2. Dukanip±to

1. Paµhamavaggo

1. Dukkhavih±rasuttavaººan±

28. Dukanip±tassa paµhame dv²h²ti gaºanaparicchedo. Dhammeh²ti paricchinnadhammanidassana½. Dv²hi dhammeh²ti dv²hi akusaladhammehi. Samann±gatoti yutto. Diµµheva dhammeti imasmi½yeva attabh±ve. Dukkha½ viharat²ti cat³supi iriy±pathesu kilesadukkhena ceva k±yikacetasikadukkhena ca dukkha½ viharati. Savigh±tanti citt³pagh±tena ceva k±y³pagh±tena ca savigh±ta½. Sa-up±y±santi kiles³p±y±sena ceva sar²rakhedena ca balava-±y±savasena sa-up±y±sa½. Sapari¼±hanti kilesapari¼±hena ceva k±yapari¼±hena ca sapari¼±ha½. K±yassa bhed±ti up±dinnakkhandhaparicc±g±. Para½ maraº±ti tadanantara½ abhinibbattakkhandhaggahaºe. Atha v± k±yassa bhed±ti j²vitindriyupacched±. Para½ maraº±ti cutito uddha½. Duggati p±µikaªkh±ti duggatisaªkh±t±na½ catunna½ ap±y±na½ aññatar± gati icchitabb±, avassa½bh±vin²ti attho.
Aguttadv±roti apihitadv±ro. Kattha pana aguttadv±roti ±ha “indriyes³”ti. Tena manacchaµµh±na½ indriy±na½ asa½varam±ha. Paµiggahaºaparibhogavasena bhojane matta½ na j±n±t²ti bhojane amattaññ³. “Indriyesu aguttadv±rat±ya bhojane amattaññut±y±”tipi paµhanti.
Katha½ indriyesu aguttadv±rat±, katha½ v± guttadv±rat±ti? Kiñc±pi hi cakkhundriye sa½varo v± asa½varo v± natthi. Na hi cakkhupas±da½ niss±ya sati v± muµµhassacca½ v± uppajjati. Apica yad± r³p±rammaºa½ cakkhussa ±p±tha½ ±gacchati, tad± bhavaªge dvikkhattu½ uppajjitv± niruddhe kiriy±manodh±tu ±vajjanakicca½ s±dhayam±n± uppajjitv± nirujjhati, tato cakkhuviññ±ºa½ dassanakicca½, tato vip±kamanodh±tu sampaµicchanakicca½, tato vip±k±hetukamanoviññ±ºadh±tu sant²raºakicca½, tato kiriy±hetukamanoviññ±ºadh±tu voµµhabbanakicca½ s±dhayam±n± uppajjitv± nirujjhati, tadanantara½ javana½ javati. Tath±pi neva bhavaªgasamaye, na ±vajjan±d²na½ aññatarasamaye sa½varo v± asa½varo v± atthi, javanakkhaºe pana sace duss²lya½ v± muµµhassacca½ v± aññ±ºa½ v± akkhanti v± kosajja½ v± uppajjati, asa½varo hoti. Eva½ hontopi so “cakkhudv±re asa½varo”ti vuccati. Kasm±? Yasm± tasmi½ sati dv±rampi agutta½ hoti bhavaªgampi ±vajjan±d²ni v²thicitt±nipi. Yath± ki½? Yath± nagare cat³su dv±resu asa½vutesu kiñc±pi antogharadv±rakoµµhakagabbh±dayo susa½vut± tath±pi antonagare sabba½ bhaº¹a½ arakkhita½ agopitameva hoti. Nagaradv±rehi pavisitv± cor± yadicchanti, ta½ hareyyu½. Evameva javane duss²ly±d²su uppannesu tasmi½ asa½vare satidv±rampi agutta½ hoti, bhavaªgampi ±vajjan±d²ni v²thicitt±nipi. Tasmi½ pana asati javane s²l±d²su uppannesu dv±rampi gutta½ hoti bhavaªgampi ±vajjan±d²ni v²thicitt±nipi. Yath± ki½? Yath± nagaradv±resu sa½vutesu kiñc±pi antogharadv±r±dayo asa½vut±, tath±pi antonagare sabba½ bhaº¹a½ surakkhita½ sugopitameva hoti. Nagaradv±resu hi pihitesu cor±na½ paveso natthi. Evameva javane s²l±d²su uppannesu dv±rampi gutta½ hoti, bhavaªgampi, ±vajjan±d²ni v²thicitt±nipi. Tasm± javanakkhaºe uppajjam±nopi “cakkhudv±re sa½varo”ti vuccati. Sesadv±resupi eseva nayo. Eva½ indriyesu aguttadv±rat±, guttadv±rat± ca veditabb±.
Katha½ pana bhojane amattaññ³, katha½ v± mattaññ³ti Yo hi puggalo mahiccho hutv± paµiggahaºe matta½ na j±n±ti. Mahicchapuggalo hi yath± n±ma kacchapuµav±ºijo pi¼andhanabhaº¹aka½ hatthena gahetv± ucchaªgepi pakkhipitabbayuttaka½ pakkhipitv± mah±janassa passantasseva “asuka½ gaºhatha, asuka½ gaºhath±”ti mukhena ugghoseti, evameva appamattakampi attano s²la½ v± gantha½ v± dhutaªgaguºa½ v± antamaso araññav±samattakampi mah±janassa j±nantasseva sambh±veti, sambh±vetv± ca pana sakaµehipi upan²te paccaye “alan”ti avatv± paµiggaºh±ti. Tayo hi p³retu½ na sakk± aggi up±d±nena, samuddo udakena, mahiccho paccayeh²ti–
“Aggikkhandho samuddo ca, mahiccho c±pi puggalo;
bahuke paccaye dinne, tayopete na p³rayeti”.
