Katha½ tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato? Tath±ni n±ma catt±ri ariyamaggañ±º±ni. T±ni hi “ida½ dukkha½, aya½ dukkhasamudayo, aya½ dukkhanirodho, aya½ dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±”ti eva½ sabbañeyyasaªg±hak±na½ pavattinivattitadubhayahetubh³t±na½ catunna½ ariyasacc±na½, dukkhassa p²¼anaµµho saªkhataµµho sant±paµµho vipariº±maµµho, samudayassa ±y³hanaµµho nid±naµµho sa½yogaµµho palibodhaµµho, nirodhassa nissaraºaµµho vivekaµµho asaªkhataµµho amataµµho, maggassa niyy±naµµho hetvaµµho dassanaµµho adhipateyyaµµhoti-±d²na½ tabbibh±g±nañca yath±bh³tasabh±v±vabodhavibandhakassa sa½kilesapakkhassa samucchindanena paµiladdh±ya tattha asammoh±bhisamayasaªkh±t±ya avipar²t±k±rappavattiy± dhamm±na½ sabh±vasarasalakkhaºassa avisa½v±danato tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni, t±ni bhagav± anaññaneyyo sayameva ±gato adhigato, tasm± tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato.
Yath± ca maggañ±º±ni, eva½ bhagavato t²su k±lesu appaµihatañ±º±ni catupaµisambhid±ñ±º±ni catuves±rajjañ±º±ni pañcagatiparicchedañ±º±ni cha-as±dh±raºañ±º±ni sattabojjhaªgavibh±vanañ±º±ni aµµhamaggaªgavibh±vanañ±º±ni nav±nupubbavih±rasam±pattiñ±º±ni dasabalañ±º±ni ca vibh±vetabb±ni.
Tatr±ya½ vibh±van±– yañhi kiñci aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ h²n±dibhedabhinn±na½ h²n±dibhedabhinn±su at²t±su khandh±yatanadh±t³su sabh±vakicc±di avatth±vises±di khandhapaµibaddhan±magott±di ca j±nitabba½. Anindriyabaddhesu ca atisukhumatirohitavid³radesesu r³padhammesu yo ta½ta½paccayavisesehi saddhi½ paccayuppann±na½ vaººasaºµh±nagandharasaphass±diviseso, tattha sabbattheva hatthatale µhapita-±malako viya paccakkhato asaªgamappaµihata½ bhagavato ñ±ºa½ pavattati, tath± an±gat±su paccuppann±su c±ti im±ni t²su k±lesu appaµihatañ±º±ni n±ma. Yath±ha–
“At²ta½se buddhassa bhagavato appaµihata½ ñ±ºa½, an±gata½se buddhassa bhagavato appaµihata½ ñ±ºa½, paccuppanna½se buddhassa bhagavato appaµihata½ ñ±ºan”ti (paµi. ma. 3.5).
T±ni panet±ni tattha tattha dhamm±na½ sabh±vasarasalakkhaºassa avisa½v±danato tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni, t±ni bhagav± sayambhuñ±ºena adhigañchi. Eva½ tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato.
Tath± atthapaµisambhid±, dhammapaµisambhid±, niruttipaµisambhid±, paµibh±napaµisambhid±ti catasso paµisambhid±. Tattha atthapabhedassa sallakkhaºavibh±vanavavatth±nakaraºasamattha½ atthe pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±. Dhammapabhedassa sallakkhaºavibh±vanavavatth±nakaraºasamattha½ dhamme pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±. Niruttipabhedassa sallakkhaºavibh±vanavavatth±nakaraºasamattha½ nirutt±bhil±pe pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ niruttipaµisambhid±. Paµibh±napabhedassa sallakkhaºavibh±vanavavatth±nakaraºasamattha½ paµibh±ne pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ paµibh±napaµisambhid±. Vuttañheta½–
“Atthe ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±, dhamme ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±, tatra dhammanirutt±bhil±pe ñ±ºa½ niruttipaµisambhid±, ñ±ºesu ñ±ºa½ paµibh±napaµisambhid±”ti (vibha. 718).
Ettha ca hetu-anus±rena araº²yato adhigantabbato ca saªkhepato hetuphala½ attho n±ma. Pabhedato pana ya½kiñci paccayuppanna½, nibb±na½, bh±sitattho, vip±ko, kiriy±ti ime pañca dhamm± attho. Ta½ attha½ paccavekkhantassa tasmi½ atthe pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±. Dhammoti saªkhepato paccayo. So hi yasm± ta½ ta½ attha½ vidahati pavatteti ceva p±peti ca, tasm± dhammoti vuccati. Pabhedato pana yo koci phalanibbattako hetu, ariyamaggo, bh±sita½, kusala½, akusalanti ime pañca dhamm± dhammo, ta½ dhamma½ paccavekkhantassa tasmi½ dhamme pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Dukkhe ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±, dukkhasamudaye ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±, dukkhanirodhe ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±, dukkhanirodhag±miniy± paµipad±ya ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±”ti (vibha. 719).
