6. Jaccandhavaggo

1. ¾yusaŖkh±rossajjanasuttavaŗŗan±

51. Jaccandhavaggassa paµhame ves±liyanti-±di heµµh± vuttatthameva. Ves±li½ piŗ¹±ya p±vis²ti kad± p±visi? Ukk±celato nikkhamitv± ves±li½ gatak±le. Bhagav± hi ve¼uvag±make vassa½ vasitv± tato nikkhamitv± anupubbena s±vatthi½ patv± jetavane vih±si. Tasmi½ k±le dhammasen±pati attano ±yusaŖkh±ra½ oloketv± “satt±hameva pavattissat²”ti ńatv± bhagavanta½ anuj±n±petv± n±¼akag±ma½ gantv± tattha m±tara½ sot±pattiphale patiµµh±petv± parinibb±yi. Satth± cundena ±bhat± tassa dh±tuyo gahetv± dh±tucetiya½ k±r±petv± mah±bhikkhusaŖghaparivuto r±jagaha½ agam±si. Tattha gatak±le ±yasm± mah±moggall±no parinibb±yi. Bhagav± tassapi dh±tuyo gahetv± cetiya½ k±r±petv± r±jagahato nikkhamitv± anupubbena ukk±cela½ agam±si. Tattha gaŖg±t²re bhikkhusaŖghaparivuto nis²ditv± aggas±vak±na½ parinibb±nappaµisa½yutta½ dhamma½ desetv± ukk±celato nikkhamitv± ves±li½ agam±si. Eva½ gato bhagav± “pubbaŗhasamaya½ niv±setv± pattac²varam±d±ya ves±li½ piŗ¹±ya p±vis²”ti vuccati. Tena vutta½– “ukk±celato nikkhamitv± ves±li½ gatak±le”ti.
Nis²dananti idha cammakkhaŗ¹a½ adhippeta½. C±p±la½ cetiyanti pubbe c±p±lassa n±ma yakkhassa vasitaµµh±na½ “c±p±lacetiyan”ti pańń±yittha. Tattha bhagavato katavih±ropi t±ya ru¼hiy± “c±p±lacetiyan”ti vuccati. Udena½ cetiyanti evam±d²supi eseva nayo. Sattambanti kikissa kira k±sirańńo dh²taro satta kum±riyo sa½vegaj±t± r±jagehato nikkhamitv± yattha padh±na½ padahi½su, ta½ µh±na½ “sattamba½ cetiyan”ti vadanti. Bahuputtanti bahup±roho eko nigrodharukkho, tasmi½ adhivattha½ devata½ bah³ manuss± putte patthenti, tadup±d±ya ta½ µh±na½ “bahuputta½ cetiyan”ti pańń±yittha. S±randadanti s±randadassa n±ma yakkhassa vasitaµµh±na½. Iti sabb±neva t±ni buddhupp±dato pubbe devat±pariggahitatt± cetiyavoh±rena voharit±ni bhagavato vih±re katepi ca tatheva pańń±yanti. Ramaŗ²y±ti ettha ves±liy± t±va bh³mibh±gasampattiy± puggalasampattiy± sulabhapaccayat±ya ca ramaŗ²yabh±vo veditabbo. Vih±r±na½ pana nagarato n±tid³rat±ya n±cc±sannat±ya gaman±gamanasampattiy± an±kiŗŗavih±raµµh±nat±ya ch±y³dakasampattiy± pavivekapatir³pat±ya ca ramaŗ²yat± daµµhabb±. Catt±ro iddhip±d±ti ettha iddhip±dapadassa attho heµµh± vuttoyeva. Bh±vit±ti va¹¹hit±. Bahul²kat±ti punappuna½ kat±. Y±n²kat±ti yuttay±na½ viya kat±. Vatthukat±ti patiµµhaµµhena vatthu viya kat±. Anuµµhit±ti adhiµµhit±. Paricit±ti samantato cit± suva¹¹hit±. Susam±raddh±ti suµµhu sam±raddh±, ativiya samm± nipph±dit±ti.