Mahicchapuggalo hi vij±tam±tuy±pi mana½ gaºhitu½ na sakkoti. Evar³po hi anuppanna½ l±bha½ na upp±deti, uppannal±bhato ca parih±yati. Eva½ t±va paµiggahaºe amattaññ³ hoti. Yo pana dhammena samena laddhampi ±h±ra½ gadhito mucchito ajjhopanno an±d²navadass±v² anissaraºapañño ±harahatthaka-ala½s±µakatatthavaµµakak±kam±sakabhuttavamitakabr±hmaº±na½ aññataro viya ayoniso anup±yena y±vadattha½ udar±vadehaka½ paribhuñjitv± seyyasukha½ passasukha½ middhasukha½ anuyutto viharati. Aya½ paribhoge amattaññ³ n±ma.
Yo pana “yadipi deyyadhammo bahu hoti, d±yako appa½ d±tuk±mo, d±yakassa vasena appa½ gaºh±ti. Deyyadhammo appo, d±yako bahu½ d±tuk±mo, deyyadhammassa vasena appa½ gaºh±ti. Deyyadhammo bahu, d±yakopi bahu½ d±tuk±mo, attano th±ma½ ñatv± pam±ºayuttameva gaºh±t²”ti eva½ vuttassa paµiggahaºe pam±ºaj±nanassa ceva, “paµisaªkh± yoniso ±h±ra½ ±h±reti, neva dav±ya, na mad±y±”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1355) “laddhañca piº¹ap±ta½ agadhito amucchito anajjhopanno ±d²navadass±v² nissaraºapañño paribhuñjat²”ti ca ±din± nayena vuttassa paccavekkhitv± paµisaªkh±napaññ±ya j±nitv± ±h±raparibhuñjanasaªkh±tassa paribhoge pam±ºaj±nanassa ca vasena bhojane mattaññ³ hoti, aya½ bhojane mattaññ³ n±ma. Eva½ bhojane amattaññut± mattaññut± ca hot²ti veditabba½.
G±th±su pana cakkhunti-±d²su cakkhat²ti cakkhu, r³pa½ ass±deti, samavisama½ ±cikkhanta½ viya hot²ti v± attho. Suº±t²ti sota½. Gh±yat²ti gh±na½. J²vitanimitta½ ±h±raraso j²vita½, ta½ avh±yat²ti jivh±. Kucchit±na½ ±yoti k±yo. Manate vij±n±t²ti mano. Por±º± pan±hu mun±t²ti mano, n±¼iy± minam±no viya mah±tul±ya dh±rayam±no viya ca ±rammaºa½ vij±n±t²ti attho. Eva½ t±vettha padattho veditabbo.
Bh±vatthato pana duvidha½ cakkhu– ma½sacakkhu ca paññ±cakkhu ca. Tesu buddhacakkhu, samantacakkhu, ñ±ºacakkhu, dibbacakkhu, dhammacakkh³ti pañcavidha½ paññ±cakkhu. Tattha “addasa½ kho aha½, bhikkhave, buddhacakkhun± loka½ volokento”ti (ma. ni. 1.283) ida½ buddhacakkhu n±ma. “Samantacakkhu vuccati sabbaññutaññ±ºan”ti (c³¼ava. dhotakam±ºavapucch±niddesa 32) ida½ samantacakkhu n±ma. “Cakkhu½ udap±d²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1081; mah±va. 15) ida½ ñ±ºacakkhu n±ma. “Addasa½ kho aha½, bhikkhave, dibbena cakkhun± visuddhen±”ti (ma. ni. 1.284) ida½ dibbacakkhu n±ma. “Viraja½ v²tamala½ dhammacakkhu½ udap±d²”ti (ma. ni. 2.395; mah±va. 16) ida½ heµµhimamaggattayasaªkh±ta½ dhammacakkhu n±ma.
Ma½sacakkhupi duvidha½– sasambh±racakkhu, pas±dacakkh³ti. Tattha yv±ya½ akkhik³pake patiµµhito heµµh± akkhik³pakaµµhikena, upari bhamukaµµhikena ubhato akkhik³µehi, anto matthaluªgena, bahiddh± akkhilomehi paricchinno ma½sapiº¹o, saªkhepato catasso dh±tuyo– vaººo, gandho, raso, oj±sambhavo saºµh±na½ j²vita½ bh±vo k±yapas±do cakkhupas±doti cuddasa sambh±r±. Vitth±rato catasso dh±tuyo ta½nissit± vaººagandharasa-oj±saºµh±nasambhav±ti im±ni dasa catusamuµµh±nikatt± catt±l²sa½ honti, j²vita½ bh±vo k±yapas±do cakkhupas±doti catt±ri ekantakammasamuµµh±nev±ti imesa½ catucatt±l²s±ya r³p±na½ vasena catucatt±l²sa sambh±r±. Ya½ loke “seta½ vaµµa½ puthula½ visaµa½ vipula½ cakkh³”ti sañj±nanto na cakkhu½ sañj±n±ti, vatthu½ cakkhuto sañj±n±ti, yo ma½sapiº¹o akkhik³pake patiµµhito nh±rusuttakena matthaluªgena ±baddho, yattha setampi atthi kaºhampi lohitakampi pathav²pi ±popi tejopi v±yopi. Ya½ semhussadatt± seta½, pittussadatt± kaºha½, ruhirussadatt± lohitaka½, pathavussadatt± patthaddha½, ±pussadatt± paggharati, tejussadatt± pari¹ayhati, v±yussadatt± sambhamati, ida½ sasambh±racakkhu n±ma. Yo pana ettha sito ettha paµibaddho catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±ya pas±do, ida½ pas±dacakkhu n±ma. Idañhi cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ yath±raha½ vatthudv±rabh±vena pavattati.
Sot±d²supi sota½ dibbasota½, ma½sasotanti duvidha½. Ettha “dibb±ya sotadh±tuy± visuddh±ya atikkantam±nusik±ya ubho sadde suº±t²”ti ida½ dibbasota½ n±ma. Ma½sasota½ pana sasambh±rasota½ pas±dasotanti duvidhanti-±di sabba½ cakkhumhi vuttanayeneva veditabba½, tath± gh±najivh±. K±yo pana copanak±yo, karajak±yo, sam³hak±yo, pas±dak±yoti-±din± bahuvidho. Tattha–
“K±yena sa½vut± dh²r±, atho v±c±ya sa½vut±”ti. (Dha. pa. 234)–

