“Saddh±dhana½ s²ladhana½, hiri-ottappiya½ dhana½;
sutadhanañca c±go ca, paññ± ve sattama½ dhana½.
“Yassa ete dhan± atthi, itthiy± purisassa v±;
‘adaliddo’ti ta½ ±hu, amogha½ tassa j²vitan”ti. (A. ni. 7.5)–

Tassim±ni me satta ariyadhan±ni santi. Yesañhi im±ni dhan±ni santi, na tveva te buddhehi v± paccekabuddhehi v± ‘dalidd±’ti vuccant²”ti.

Sakko tassa katha½ sutv± ta½ antar±magge oh±ya satthu santika½ gantv± sabba½ ta½ vacana½ paµivacanañca ±rocesi. Atha na½ bhagav± ±ha– “na kho sakka sakk± t±dis±na½ satenapi sahassenapi suppabuddha½ kuµµhi½ ‘buddho na buddho, dhammo na dhammo, saªgho na saªgho’ti kath±petun”ti. Suppabuddhopi kho kuµµh² satthu santika½ gantv± satth±r± katapaµisanth±ro attan± paµiladdhaguºa½ ±rocesi. Tena vutta½– “atha kho suppabuddho kuµµh² diµµhadhammo”ti-±di.
Tattha diµµhadhammoti diµµho ariyasaccadhammo eten±ti diµµhadhammo. Sesapadesupi eseva nayo. Tattha “diµµhadhammo”ti cettha s±maññavacano dhammasaddo. Dassana½ n±ma ñ±ºadassanato aññampi atth²ti ta½ nivattanattha½ “pattadhammo”ti vutta½. Patti ca ñ±ºasampattito aññ±pi vijjat²ti tato visesanattha½ “viditadhammo”ti vutta½. S± pan±ya½ viditadhammat± dhammesu ekadesen±pi hot²ti nippadesato viditabh±va½ dassetu½ “pariyog±¼hadhammo”ti vutta½. Tenassa yath±vutta½ sacc±bhisambodha½yeva d²peti. Maggañ±ºañhi ek±bhisamayavasena pariññ±dikicca½ s±dhenta½ nippadesenapi pariññeyyadhamma½ samantato og±¼ha½ n±ma hoti, na tadaññañ±ºa½. Tena vutta½– “diµµho ariyasaccadhammo eten±ti diµµhadhammo”ti. Tenev±ha “tiººavicikiccho”ti-±di.
Tattha paµibhayakant±rasadis± so¼asavatthuk± ca aµµhavatthuk± ca tiºº± vicikicch± eten±ti tiººavicikiccho. Tato eva pavatti-±d²su “eva½ nu kho, na nu kho”ti eva½ pavattit± vigat± samucchinn± katha½kath± etass±ti vigatakatha½katho. S±rajjakar±na½ p±padhamm±na½ pah²natt± tappaµipakkhesu ca s²l±diguºesu suppatiµµhitatt± ves±rajja½ vis±radabh±va½ veyyattiya½ pattoti ves±rajjappatto. N±ssa paro paccayo, na parassa saddh±ya ettha vattat²ti aparappaccayo. Katth±ti ±ha “satthus±sane”ti.
Abhikkantanti-±d²su kiñc±pi aya½ abhikkantasaddo khayasundar±bhir³pabbhanumodan±d²su anekesu atthesu dissati, idha pana abbhanumodane daµµhabbo. Teneva so pas±davasena pasa½s±vasena ca dvikkhattu½ vutto, s±dhu s±dhu, bhanteti vutta½ hoti. Abhikkantanti v± atikanta½ ati-iµµha½ atiman±pa½, atisundaranti attho. Tattha ekena abhikkantasaddena bhagavato desana½ thometi, ekena attano pas±da½.
Ayañhettha adhipp±yo– abhikkanta½, bhante, yadida½ bhagavato dhammadesan±, abhikkanta½, bhante, yadida½ bhagavato dhammadesana½ ±gamma mama pas±doti. Bhagavato eva v± vacana½ abhikkanta½ dosan±sanato, abhikkanta½ guº±dhigamanato, tath± saddh±va¹¹hanato, paññ±jananato, s±tthato sabyañjanato, utt±napadato, gambh²ratthato, kaººasukhato, hadayaªgamato, anattukka½sanato, aparavambhanato, karuº±s²talato, paññ±vad±tato, ±p±tharamaº²yato, vimaddakkhamato, suyyam±nasukhato, v²ma½siyam±nahitatoti evam±dinayehi thomento padadvaya½ ±ha.
Tato parampi cat³hi upam±hi desana½yeva thometi. Tattha nikkujjitanti adhomukhaµµhapita½, heµµh±mukhaj±ta½ v±. Ukkujjeyy±ti upari mukha½ kareyya. Paµicchannanti tiºapaºº±din± ch±dita½. Vivareyy±ti uggh±µeyya. M³¼hass±ti dis±m³¼hassa. Magga½ ±cikkheyy±ti hatthe gahetv± “esa maggo”ti magga½ upadiseyya. Andhak±reti caturaªgasamann±gate. Aya½ t±va padattho.
Aya½ pana adhipp±yayojan± yath± koci nikkujjita½ ukkujjeyya, eva½ saddhammavimukha½ asaddhamme patiµµhita½ ma½ asaddhamm± vuµµh±pentena, yath± paµicchanna½ vivareyya, eva½ kassapassa bhagavato s±sanantaradh±nato paµµh±ya micch±diµµhigahanapaµicchanna½ s±sana½ vivarantena, yath± m³¼hassa magga½ ±cikkheyya, eva½ kummaggamicch±maggappaµipannassa me saggamokkhamagga½ ±vikarontena, yath± andhak±re telapajjota½ dh±reyya, eva½ mohandhak±re nimuggassa me buddh±diratanar³p±ni apassato tappaµicch±dakamohandhak±raviddha½sanadesan±pajjotadh±raºena bhagavat± n±n±nayehi pak±sitatt± anekapariy±yena dhammo pak±sito.
Eva½ desana½ thometv± t±ya desan±ya ratanattaye pasannacitto pasann±k±ra½ karonto “es±han”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha es±hanti eso aha½. Bhagavanta½ saraºa½ gacch±m²ti bhagav± me saraºa½ par±yaºa½ aghassa gh±t±, hitassa vidh±t±ti imin± adhipp±yena bhagavanta½ gacch±mi bhaj±mi, eva½ v± j±n±mi bujjh±m²ti. Yesañhi dh±t³na½ gati-attho, buddhipi tesa½ atthoti. Dhammanti adhigatamagge sacchikatanirodhe yath±nusiµµha½ paµipajjam±ne cat³su ap±yesu apatam±ne dh±ret²ti dhammo. So atthato ariyamaggo ceva nibb±nañca. Vuttañheta½–
“Y±vat±, bhikkhave, dhamm± saªkhat±, ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti (a. ni. 4.34; itivu. 90).
“Y±vat±, bhikkhave, dhamm± saªkhat± v± asaªkhat± v±, vir±go tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti (itivu. 90) ca–

