppatto. S± panes± atthavaŗŗan± yasm± suttanikkhepa½ vic±retv± vuccam±n± p±kaµ± hoti, tasm± suttanikkhepa½ t±va vic±ress±ma. Catt±ro hi suttanikkhep±– attajjh±sayo, parajjh±sayo, pucch±vasiko, aµµhuppattikoti. Yath± hi anekasata-anekasahassabhed±nipi suttant±ni sa½kilesabh±giy±dipaµµh±nanayena so¼asavidhata½ n±tivattanti, eva½ attajjh±say±disuttanikkhepavasena catubbidhata½ n±tivattant²ti. Tattha yath± attajjh±sayassa aµµhuppattiy± ca parajjh±sayapucch±vasikehi saddhi½ sa½saggabhedo sambhavati attajjh±sayo ca parajjh±sayo ca, attajjh±sayo ca pucch±vasiko ca, aµµhuppattiko ca parajjh±sayo ca, aµµhuppattiko ca pucch±vasiko c±ti ajjh±sayapucch±nusandhisambhavato; eva½ yadipi aµµhuppattiy± attajjh±sayenapi sa½saggabhedo sambhavati, attajjh±say±d²hi pana purato µhitehi aµµhuppattiy± sa½saggo natth²ti niravaseso paµµh±nanayo na sambhavati. Tadantogadhatt± v± sambhavant±na½ sesanikkhep±na½ m³lanikkhepavasena catt±ro suttanikkhep± vutt±ti veditabba½.
Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– nikkhip²yat²ti nikkhepo, sutta½ eva nikkhepo suttanikkhepo. Atha v± nikkhipana½ nikkhepo, suttassa nikkhepo suttanikkhepo, suttadesan±ti attho. Attano ajjh±sayo attajjh±sayo, so assa atthi k±raŗabh³toti attajjh±sayo, attano ajjh±sayo etass±ti v± attajjh±sayo. Parajjh±sayepi eseva nayo. Pucch±ya vasoti pucch±vaso. So etassa atth²ti pucch±vasiko. Suttadesan±ya vatthubh³tassa atthassa uppatti atthuppatti atthuppatti eva aµµhuppatti tha-k±rassa µha-k±ra½ katv±, s± etassa atth²ti aµµhuppattiko Atha v± nikkhip²yati sutta½ eten±ti nikkhepo, attajjh±say±di eva. Etasmi½ pana atthavikappe attano ajjh±sayo attajjh±sayo. Paresa½ ajjh±sayo parajjh±sayo. Pucch²yat²ti pucch±, pucchitabbo attho, pucch±vasena pavatta½ dhammappaµigg±hak±na½ vacana½ pucch±vasa½, tadeva nikkhepasadd±pekkh±ya pucch±vasikoti pulliŖgavasena vutta½. Tath± aµµhuppatti eva aµµhuppattikoti evamettha attho veditabbo.
Apica paresa½ indriyaparip±k±dik±raŗanirapekkhatt± attajjh±sayassa visu½ suttanikkhepabh±vo yutto, kevala½ attano ajjh±sayeneva dhammatantiµhapanattha½ pavattitadesanatt±. Parajjh±sayapucch±vasik±na½ pana paresa½ ajjh±sayapucch±na½ desan±pavattihetubh³t±na½ uppattiya½ pavattit±na½ katha½ aµµhuppattiya½ anavarodho, pucch±vasikaµµhuppattik±na½ v± parajjh±say±nurodhena pavattit±na½ katha½ parajjh±saye anavarodhoti? Na codetabbameta½. Paresańhi abhin²h±raparipucch±divinimuttasseva suttadesan±k±raŗupp±dassa aµµhuppattibh±vena gahitatt± parajjh±sayapucch±vasik±na½ visu½ gahaŗa½. Tath± hi brahmaj±ladhammad±y±dasutt±d²na½ (d². na. 1.1 ±dayo) vaŗŗ±vaŗŗa-±misupp±d±didesan±nimitta½ aµµhuppatti vuccati. Paresa½ puccha½ vin± ajjh±sayameva nimitta½ katv± desito parajjh±sayo, pucch±vasena desito pucch±vasikoti p±kaµoyamatthoti.
Y±ni bhagav± parehi anajjhiµµho kevala½ attano ajjh±sayeneva katheti, seyyathida½– ±kaŖkheyyasutta½, tuvaµµakasuttanti-evam±d²ni (su. ni. 921 ±dayo; ma. ni. 1.64 ±dayo), tesa½ attajjh±sayo nikkhepo.
Y±ni pana “paripakk± kho r±hulassa vimuttiparip±can²y± dhamm±, ya½n³n±ha½ r±hula½ uttari½ ±sav±na½ khaye vineyyan”ti eva½ paresa½ ajjh±saya½ khanti½ abhin²h±ra½ bujjhanabh±vańca oloketv± parajjh±sayavasena kathit±ni, seyyathida½– r±hulov±dasutta½, dhammacakkappavattanasuttanti-evam±d²ni (ma. ni. 2.107 ±dayo; 3.416 ±dayo; sa½. ni. 3.59; mah±va. 19-20), tesa½ parajjh±sayo nikkhepo.