Eva½ aniyamena kathetv± puna niyametv± dassetu½, “tath±gatassa kho”ti-±dim±ha. Ettha ca kappanti ±yukappa½. Tiµµheyy±ti tasmi½ tasmi½ k±le ya½ manuss±na½ ±yuppam±ŗa½, ta½ paripuŗŗa½ katv± tiµµheyya dhareyya. Kapp±vasesa½ v±ti “appa½ v± bhiyyo v±”ti (d². ni. 2.7; a. ni. 7.74) vutta½ vassasatato atireka½ v±. Mah±s²vatthero pan±ha– “buddh±na½ aµµh±ne gajjita½ n±ma natthi. Yatheva hi ve¼uvag±make uppanna½ m±raŗantika½ vedana½ dasa m±se vikkhambhesi, eva½ punappuna½ ta½ sam±patti½ sam±pajjitv± vikkhambhento ima½ bhaddakappameva tiµµheyy±”ti. Kasm± pana na µhitoti? Up±dinnakasar²ra½ n±ma khaŗ¹icc±d²hi abhibhuyyati, buddh± ca pana khaŗ¹icc±dibh±va½ appatv± pańcame ±yukoµµh±se bahujanassa piyaman±pak±leyeva parinibb±yanti. Buddh±nubuddhesu aggas±vakamah±s±vakesu parinibbutesu apariv±rena ekakeneva µh±tabba½ hoti, daharas±maŗerapariv±rena v±. Tato “aho buddh±na½ paris±”ti h²¼etabbata½ ±pajjeyya, tasm± na µhitoti. Eva½ vuttepi so pana na ruccati, “±yukappo”ti idameva aµµhakath±ya niyamita½.
O¼±rike nimitteti th³le sańńupp±dane. Th³lasańńupp±danańheta½, “tiµµhatu bhagav± kappan”ti sakalakappa½ avaµµh±nay±can±ya yadida½ “yassa kassaci, ±nanda, catt±ro iddhip±d± bh±vit±”ti-±din± ańń±padesena attano caturiddhip±dabh±van±nubh±vena kappa½ avaµµh±nasamatthat±vibh±vana½. Obh±seti p±kaµavacane. P±kaµańceta½ vacana½ pariy±ya½ muńcitv± ujukameva attano adhipp±yavibh±vana½.
Bahujanahit±y±ti mah±janassa hitatth±ya. Bahujanasukh±y±ti mah±janassa sukhatth±ya. Lok±nukamp±y±ti sattalokassa anukampa½ paµicca. Katarassa sattalokassa? Yo bhagavato dhammadesana½ sutv± paµivijjhati, amatap±na½ pivati, tassa. Bhagavato hi dhammacakkappavattanasuttadesan±ya ańń±takoŗ¹ańńappamukh± aµµh±rasa brahmakoµiyo dhamma½ paµivijjhi½su. Eva½ y±va subhaddaparibb±jakavinayan± dhammapaµividdhasatt±na½ gaŗan± natthi, mah±samayasutta½ maŖgalasutta½ c³¼ar±hulov±dasutta½ samacittasuttanti imesa½ catunna½ sutt±na½ desan±k±le abhisamayappattasatt±na½ paricchedo natthi, etassa aparim±ŗassa sattalokassa anukamp±ya bhagavato µh±na½ j±ta½. Eva½ an±gatepi bhavissat²ti adhipp±yena vadati. Devamanuss±nanti na kevala½ devamanuss±na½yeva, avases±na½ n±gasupaŗŗ±d²nampi atth±ya hit±ya sukh±ya bhagavato µh±na½ hoti. Sahetukapaµisandhike pana maggaphalasacchikiriy±ya bhabbapuggale dassetu½ eva½ vutta½, tasm± ańńesampi atthatth±ya hitatth±ya sukhatth±ya bhagav± tiµµhat³ti attho. Tattha atth±y±ti idhalokasampatti-atth±ya Hit±y±ti paralokasampattihetubh³tahitatth±ya. Sukh±y±ti nibb±nadh±tusukhatth±ya. Purima½ pana hitasukhaggahaŗa½ sabbas±dh±raŗavasena veditabba½.