Atha v± hetumhi ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±, hetuphale ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±. Ye dhamm± j±t± bh³t± sañj±t± nibbatt± abhinibbatt± p±tubh³t±, imesu dhammesu ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±. Yamh± dhamm± te dhamm± j±t± bh³t± sañj±t± nibbatt± abhinibbatt± p±tubh³t±, tesu dhammesu ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±. Jar±maraºe ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±, jar±maraºasamudaye ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±. Jar±maraºanirodhe ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±, jar±maraºanirodhag±miniy± paµipad±ya ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±. J±tiy±, bhave, up±d±ne, taºh±ya, vedan±ya, phasse, sa¼±yatane, n±mar³pe, viññ±ºe, saªkh±resu ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±, saªkh±rasamudaye ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±. Saªkh±ranirodhe ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid± saªkh±ranirodhag±miniy± paµipad±ya ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±.
“Idha bhikkhu dhamma½ j±n±ti– sutta½, geyya½…pe… vedalla½. Aya½ vuccati dhammapaµisambhid±. So tassa tasseva bh±sitassa attha½ j±n±ti– ‘aya½ imassa bh±sitassa attho, aya½ imassa bh±sitassa attho’ti, aya½ vuccati atthapaµisambhid± (vibha. 724).
“Katame dhamm± kusal±? Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti somanassasahagata½ ñ±ºasampayutta½ r³p±rammaºa½ v±…pe… dhamm±rammaºa½ v± ya½ ya½ v± pan±rabbha, tasmi½ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti. Ime dhamm± kusal±. Imesu dhammesu ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±, tesa½ vip±ke ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±”ti-±di vitth±ro (vibha. 725).
Tasmi½ atthe ca dhamme ca sabh±vanirutti abyabhic±ravoh±ro abhil±po, tasmi½ sabh±vanirutt±bhil±pe m±gadhik±ya sabbasatt±na½ m³labh±s±ya “aya½ sabh±vanirutti, aya½ na sabh±vanirutt²”ti pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ niruttipaµisambhid±. Yath±vuttesu tesu ñ±ºesu gocarakicc±divasena vitth±rato pavatta½ sabbampi ñ±ºam±rammaºa½ katv± paccavekkhantassa tasmi½ ñ±ºe pabhedagata½ ñ±ºa½ paµibh±napaµisambhid±. Iti im±ni catt±ri paµisambhid±ñ±º±ni sayameva bhagavat± adhigat±ni atthadhamm±dike tasmi½ tasmi½ attano visaye avisa½v±danavasena avipar²t±k±rappavattiy± tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni. Evampi bhagav± tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato.
Tath± ya½ kiñci ñeyya½ n±ma, sabba½ ta½ bhagavat± sabb±k±rena ñ±ta½ diµµha½ adhigata½ abhisambuddha½. Tath± hissa abhiññeyy± dhamm± abhiññeyyato buddh±, pariññeyy± dhamm± pariññeyyato buddh±, pah±tabb± dhamm± pah±tabbato buddh±, sacchik±tabb± dhamm± sacchik±tabbato buddh±, bh±vetabb± dhamm± bh±vetabbato buddh±, yato na½ koci samaºo v± br±hmaºo v± devo v± m±ro v± brahm± v± “ime n±ma te dhamm± anabhisambuddh±”ti saha dhammena anuyuñjitu½ samattho natthi.
Ya½ kiñci pah±tabba½ n±ma, sabba½ ta½ bhagavat± anavasesato bodhim³leyeva pah²na½ anuppattidhamma½, na tassa pah±n±ya uttari karaº²ya½ atthi Tath± hissa lobhadosamohavipar²tamanasik±ra-ahirik±nottappathinamiddha- kodh³pan±hamakkhapal±sa-iss±macchariya- m±y±s±µheyyathambhas±rambham±n±tim±namadapam±datividh±kusalam³laduccarita- visamasaññ±malavitakkapapañca-esan±taºh±catubbidhavipariyesa-±sava- gantha-oghayog±gatitaºhup±d±napañc±bhinandanan²varaºa- cetokhilacetasovinibandhachaviv±dam³lasatt±nusaya- aµµhamicchattanava-±gh±tavatthutaºh±m³lakadasa-akusala- kammapatha-ekav²sati-anesanadv±saµµhidiµµhigata-aµµhasatataºh±vicarit±dippabheda½ diya¹¹hakilesasahassa½ saha v±san±ya pah²na½ samucchinna½ sam³hata½, yato na½ koci samaºo v±…pe… brahm± v± “ime n±ma te kiles± appah²n±”ti saha dhammena anuyuñjitu½ samattho natthi.
Ye cime bhagavat± kammavip±kakiles³pav±da-±º±v²tikkamappabhed± antar±yik± dhamm± vutt±, alameva te ekantena antar±y±ya, yato na½ koci samaºo v±…pe… brahm± v± “n±la½ te paµisevato antar±y±y±”ti saha dhammena anuyuñjitu½ samattho natthi.
