2. Dutiyavaggo

1. Vitakkasuttavaººan±

38. Dutiyavaggassa paµhame tath±gata½, bhikkhaveti ettha tath±gata-saddo t±va sattavoh±rasamm±sambuddh±d²su dissati. Tath± hesa “hoti tath±gato para½ maraº±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.65) sattavoh±re.
“Tath±gata½ devamanussap³jita½,
buddha½ namass±ma suvatthi hot³”ti. (Khu. p±. 6.16)–

¾d²su samm±sambuddhe.

“Tath±gata½ devamanussap³jita½,
dhamma½ namass±ma suvatthi hot³”ti. (Khu. p±. 6.17)–

¾d²su dhamme.

“Tath±gata½ devamanussap³jita½,
saªgha½ namass±ma suvatthi hot³”ti. (Khu. p±. 6.18)–

¾d²su saªghe. Idha pana samm±sambuddhe. Tasm± tath±gatanti ettha aµµhahi k±raºehi bhagav± tath±gatoti vuccati. Katamehi aµµhahi? Tath± ±gatoti tath±gato, tath± gatoti tath±gato, tathalakkhaºa½ ±gatoti tath±gato, tathadhamme y±th±vato abhisambuddhoti tath±gato, tathadassit±ya tath±gato, tathav±dit±ya tath±gato, tath±k±rit±ya tath±gato, abhibhavanaµµhena tath±gatoti.

Katha½ bhagav± tath± ±gatoti tath±gato? Yath± yena abhin²h±rena d±nap±rami½ p³retv± s²lanekkhammapaññ±v²riyakhantisacca-adhiµµh±namett±-upekkh±p±rami½ p³retv± im± dasa p±ramiyo, dasa upap±ramiyo, dasa paramatthap±ramiyoti samati½sa p±ramiyo p³retv± aªgaparicc±ga½, attaparicc±ga½, dhanaparicc±ga½, d±raparicc±ga½, rajjaparicc±ganti im±ni pañca mah±paricc±g±ni pariccajitv± yath± vipassi-±dayo samm±sambuddh± ±gat± tath± amh±ka½ bhagav±pi ±gatoti tath±gato. Yath±ha–
“Yatheva lokamhi vipassi-±dayo,
sabbaññubh±va½ munayo idh±gat±;
tath± aya½ sakyamun²pi ±gato,
tath±gato vuccati tena cakkhum±”ti.–

Eva½ tath± ±gatoti tath±gato.

Katha½ tath± gatoti tath±gato? Yath± sampatij±t±va vipassi-±dayo samehi p±dehi pathaviya½ patiµµh±ya uttar±bhimukh± sattapadav²tih±rena gat±, tath± amh±ka½ bhagav±pi gatoti tath±gato. Yath±hu–
“Muhuttaj±tova gava½pat² yath±,
samehi p±dehi phus² vasundhara½;
so vikkam² satta pad±ni gotamo,
setañca chatta½ anudh±rayu½ mar³.
“Gantv±na so satta pad±ni gotamo,
dis± vilokesi sam± samantato;
aµµhaªgupeta½ giramabbhud²rayi,
s²ho yath± pabbatamuddhaniµµhito”ti.–

Eva½ tath± gatoti tath±gato.

Katha½ tathalakkhaºa½ ±gatoti tath±gato? Sabbesa½ r³p±r³padhamm±na½ salakkhaºa½, s±maññalakkhaºa½, tatha½, avitatha½, ñ±ºagatiy± ±gato, avirajjhitv± patto, anubuddhoti tath±gato. Yath±ha–
“Sabbesa½ pana dhamm±na½, sakas±maññalakkhaºa½;
tathamev±gato yasm±, tasm± n±tho tath±gato”ti.–

Eva½ tathalakkhaºa½ ±gatoti tath±gato.

