6. Paµhamasekhasuttavaººan±

16. Chaµµhe sekhass±ti ettha kenaµµhena sekho? Sekkhadhammapaµil±bhato sekho. Vuttañheta½–
“Kitt±vat± nu kho, bhante, sekho hot²ti? Idha, bhikkhu, sekh±ya samm±diµµhiy± samann±gato hoti…pe… sekhena samm±sam±dhin± samann±gato hoti. Ett±vat± kho, bhikkhu, sekho hot²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.13).
Apica sikkhat²ti sekho. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Sikkhat²ti kho, bhikkhu, tasm± sekhoti vuccati. Kiñca sikkhati? Adhis²lampi sikkhati, adhicittampi sikkhati, adhipaññampi sikkhati. Sikkhat²ti kho, bhikkhu, tasm± sekhoti vuccat²”ti (a. ni. 3.86).
Yopi kaly±ºaputhujjano anulomappaµipad±ya parip³rak±r² s²lasampanno indriyesu guttadv±ro bhojane mattaññ³ j±gariy±nuyogamanuyutto pubbaratt±pararatta½ bodhipakkhiy±na½ dhamm±na½ bh±van±nuyogamanuyutto viharati– “ajja v± sve v± aññatara½ s±maññaphala½ adhigamiss±m²”ti, sopi vuccati sikkhat²ti sekhoti. Imasmi½ atthe na paµivijjhantova sekho adhippeto, atha kho kaly±ºaputhujjanopi. Appatta½ m±nasa½ eten±ti appattam±naso. M±nasanti “antalikkhacaro p±so, yv±ya½ carati m±naso”ti (sa½. ni. 1.151; mah±va. 33) ettha r±go m±nasanti vutto. “Citta½ mano m±nasan”ti (dha. sa. 63, 65) ettha citta½. “Appattam±naso sekho, k±la½ kayir± jane sut±”ti (sa½. ni. 1.159) ettha arahatta½. Idh±pi arahattameva adhippeta½. Tena appatta-arahattass±ti vutta½ hoti.
Anuttaranti seµµha½, asadisanti attho. Cat³hi yogehi khema½ anupaddutanti yogakkhema½, arahattameva adhippeta½. Patthayam±nass±ti dve patthan± taºh±patthan±, kusalacchandapatthan± ca. “Patthayam±nassa hi jappit±ni, pavedhita½ v±pi pakappites³”ti (su. ni. 908; mah±ni. 137) ettha taºh±patthan±.
“Chinna½ p±pimato sota½, viddhasta½ vina¼²kata½;
p±mojjabahul± hotha, khema½ patthetha bhikkhavo”ti. (Ma. ni. 1.352).
Ettha kattukamyat±kusalacchandapatthan±, ayameva idh±dhippet±. Tena patthayam±nass±ti ta½ yogakkhema½ gantuk±massa tanninnassa tappoºassa tappabbh±rass±ti attho. Viharatoti eka½ iriy±pathadukkha½ aññena iriy±pathena vicchinditv± aparipatanta½ attabh±va½ harato. Atha v± “sabbe saªkh±r± anicc±ti adhimuccanto saddh±ya viharat²”ti-±din± niddesanayena cettha attho daµµhabbo. Ajjhattikanti niyakajjhattasaªkh±te ajjhatte bhava½ ajjhattika½. Aªganti k±raºa½. Iti karitv±ti eva½ katv±. Na añña½ ekaªgampi samanupass±m²ti ettha aya½ saªkhepattho– bhikkhave, ajjhatta½ attano sant±ne samuµµhita½ k±raºanti katv± añña½ ekak±raºampi na samanupass±mi ya½ eva½ bah³pak±ra½, yathayida½ yoniso manasik±roti up±yamanasik±ro, pathamanasik±ro, anicc±d²su anicc±dinayeneva manasik±ro, anicc±nulomikena v± cittassa ±vaµµan± anv±vaµµan± ±bhogo samann±h±ro manasik±ro. Aya½ yoniso manasik±ro.
Id±ni yoniso manasik±rassa ±nubh±va½ dassetu½ “yoniso, bhikkhave, bhikkhu manasi karonto akusala½ pajahati, kusala½ bh±vet²”ti vutta½. Tattha yoniso manasi karontoti “ida½ dukkha½ ariyasacca½, aya½ dukkhasamudayo ariyasacca½, aya½ dukkhanirodho ariyasacca½, aya½ dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad± ariyasaccan”ti cat³su ariyasaccesu yoniso manasik±ra½ pavattento.