Bhagavanta½ pana upasaŖkamitv± dev± manuss± catasso paris± catt±ro vaŗŗ± ca tath± tath± pańha½ pucchanti “bojjhaŖg± bojjhaŖg±ti, bhante, vuccanti, n²varaŗ± n²varaŗ±ti vuccant²”ti-±din± eva½ puµµhena bhagavat± y±ni kathit±ni bojjhaŖgasa½yutt±d²ni (sa½. ni. 5.186) tesa½ pucch±vasiko nikkhepo.
Y±ni pana t±ni uppanna½ k±raŗa½ paµicca kathit±ni, seyyathida½– dhammad±y±da½, puttama½s³pama½, d±rukkhandh³pamanti-evam±d²ni (ma. ni. 1.29; sa½. ni. 2.63), tesa½ aµµhuppattiko nikkhepo.
Evamimesu cat³su suttanikkhepesu imassa suttassa parajjh±sayo nikkhepo. Parajjh±sayavasena heta½ nikkhitta½. Kesa½ ajjh±sayena? Lobhe ±d²navadass²na½ puggal±na½. Keci pana “attajjh±sayo”ti vadanti.
Tattha ekadhamma½, bhikkhaveti-±d²su ekasaddo attheva ańńatthe “sassato att± ca loko ca, idameva sacca½ moghamańńanti ittheke abhivadant²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.27). Atthi seµµhe “cetaso ekodibh±van”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.228; p±r±. 11). Atthi asah±ye “eko v³pakaµµho”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.405). Atthi saŖkh±ya½ “ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaŗo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 8.29). Idh±pi saŖkh±yameva daµµhabbo.
Dhamma-saddo pariyattisaccasam±dhipańń±pakatipuńń±pattisuńńat±ńeyyasabh±v±d²su dissati. Tath± hissa “idha bhikkhu dhamma½ pariy±puŗ±t²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 5.73) pariyatti attho. “Diµµhadhammo”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.299) sacc±ni. “Eva½dhamm± te bhagavanto ahesun”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.13; 3.142) sam±dhi. “Sacca½ dhammo dhiti c±go, save pecca na socat²”ti-±d²su (j±. 1.1.57) pańń±. “J±tidhamm±na½, bhikkhave, satt±na½ eva½ icch± uppajjat²”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.398) pakati. “Dhammo have rakkhati dhammac±rin”ti-±d²su (j±. 1.10.102) puńńa½. “Tiŗŗa½ dhamm±na½ ańńatarena vadeyya p±r±jikena v± saŖgh±disesena v± p±cittiyena v±”ti-±d²su (p±r±. 444) ±patti. “Tasmi½ kho pana samaye dhamm± hont²”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 121) suńńat±. “Sabbe dhamm± sabb±k±rena buddhassa bhagavato ń±ŗamukhe ±p±tha½ ±gacchant²”ti-±d²su (mah±ni. 156; c³¼ani. moghar±jam±ŗavapucch±niddesa 85) ńeyyo. “Kusal± dhamm± akusal± dhamm±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. tikam±tik± 1) sabh±vo attho Idh±pi sabh±vo. Tasm± ekadhammanti eka½ sa½kilesasabh±vanti adhipp±yo. Eko ca so dhammo c±ti ekadhammo, ta½ ekadhamma½.
Bhikkhaveti bhikkh³ ±lapati. Kimattha½ pana bhagav± dhamma½ desento bhikkh³ ±lapati, na dhammameva deset²ti? Satijananattha½. Bhikkh³ hi ańńa½ cintent±pi dhamma½ paccavekkhant±pi kammaµµh±na½ manasi karont±pi nisinn± honti. Te paµhama½ an±lapitv± dhamme desiyam±ne “aya½ desan± ki½nid±n±, ki½paccay±”ti sallakkhetu½ na sakkonti. ¾lapite pana sati½ upaµµhapetv± sallakkhetu½ sakkonti, tasm± satijananattha½ “bhikkhave”ti ±lapati. Tena ca tesa½ bhikkhanas²lat±diguŗayogasiddhena vacanena h²n±dhikajanasevita½ vutti½ pak±sento uddhatad²nabh±vaniggaha½ karoti. “Bhikkhave”ti imin± karuŗ±vipph±rasommahadayanayananip±tapubbaŖgamena vacanena te attano mukh±bhimukhe karonto tena ca kathetukamyat±d²pakena vacanena nesa½ sotukamyata½ janeti. Teneva ca sambodhanatthena s±dhuka½ savanamanasik±repi niyojeti. S±dhuka½ savanamanasik±r±yatt± hi s±sanasampatti.