Yath± ta½ m±rena pariyuµµhitacittoti ettha nti nip±tamatta½, yath± m±rena pariyuµµhitacitto ajjhotthaµacitto ańńopi koci puthujjano paµivijjhitu½ na sakkuŗeyya, evameva n±sakkhi paµivijjhitunti attho. M±ro hi yassa keci vipall±s± appah²n±, tassa citta½ pariyuµµh±ti. Yassa pana sabbena sabba½ dv±dasa vipall±s± appah²n±, tassa vattabbameva natthi, therassa ca catt±ro vipall±s± appah²n±, tenassa citta½ pariyuµµh±si. So pana cittapariyuµµh±na½ karonto ki½ karot²ti? Bherava½ r³p±rammaŗa½ v± dasseti, sadd±rammaŗa½ v± s±veti, tato satt± ta½ disv± v± sutv± v± sati½ vissajjetv± vivaµamukh± honti. Tesa½ mukhena hattha½ pavesetv± hadaya½ maddati, tato visańńino hutv± tiµµhanti. Therassa panesa mukhena hattha½ pavesetu½ ki½ sakkhissati, bherav±rammaŗa½ pana dasseti. Ta½ disv± thero nimittobh±sa½ na paµivijjhi. J±nantoyeva bhagav± kimattha½ y±vatatiya½ ±mantesi? Parato “tiµµhatu, bhante bhagav±”ti y±cite “tuyheveta½ dukkaµa½, tuyheveta½ aparaddhan”ti dos±ropanena sokatanukaraŗattha½. Passati hi bhagav± “aya½ mayi ativiya siniddhahadayo, so parato bh³mic±lak±raŗańca ±yusaŖkh±rossajjanańca sutv± mama ciraµµh±na½ y±cissati, ath±ha½ ‘kissa tva½ puretara½ na y±cas²’ti tasseva s²se dosa½ p±tess±mi, satt± ca attano apar±dhena na tath± vihańńanti, tenassa soko tanuko bhavissat²”ti.
Gaccha tva½, ±nand±ti yasm± div±vih±ratth±ya idh±gato, tasm±, ±nanda, gaccha tva½ yath±rucita½ µh±na½ div±vih±r±ya. Tenev±ha– “yassa d±ni k±la½ mańńas²”ti.
M±ro p±pim±ti ettha satte anatthe niyojento m±ret²ti m±ro. P±pim±ti tasseva vevacana½. So hi p±padhammena samann±gatatt± ‘p±pim±’ti vuccati. Bh±sit± kho panes±ti ayańhi bhagavati bodhimaŗ¹e satta satt±he atikkamitv± ajap±lanigrodhe viharante attano dh²t±su ±gantv± icch±vigh±ta½ patv± gat±su aya½ “attheso up±yo”ti cintento ±gantv± “bhagav± yadattha½ tumhehi p±ramiyo p³rit±, so vo attho anuppatto, paµividdha½ sabbańńutańń±ŗa½, ki½ te lokavicaraŗen±”ti vatv± yath± ajja evameva “parinibb±tu d±ni, bhante bhagav±”ti y±ci. Bhagav± cassa “na t±v±han”ti-±d²ni vatv± paµikkhipi. Ta½ sandh±ya id±ni “bh±sit± kho panes±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha viyatt±ti ariyamagg±dhigamavasena byatt±. Vin²t±ti tatheva kilesavinayanena vin²t±. Vis±rad±ti s±rajjakar±na½ diµµhivicikicch±d²na½ pah±nena vis±radabh±va½ patt±. Bahussut±ti tepiµakavasena bahu sutametesanti bahussut±. Tameva dhamma½ dh±rent²ti dhammadhar±. Atha v± bahussut±ti pariyattibahussut± ceva paµivedhabahussut± ca. Dhammadhar±ti pariyattidhamm±na½ ceva paµivedhadhamm±nańca dh±raŗato dhammadhar±ti evampettha attho veditabbo Dhamm±nudhammappaµipann±ti ariyadhammassa anudhammabh³ta½ vipassan±dhamma½ paµipann±. S±m²cippaµipann±ti ń±ŗadassanavisuddhiy± anucchavika½ visuddhiparampar±paµipada½ paµipann±. Anudhammac±rinoti sallekhika½ tass± paµipad±ya anur³pa½ appicchat±didhamma½ caraŗas²l±. Saka½ ±cariyakanti attano ±cariyav±da½. ¾cikkhissant²ti ±dito kathessanti, attan± uggahitaniy±mena pare uggaŗh±pessant²ti attho. Desessant²ti v±cessanti, p±¼i½ samm± v±cessant²ti attho. Pańńapessant²ti paj±n±pessanti, pak±sessant²ti attho. Paµµhapessant²ti pak±rena µhapessanti. Vivarissant²ti vivaµa½ karissanti. Vibhajissant²ti vibhatta½ karissanti. Utt±n²karissant²ti anutt±na½ gambh²ra½ utt±na½ p±kaµa½ karissanti. Sahadhammen±ti sahetukena sak±raŗena vacanena. Sapp±µih±riyanti y±vaniyy±nika½ katv±. Dhamma½ desessant²ti navavidhalokuttaradhamma½ pabodhessanti, pak±sessant²ti attho.