Aya½ copanak±yo n±ma. “Imamh± k±y± añña½ k±ya½ abhinimmin±t²”ti (d². ni. 1.236; paµi. ma. 3.14) aya½ karajak±yo n±ma. Sam³hak±yo pana viññ±º±disam³havasena anekavidho ±gato. Tath± hi “cha ime, ±vuso, viññ±ºak±y±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.101) viññ±ºasam³ho vutto. “Cha phassak±y±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 3.323; ma. ni. 1.98) phass±disam³ho Tath± “k±yapassaddhi k±yalahut±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 114) vedan±kkhandh±dayo. “Idhekacco pathavik±ya½ aniccato anupassati, ±pok±ya½ tejok±ya½ v±yok±ya½ kesak±ya½ lomak±yan”ti-±d²su (paµi. ma. 3.35) pathav±disam³ho. “K±yena phoµµhabba½ phusitv±”ti (a. ni. 3.16) aya½ pas±dak±yo. Idh±pi pas±dak±yo veditabbo. So hi k±yaviññ±º±d²na½ yath±raha½ vatthudv±rabh±vena pavattati. Manoti pana kiñc±pi sabba½ viññ±ºa½ vuccati, tath±pi dv±rabh±vassa idh±dhippetatt± dv±rabh³ta½ s±vajjana½ bhavaªga½ veditabba½.

Et±ni yassa dv±r±ni agutt±ni ca bhikkhunoti yassa bhikkhuno et±ni manacchaµµh±ni dv±r±ni sativossaggena pam±da½ ±pannatt± satikav±µena apihit±ni. Bhojanamhi…pe… adhigacchat²ti so bhikkhu vuttanayena bhojane amattaññ³ indriyesu ca sa½vararahito diµµhadhammikañca rog±divasena, sampar±yikañca duggatipariy±panna½ k±yadukkha½ r±g±dikilesasant±pavasena, icch±vigh±tavasena ca cetodukkhanti sabbath±pi dukkhameva adhigacchati p±puº±ti. Yasm± cetadeva½, tasm± duvidhenapi dukkhaggin± idhaloke ca paraloke ca ¹ayham±nena k±yena ¹ayham±nena cetas± div± v± yadi v± ratti½ niccak±lameva t±diso puggalo dukkhameva viharati, na tassa sukhavih±rassa sambhavo, vaµµadukkh±natikkame pana vattabbameva natth²ti.

Paµhamasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.