Katha½ tathadhamme y±th±vato abhisambuddhoti tath±gato? Tathadhamm± n±ma catt±ri ariyasacc±ni. Yath±ha “catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni. Katam±ni catt±ri? Ida½ dukkha½ ariyasaccanti bhikkhave, tathameta½ avitathameta½ anaññathametan”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1090) vitth±ro. T±ni ca bhagav± abhisambuddho, tasm±pi tath±na½ abhisambuddhatt± tath±gato. Abhisambuddhattho hi ettha gata-saddo. Eva½ tathadhamme y±th±vato abhisambuddhoti tath±gato.
Katha½ tathadassit±ya tath±gato? Ya½ sadevake loke…pe… sadevamanuss±ya paj±ya aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ cakkhudv±re ±p±tham±gacchanta½ r³p±rammaºa½ n±ma atthi, ta½ bhagav± sabb±k±rato j±n±ti passati. Eva½ j±nat± passat± c±nena ta½ iµµh±divasena v± diµµhasutamutaviññ±tesu labbham±napadavasena v± “katama½ ta½ r³pa½ r³p±yatana½, ya½ r³pa½ catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±ya vaººanibh± sanidassana½ sappaµigha½ n²la½ p²takan”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 616) nayena anekehi n±mehi terasahi v±rehi dvepaññ±s±ya nayehi vibhajjam±na½ tathameva hoti, vitatha½ natthi. Esa nayo sotadv±r±d²su ±p±tham±gacchantesu sadd±d²su. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
“Ya½, bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa…pe… sadevamanuss±ya diµµha½ suta½ muta½ viññ±ta½ patta½ pariyesita½ anuvicarita½ manas±, tamaha½ j±n±mi…pe… tamaha½ abbhaññ±si½, ta½ tath±gatassa vidita½, ta½ tath±gato na upaµµh±s²”ti (a. ni. 4.24).
Eva½ tathadassit±ya tath±gato. Ettha tathadassi-atthe tath±gatoti padassa sambhavo veditabbo.
Katha½ tathav±dit±ya tath±gato? Ya½ ratti½ bhagav± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambuddho, yañca ratti½ anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±yi, etthantare pañcacatt±l²savassaparim±ºak±le ya½ bhagavat± bh±sita½ suttageyy±di, sabba½ ta½ parisuddha½ paripuººa½ r±gamad±dinimmadana½ ekasadisa½ tatha½ avitatha½. Ten±ha–
“Yañca, cunda, ratti½ tath±gato anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambujjhati, yañca ratti½ anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±yati, ya½ etasmi½ antare bh±sati lapati niddisati, sabba½ ta½ tatheva hoti, no aññath±. Tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (d². ni. 3.188; a. ni. 4.23).
Gada-attho hi ettha gatasaddo. Eva½ tathav±dit±ya tath±gato. Apica ±gadana½ ±gado, vacananti attho. Tatho avipar²to ±gado ass±ti dak±rassa tak±ra½ katv± tath±gatoti, evampettha padasiddhi veditabb±.
Katha½ tath±k±rit±ya tath±gato? Bhagavato hi v±c±ya k±yo anulometi, k±yassapi v±c±. Tasm± yath±v±d² tath±k±r², yath±k±r² tath±v±d² ca hoti. Eva½bh³tassa cassa yath± v±c±, k±yopi tath± gato pavatto. Yath± ca k±yo, v±c±pi tath± gat±ti tath±gato. Ten±ha “yath±v±d², bhikkhave, tath±gato tath±k±r², yath±k±r² tath±v±d². Iti yath±v±d² tath±k±r², yath±k±r² tath±v±d². Tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti. Eva½ tath±k±rit±ya tath±gato.
Katha½ abhibhavanaµµhena tath±gato? Yasm± bhagav± upari bhavagga½ heµµh± av²ci½ pariyanta½ karitv± tiriya½ aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su sabbasatte abhibhavati s²lenapi sam±dhin±pi paññ±yapi vimuttiy±pi vimuttiñ±ºadassanenapi, na tassa tul± v± pam±ºa½ v± atthi, atha kho atulo appameyyo anuttaro dev±na½ atidevo sakk±na½ atisakko brahm±na½ atibrahm± sabbasattuttamo, tasm± tath±gato. Ten±ha–
“Sadevake, bhikkhave, loke…pe… manuss±ya tath±gato abhibh³ anabhibh³to aññadatthu daso vasavatt², tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (d². ni. 3.188; a. ni. 4.23).
Tatr±ya½ padasiddhi– agado viya agado, desan±vil±so ceva puññussayo ca. Tena hesa mah±nubh±vo bhisakko viya dibb±gadena sappe, sabbaparappav±dino sadevakañca loka½ abhibhavati. Iti sabbalok±bhibhavane tatho avipar²to yath±vutto agado etass±ti dak±rassa tak±ra½ katv± tath±gatoti veditabbo. Eva½ abhibhavanaµµhena tath±gato.
Apica tath±ya gatoti tath±gato, tatha½ gatoti tath±gato. Tattha sakalaloka½ t²raºapariññ±ya tath±ya gato avagatoti tath±gato, lokasamudaya½ pah±napariññ±ya tath±ya gato at²toti tath±gato, lokanirodha½ sacchikiriy±ya tath±ya gato adhigatoti tath±gato. Lokanirodhag±mini½ paµipada½ tatha½ gato paµipannoti tath±gato. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
“Loko, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddho. Lokasm± tath±gato visa½yutto. Lokasamudayo, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddho, lokasamudayo tath±gatassa pah²no. Lokanirodho, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddho, lokanirodho tath±gatassa sacchikato. Lokanirodhag±min² paµipad±, bhikkhave, tath±gatena abhisambuddh±, lokanirodhag±min² paµipad± tath±gatassa bh±vit±. Ya½, bhikkhave, sadevakassa…pe… sabba½ ta½ tath±gatena abhisambuddha½. Tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (a. ni. 4.23).
Aparehipi aµµhahi k±raºehi bhagav± tath±gato. Tath±ya ±gatoti tath±gato, tath±ya gatoti tath±gato, tath±ni ±gatoti tath±gato, tath± gatoti tath±gato, tath±vidhoti tath±gato, tath±pavattikoti tath±gato, tathehi ±gatoti tath±gato, tath± gatabh±vena tath±gatoti.
Katha½ tath±ya ±gatoti tath±gato? Y± s± bhagavat± sumedhabh³tena d²paªkaradasabalassa p±dam³le–
“Manussatta½ liªgasampatti, hetu satth±radassana½;
pabbajj± guºasampatti, adhik±ro ca chandat±;
aµµhadhammasamodh±n±, abhin²h±ro samijjhat²”ti. (Bu. va½. 2.59)–