Ettha ca “pańńapessant²”ti-±d²hi chahi padehi cha atthapad±ni dassit±ni, ±dito pana dv²hi padehi cha byańjanapad±n²ti. Ett±vat± tepiµaka½ buddhavacana½ sa½vaŗŗan±nayena saŖgahetv± dassita½ hoti. Vuttańheta½ nettiya½ “dv±dasapad±ni sutta½, ta½ sabba½ byańjanańca attho c±”ti (netti. saŖgahav±ra).
Brahmacariyanti sikkhattayasaŖgahita½ sakala½ s±sanabrahmacariya½. Iddhanti samiddha½ jh±nupp±davasena. Ph²tanti vuddhippatta½ sabbaph±liphulla½ abhińń±sampattivasena. Vitth±rikanti vitthata½ tasmi½ tasmi½ dis±bh±ge patiµµhahanavasena. B±hujańńanti bah³hi ń±ta½ paµividdha½ bahujan±bhisamayavasena. Puthubh³tanti sabb±k±ravasena puthulabh±vappatta½. Katha½? Y±va devamanussehi suppak±sitanti yattak± vińńuj±tik± dev± manuss± ca atthi, tehi sabbehi suµµhu pak±sitanti attho.
Appossukkoti nirussukko l²nav²riyo. “Tvańhi, p±pima, sattasatt±h±tikkamanato paµµh±ya ‘parinibb±tu d±ni, bhante bhagav±, parinibb±tu sugato’ti viravanto ±hiŗ¹ittha, ajja d±ni paµµh±ya vigatuss±ho hohi, m± mayha½ parinibb±natth±ya v±y±ma½ karoh²”ti vadati. Sato sampaj±no ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaj²ti sati½ s³paµµhita½ katv± ń±ŗena paricchinditv± ±yusaŖkh±ra½ vissaji pajahi. Tattha na bhagav± hatthena le¹¹u½ viya ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaji, tem±samattameva pana sam±patti½ sam±pajjitv± tato para½ na sam±pajjiss±m²ti citta½ upp±desi. Ta½ sandh±ya vutta½– “ossaj²”ti, “vossajj²”tipi p±µho.
Kasm± pana bhagav± kappa½ v± kapp±vasesa½ v± µh±tu½ samattho tattaka½ k±la½ aµµhatv± parinibb±yitu½ m±rassa y±can±ya ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaji? Na bhagav± m±rassa y±can±ya ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaji, n±pi therassa ±y±can±ya na ossajissati, tem±sato pana para½ buddhaveneyy±na½ abh±vato ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaji Żh±nańhi n±ma buddh±na½ bhagavant±na½ y±vadeva veneyyavinayanattha½, te asati vineyyajane kena n±ma k±raŗena µhassanti. Yadi ca m±rassa y±can±ya parinibb±yeyya, puretara½yeva parinibb±yeyya. Bodhimaŗ¹epi hi m±rena y±cita½, nimittobh±sakaraŗampi therassa sokatanukaraŗatthanti vuttov±yamattho. Apica buddhabalad²panattha½ nimittobh±sakaraŗa½. Eva½ mah±nubh±v± buddh± bhagavantoyeva tiµµhant±pi attano ruciy±va tiµµhanti, parinibb±yant±pi attano ruciy±va parinibb±yant²ti.
Mah±bh³mic±loti mahanto pathav²kampo. Tad± kira dasasahassilokadh±tu akampittha. Bhi½sanakoti bhayajanako. Devadundubhiyo ca phali½s³ti devabheriyo nadi½su, devo sukkhagajjita½ gajji, ak±lavijjulat± nicchari½su, khaŗikavassa½ vass²ti vutta½ hoti.