Yo ca bhagavat± niravasesavaµµadukkhanissaraº±ya s²lasam±dhipaññ±saªgaho sattakoµµh±siko sattati½sappabhedo ariyamaggapubbaªgamo anuttaro niyy±nadhammo desito, so ekanteneva niyy±ti paµipannassa vaµµadukkhato, yato na½ koci samaºo v±…pe… brahm± v± “niyy±nadhammo tay± desito na niyy±t²”ti saha dhammena anuyuñjitu½ samattho natthi. Vuttañheta½– “samm±sambuddhassa te paµij±nato ime dhamm± anabhisambuddh±”ti (ma. ni. 1.150) vitth±ro. Evamet±ni attano ñ±ºappah±nadesan±vises±na½ avitathabh±v±vabodhanato avipar²t±k±rappavatt±ni bhagavato catuves±rajjañ±º±ni tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni. Evampi bhagav± tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato.
Tath± nirayagati, tiracch±nagati, petagati, manussagati, devagat²ti pañca gatiyo. T±su sañj²v±dayo aµµha mah±niray± kukku¼±dayo so¼asa ussadaniray±, lokantarikanirayo c±ti sabbepime ekantadukkhat±ya nirass±daµµhena niray± ca, sakakammun± gantabbato gati c±ti nirayagati Tibbandhak±ras²tanarak±pi etesveva antogadh± kimik²µapaµaªgasar²sapapakkhisoºasiªg±l±dayo tiriya½ añchitabh±vena tiracch±n± n±ma. Te eva gat²ti tiracch±nagati. Khuppip±sitaparadatt³paj²vinijjh±mataºhik±dayo dukkhabahulat±ya pakaµµhasukhato it± vigat±ti pet±, te eva gat²ti petagati. K±lakañcik±di-asur±pi etesveva antogadh±. Parittad²pav±s²hi saddhi½ jambud²p±dicatumah±d²pav±sino manaso ussannat±ya manuss±, te eva gat²ti manussagati. C±tumah±r±jikato paµµh±ya y±va nevasaññ±n±saññ±yatan³pag±ti ime chabb²sati devanik±y± dibbanti attano iddh±nubh±vena k²¼anti jotenti c±ti dev±, te eva gat²ti devagati.
T± panet± gatiyo yasm± ta½ta½kammanibbatto upapattibhavaviseso, tasm± atthato vip±kakkhandh± kaµatt± ca r³pa½. Tattha “aya½ n±ma gati n±ma imin± kammun± j±yati, tassa kammassa paccayavisesehi eva½ vibh±gabhinnatt± visu½ ete sattanik±y± eva½ vibh±gabhinn±”ti yath±saka½hetuphalavibh±gaparicchindanavasena µh±naso hetuso bhagavato ñ±ºa½ pavattati. Ten±ha bhagav±–
“Pañca kho im±, s±riputta, gatiyo. Katam± pañca? Nirayo, tiracch±nayoni, pettivisayo, manuss±, dev±. Nirayañc±ha½, s±riputta, paj±n±mi, nirayag±miñca magga½, nirayag±miniñca paµipada½; yath± paµipanno ca k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± ap±ya½ duggati½ vinip±ta½ niraya½ upapajjati, tañca paj±n±m²”ti-±di (ma. ni. 1.153).
T±ni panet±ni bhagavato ñ±º±ni tasmi½ tasmi½ visaye avipar²t±k±rappavattiy± avisa½v±danato tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni. Evampi bhagav± tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato.
Tath± ya½ satt±na½ saddh±diyogavikalabh±v±vabodhena apparajakkhamah±rajakkhat±divisesavibh±vana½ paññ±s±ya ±k±rehi pavatta½ bhagavato indriyaparopariyattañ±ºa½. Vuttañheta½ “saddho puggalo apparajakkho, assaddho puggalo mah±rajakkho”ti (paµi. ma. 1.111) vitth±ro.
Yañca “aya½ puggalo apparajakkho, aya½ sassatadiµµhiko, aya½ ucchedadiµµhiko, aya½ anulomik±ya½ khantiya½ µhito, aya½ yath±bh³tañ±ºe µhito, aya½ k±m±sayo, na nekkhamm±di-±sayo, aya½ nekkhamm±sayo, na k±m±di-±sayo”ti-±din± “imassa k±mar±go ativiya th±magato, na paµigh±diko, imassa paµigho ativiya th±magato, na k±mar±g±diko”ti-±din± “imassa puññ±bhisaªkh±ro adhiko, na apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro na ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ro, imassa apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro adhiko, na puññ±bhisaªkh±ro na ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ro, imassa ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ro adhiko, na puññ±bhisaªkh±ro na apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro. Imassa k±yasucarita½ adhika½, imassa vac²sucarita½, imassa manosucarita½. Aya½ h²n±dhimuttiko, aya½ paº²t±dhimuttiko, aya½ kamm±varaºena samann±gato, aya½ kiles±varaºena samann±gato, aya½ vip±k±varaºena samann±gato, aya½ na kamm±varaºena samann±gato, na kiles±varaºena, na vip±k±varaºena samann±gato”ti-±din± ca satt±na½ ±say±d²na½ yath±bh³ta½ vibh±van±k±rappavatta½ bhagavato ±say±nusayañ±ºa½. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½–