Tatr±ya½ atthavibh±van±– yadipi ida½ sutta½ avisesena sekkhapuggalavasena ±gata½, catumaggas±dh±raºavasena pana saªkhepeneva kammaµµh±na½ kathayiss±ma. Yo catusaccakammaµµh±niko yog±vacaro “taºh±vajj± tebh³mak± khandh± dukkha½, taºh± samudayo, ubhinna½ appavatti nirodho, nirodhasamp±pako maggo”ti eva½ pubbe eva ±cariyasantike uggahitacatusaccakammaµµh±no. So aparena samayena vipassan±magga½ sam±ru¼ho sam±no tebh³make khandhe “ida½ dukkhan”ti yoniso manasi karoti, up±yena pathena samann±harati ceva vipassati ca. Vipassan± hi idha manasik±ras²sena vutt±. Y± pan±ya½ tassa dukkhassa samuµµh±pik± purimabhavik± taºh±, aya½ dukkhasamudayoti yoniso manasi karoti. Yasm± pana ida½ dukkha½, ayañca samudayo ida½ µh±na½ patv± nirujjhanti na pavattanti, tasm± yadida½ nibb±na½ n±ma aya½ dukkhanirodhoti yoniso manasi karoti. Nirodhasamp±paka½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½, “aya½ dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±”ti yoniso manasi karoti, up±yena pathena samann±harati ceva vipassati ca.
Tatr±ya½ up±yo– abhiniveso n±ma khandhe hoti, na vivaµµe, tasm± ayamattho– “imasmi½ k±ye pathav²dh±tu, ±podh±t³”ti-±din± (d². ni. 2.378) nayena catt±ri mah±bh³t±ni tadanus±rena up±d±r³p±ni ca pariggahetv± “aya½ r³pakkhandho”ti vavatthapeti. Ta½ vavatth±payato uppanne tad±rammaºe cittacetasikadhamme “ime catt±ro ar³pakkhandh±”ti vavatthapeti. Tato “ime pañcakkhandh± dukkhan”ti vavatthapeti. Te pana saªkhepato n±mañca r³pañc±ti dve bh±g± honti. Idañca n±mar³pa½ sahetu sappaccaya½ uppajjati, tassa aya½ avijj±bhavataºh±diko hetu, aya½ ±h±r±diko paccayoti hetuppaccaye vavatthapeti. So tesa½ paccay±nañca paccayuppann±nañca y±th±vasarasalakkhaºa½ vavatthapetv± “ime dhamm± ahutv± bhavanti, hutv± nirujjhanti, tasm± anicc±”ti aniccalakkhaºa½ ±ropeti, “udayabbayapaµip²¼itatt± dukkh±”ti dukkhalakkhaºa½ ±ropeti, “avasavattanato anatt±”ti anattalakkhaºa½ ±ropeti.
Eva½ tilakkhaº±ni ±ropetv± vipassanto udayabbayañ±ºuppattiy± uppanne obh±s±dike vipassanupakkilese ‘amaggo’ti udayabbayañ±ºameva “ariyamaggassa up±yabh³to pubbabh±gamaggo”ti magg±magga½ vavatthapetv± puna udayabbayañ±ºa½ paµip±µiy± bhaªgañ±º±d²ni ca upp±dento sot±pattimagg±dayo p±puº±ti. Tasmi½ khaºe catt±ri sacc±ni ekappaµivedheneva paµivijjhati, ek±bhisamayena abhisameti. Tattha dukkha½ pariññ±paµivedhena paµivijjhanto, samudaya½ pah±nappaµivedhena paµivijjhanto sabba½ akusala½ pajahati, nirodha½ sacchikiriy±paµivedhena paµivijjhanto magga½ bh±van±paµivedhena paµivijjhanto sabba½ kusala½ bh±veti. Ariyamaggo hi nippariy±yato kucchitasalan±di-atthena kusalo, tasmiñca bh±vite sabbepi kusal± anavajjabodhipakkhiyadhamm± bh±van±p±rip³ri½ gacchant²ti. Eva½ yoniso manasi karonto akusala½ pajahati, kusala½ bh±veti. Tath± hi vutta½– “ida½ dukkhanti yoniso manasi karoti, aya½ dukkhasamudayoti yoniso manasi karot²”ti-±di (ma. ni. 1.21). Aparampi vutta½ “yoniso manasik±rasampannasseta½, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno p±µikaªkha½– ariya½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½ bh±vessati, ariya½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½ bahul²karissat²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.55).
Yoniso manasik±roti g±th±ya aya½ saªkhepattho– sikkhati, sikkh±pad±ni tassa atthi, sikkhanas²loti v± sekho. Sa½s±re bhaya½ ikkhat²ti bhikkhu. Tassa sekhassa bhikkhuno uttamatthassa arahattassa pattiy± adhigam±ya yath± yoniso manasik±ro, eva½ bahuk±ro bah³pak±ro añño koci dhammo natthi. Kasm±? Yasm± yoniso up±yena manasik±ra½ purakkhatv± padaha½ catubbidhasammappadh±navasena padahanto, khaya½ dukkhassa p±puºe sa½kilesavaµµadukkhassa parikkhaya½ pariyos±na½ nibb±na½ p±puºe adhigaccheyya, tasm± yoniso manasik±ro bahuk±roti.

Chaµµhasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.