Etamattha½ viditv±ti eta½ saŖkh±ravisaŖkh±r±na½ visesasaŖkh±ta½ attha½ sabb±k±rato viditv±. Ima½ ud±nanti anavasesasaŖkh±re vissajjetv± attano visaŖkh±ragamanad²paka½ ud±na½ ud±nesi. Kasm± ud±nesi? Koci n±ma vadeyya “m±rena pacchato pacchato anubandhitv± ‘parinibb±tu, bhante’ti upadduto bhayena bhagav± ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaj²”ti. “Tassok±so m± hotu, bh²tassa ud±na½ n±ma natth²”ti etassa d²panattha½ p²tivegavissaµµha½ ud±na½ ud±nes²ti aµµhakath±su vutta½. Tato tem±samatteneva ca pana buddhakiccassa nipphajjanato eva½ d²gharatta½ may± parihaµoya½ dukkhabh±ro na cirasseva nikkhipiyat²ti passato parinibb±naguŗapaccavekkhaŗe tassa u¼±ra½ p²tisomanassa½ uppajji, tena p²tivegena ud±nes²ti yutta½ viya. Ekantena hi visaŖkh±raninno nibb±najjh±sayo satth± mah±karuŗ±ya balakk±rena viya sattahitattha½ loke sucira½ µhito. Tath± hi devasika½ catuv²satikoµisatasahassasaŖkh± sam±pattiyo va¼ańjeti, sod±ni mah±karuŗ±dhik±rassa nipphannatt± nibb±n±bhimukho anappaka½ p²tisomanassa½ paµisa½vedesi. Teneva hi bhagavato kilesaparinibb±nadivase viya khandhaparinibb±nadivasepi sar²r±bh± visesato vippasann± parisuddh± pabhassar± ahos²ti.
G±th±ya soŗasiŖg±l±d²nampi paccakkhabh±vato tulita½ paricchinnanti tula½, k±m±vacarakamma½. Na tula½ atula½, tula½ v± sadisamassa ańńa½ lokiyakamma½ natth²ti atula½, mahaggatakamma½. K±m±vacara½ r³p±vacara½ v± tula½, ar³p±vacara½ atula½. Appavip±ka½ v± tula½, bahuvip±ka½ atula½. Sambhavanti sambhavassa hetubh³ta½, upapattijanakanti attho. BhavasaŖkh±ranti punabbhavasaŖkh±raŗaka½. Avassaj²ti vissajjesi. Mun²ti buddhamuni. Ajjhattaratoti niyakajjhattarato. Sam±hitoti upac±rappan±sam±dhivasena sam±hito. Abhindi kavacamiv±ti kavaca½ viya abhindi. Attasambhavanti attani sańj±ta½ kilesa½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti “savip±kaµµhena sambhava½, bhav±bhav±bhisaŖkharaŗaµµhena bhavasaŖkh±ranti ca laddhan±ma½ tul±tulasaŖkh±ta½ lokiyakammańca ossaji, saŖg±mas²se mah±yodho kavaca½ viya attasambhava½ kilesańca ajjhattarato sam±hito hutv± abhind²”ti.
Atha v± tulanti tulento t²rento. Atulańca sambhavanti nibb±nańceva bhavańca. BhavasaŖkh±ranti bhavag±mika½ kamma½. Avassaji mun²ti “pańcakkhandh± anicc±, pańcanna½ khandh±na½ nirodho nibb±na½ niccan”ti-±din± nayena tulento buddhamuni bhave ±d²nava½, nibb±ne ca ±nisa½sa½ disv± ta½ khandh±na½ m³labh³ta½ bhavasaŖkh±rakamma½ “kammakkhay±ya sa½vattat²”ti (ma. ni. 2.81; a. ni. 4.233) eva½ vuttena kammakkhayakarena ariyamaggena avassaji Katha½ ajjhattarato sam±hito, abhindi kavacamivattasambhava½. So hi vipassan±vasena ajjhattarato, samathavasena sam±hitoti eva½ pubbabh±gato paµµh±ya samathavipassan±balena kavaca½ viya attabh±va½ pariyonandhitv± µhita½, attani sambhavatt± “attasambhavan”ti laddhan±ma½ sabba½ kilesaj±la½ abhindi, kiles±bh±veneva kamma½ appaµisandhikatt± avassaµµha½ n±ma hot²ti eva½ kilesappah±nena kamma½ pajahi. Iti bodhim³leyeva avassaµµhabhavasaŖkh±ro bhagav± vekhamissakena viya jarasakaµa½ sam±pattivekhamissakena attabh±va½ y±pentopi “ito tem±sato uddha½ sam±pattivekhamassa na dass±m²”ti cittupp±danena ±yusaŖkh±ra½ ossaj²ti.

Paµhamasuttavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.