Eva½ vutta½ aµµhaªgasamann±gata½ abhin²h±ra½ samp±dentena “aha½ sadevaka½ loka½ tiººo t±ress±mi, mutto mocess±mi, danto damess±mi, assattho ass±sess±mi, parinibbuto parinibb±pess±mi suddho sodhess±mi buddho bodhess±m²”ti mah±paµiññ± pavattit±. Vutta½ heta½–

“Ki½ me ekena tiººena, purisena th±madassin±;
sabbaññuta½ p±puºitv±, sant±ressa½ sadevaka½.
“Imin± me adhik±rena, katena purisuttame;
sabbaññuta½ p±puºitv±, t±remi janata½ bahu½.
“Sa½s±rasota½ chinditv±, viddha½setv± tayo bhave;
dhamman±va½ sam±ruyha, sant±ressa½ sadevaka½.
“Ki½ me aññ±tavesena, dhamma½ sacchikatenidha;
sabbaññuta½ p±puºitv±, buddho hessa½ sadevake”ti. (Bu. va½. 55-58).
Ta½ paneta½ mah±paµiñña½ sakalassapi buddhakaradhammasamud±yassa pavicayapaccavekkhaºasam±d±n±na½ k±raºabh³ta½ avisa½v±dento lokan±tho yasm± mah±kapp±na½ satasahass±dhik±ni catt±ri asaªkhyeyy±ni sakkacca½ nirantara½ niravasesato d±nap±rami-±dayo samati½sap±ramiyo p³retv±, aªgaparicc±g±dayo pañca mah±paricc±ge pariccajitv±, sacc±dhiµµh±n±d²ni catt±ri adhiµµh±n±ni paribr³hetv±, puññañ±ºasambh±re sambharitv± pubbayogapubbacariyadhammakkh±nañ±tatthacariy±dayo ukka½s±petv±, buddhicariya½ paramakoµi½ p±petv± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambujjhi; tasm± tasseva s± mah±paµiññ± tath± avitath± anaññath±, na tassa v±laggamattampi vitatha½ atthi. Tath± hi d²paªkaro dasabalo koº¹añño, maªgalo…pe… kassapo bhagav±ti ime catuv²sati samm±sambuddh± paµip±µiy± uppann± “buddho bhavissat²”ti na½ by±kari½su. Eva½ catuv²satiy± buddh±na½ santike laddhaby±karaºo ye te kat±bhin²h±rehi bodhisattehi laddhabb± ±nisa½s±, te labhitv±va ±gatoti t±ya yath±vutt±ya mah±paµiññ±ya tath±ya abhisambuddhabh±va½ ±gato adhigatoti tath±gato. Eva½ tath±ya ±gatoti tath±gato.
Katha½ tath±ya gatoti tath±gato? Y±ya½ mah±karuº± lokan±thassa, y±ya mah±dukkhasamb±dhappaµipanna½ sattanik±ya½ disv± “tassa natthañño koci paµisaraºa½, ahameva na½ ito sa½s±radukkhato mutto mocess±m²”ti samuss±hitam±naso mah±bhin²h±ra½ ak±si. Katv± ca yath±paºidh±na½ sakalalokahitasamp±dan±ya ussukkam±panno attano k±yaj²vitanirapekkho paresa½ sotapathagamanamattenapi cittutr±sasamupp±dik± atidukkar± dukkaracariy± sam±caranto yath± mah±bodhisatt±na½ paµipatti h±nabh±giy± sa½kilesabh±giy± µhitibh±giy± v± na hoti, atha kho uttari visesabh±giy±va hoti, tath± paµipajjam±no anupubbena niravasese bodhisambh±re sam±netv± abhisambodhi½ p±puºi. Tato parañca t±yeva mah±karuº±ya sañcoditam±naso pavivekarati½ paramañca santa½ vimokkhasukha½ pah±ya b±lajanabahule loke tehi samupp±dita½ samm±n±vam±navippak±ra½ agaºetv± veneyyajanavinayanena niravasesa½ buddhakicca½ niµµhapesi. Tatra yo bhagavato sattesu mah±karuº±ya samokkaman±k±ro, so parato ±vi bhavissati. Yath± buddhabh³tassa lokan±thassa sattesu mah±karuº±, eva½ bodhisattabh³tassapi mah±bhin²h±rak±l±d²s³ti sabbattha sabbad± ca ekasadisat±ya tath±va s± avitath± anaññath±. Tasm± t²supi avatth±su sabbasattesu sam±naras±ya tath±ya mah±karuº±ya sakalalokahit±ya gato paµipannoti tath±gato. Eva½ tath±ya gatoti tath±gato.