Ańńesupi devamanussesu parisapariy±pannesu vijjam±nesu kasm± bhikkh³ eva ±mantes²ti? Jeµµhaseµµh±sannasad±sannihitabh±vato. Sabbaparisas±dh±raŗ± hi bhagavato dhammadesan±, paris±ya ca jeµµh± bhikkh³ paµhamuppannatt±, seµµh± anag±riyabh±va½ ±di½ katv± satthu cariy±nuvidh±yakatt± sakalas±sanapaµigg±hakatt± ca, ±sann± tattha nisinnesu sam²pavuttiy±, sad±sannihit± satthusantik±vacaratt±. Apica te dhammadesan±ya bh±jana½ yath±nusiµµha½ paµipattisabbh±vato, visesato ca ekacce bhikkh³ sandh±ya aya½ desan±ti te eva ±lapi.
Pajahath±ti ettha pah±na½ n±ma tadaŖgappah±na½, vikkhambhanappah±na½, samucchedappah±na½, paµippassaddhippah±na½, nissaraŗappah±nanti pańcavidha½. Tattha ya½ d²p±lokeneva tamassa paµipakkhabh±vato alobh±d²hi lobh±dikassa, n±mar³paparicched±divipassan±ń±ŗehi tassa tassa anatthassa pah±na½. Seyyathida½– paricc±gena lobh±dimalassa, s²lena p±ŗ±tip±t±diduss²lyassa, saddh±d²hi assaddhiy±dikassa, n±mar³pavavatth±nena sakk±yadiµµhiy±, paccayapariggahena ahetuvisamahetudiµµh²na½, tasseva aparabh±gena kaŖkh±vitaraŗena katha½kath²bh±vassa, kal±pasammasanena “aha½ mam±”ti g±hassa, magg±maggavavatth±nena amagge maggasańń±ya, udayadassanena ucchedadiµµhiy±, vayadassanena sassatadiµµhiy±, bhayadassanena sabhayesu abhayasańń±ya, ±d²navadassanena ass±dasańń±ya, nibbid±nupassanena abhiratisańń±ya, muccitukamyat±ń±ŗena amuccitukamyat±ya upekkh±ń±ŗena anupekkh±ya, anulomena dhammaµµhitiy±, nibb±nena paµilomabh±vassa, gotrabhun± saŖkh±ranimittagg±hassa pah±na½, eta½ tadaŖgappah±na½ n±ma.
Ya½ pana upac±rappan±bhedena sam±dhin± pavattibh±vaniv±raŗato ghaµappah±reneva udakapiµµhe sev±lassa tesa½ tesa½ n²varaŗ±didhamm±na½ pah±na½, eta½ vikkhambhanappah±na½ n±ma. Ya½ catunna½ ariyamagg±na½ bh±vitatt± ta½ta½maggavato attano sant±ne “diµµhigat±na½ pah±n±y±”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 277; vibha. 628) nayena vuttassa samudayapakkhiyassa kilesagaŗassa accanta½ appavattibh±vena samucchindana½, ida½ samucchedappah±na½ n±ma. Ya½ pana phalakkhaŗe paµippassaddhatta½ kiles±na½, eta½ paµippassaddhippah±na½ n±ma. Ya½ pana sabbasaŖkhatanissaµatt± pah²nasabbasaŖkhata½ nibb±na½, eta½ nissaraŗappah±na½ n±ma. Eva½ pańcavidhe pah±ne an±g±mikabh±vakarassa pah±nassa adhippetatt± idha samucchedappah±nanti veditabba½. Tasm± pajahath±ti pariccajatha, samucchindath±ti attho.
Ahanti bhagav± att±na½ niddisati. Voti aya½ vosaddo paccatta-upayogakaraŗas±mivacanapadap³raŗasampad±nesu dissati. Tath± hi “kacci, pana vo anuruddh±, samagg± sammodam±n±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.326) paccatte ±gato. “Gacchatha, bhikkhave, paŗ±memi vo”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.157) upayoge. “Na vo mama santike vatthabban”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.157) karaŗe. “Sabbesa½ vo, s±riputta, subh±sitan”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.345) s±mivacane. “Ye hi vo ariy± parisuddhak±yakammant±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.35) padap³raŗe. “Vanapatthapariy±ya½ vo, bhikkhave, desess±m²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.190) sampad±ne. Idh±pi sampad±ne eva daµµhabbo.
P±µibhogoti paµibh³. So hi dh±raŗaka½ paµicca dhanikassa, dhanika½ paµicca dh±raŗakassa paµinidhibh³to dhanikasantakassa tato haraŗ±disaŖkh±tena bhuńjanena bhogoti paµibhogo, paµibhogo eva p±µibhogo. An±g±mit±y±ti an±g±mibh±vatth±ya. Paµisandhiggahaŗavasena hi k±mabhavassa an±gamanato an±g±m². Yo yassa dhammassa adhigamena an±g±m²ti vuccati, saphalo so tatiyamaggo an±g±mit± n±ma. Iti bhagav± veneyyadamanakusalo veneyyajjh±say±nuk³la½ tatiyamagg±dhigama½ lahun± up±yena ekadhammap³raŗat±mattena thira½ katv± dassesi yath± ta½ samm±sambuddho. Bhinnabh³mik±pi hi paµighasa½yojan±dayo tatiyamaggavajjh± kiles± k±mar±gappah±na½ n±tivattant²ti.