Na kevala½ ariyamaggo ceva nibb±nañca, apica kho ariyaphalehi saddhi½ pariyattidhammopi. Vuttañheta½–

“R±gavir±gamanejamasoka½, dhammamasaªkhatamappaµik³la½;
madhuramima½ paguºa½ suvibhatta½, dhammamima½ saraºatthamupeh²”ti. (Vi. va. 887).
Ettha hi r±gavir±ganti maggo vutto. Anejamasokanti phala½. Asaªkhatanti nibb±na½. Appaµik³la½ madhuramima½ paguºa½ suvibhattanti pariyattidhammo vuttoti.
Bhikkhusaªghanti diµµhis²las±maññena sa½hata½ aµµha-ariyapuggalasam³ha½. Ett±vat± suppabuddho t²ºi saraºagaman±ni paµivedesi. Up±saka½ ma½ bhagav± dh±retu ajjatagge p±ºupeta½ saraºa½ gatanti ajjataggeti ajjata½ ±di½ katv±. “Ajjadagge”tipi p±µho, tattha dak±ro padasandhikaro, ajja agge ajja ±di½ katv±ti attho. P±ºupetanti p±ºehi upeta½, y±va me j²vita½ pavattati, t±va upeta½ anaññasatthuka½ t²hi saraºagamanehi saraºa½ gata½ ratanattayassa up±sanato up±saka½ kappiyak±raka½ ma½ bhagav± upadh±retu j±n±t³ti attho. Imassa ca saraºagamana½ ariyamagg±dhigameneva nipphanna½, ajjh±saya½ pana ±vikaronto evam±ha.
Bhagavato bh±sita½ abhinanditv± anumoditv±ti bhagavato vacana½ cittena abhinanditv± tameva abhinanditabh±va½ pak±sento vuttanayena v±c±ya anumoditv±. Abhiv±detv± padakkhiºa½ katv± pakk±m²ti ta½ bhagavanta½ pañcapatiµµhitena vanditv± tikkhattu½ padakkhiºa½ katv± satthu guºaninnacitto y±va dassanavisayasamatikkam± bhagavanta½yeva pekkham±no pañjaliko namassam±no pakk±mi.
Pakkanto ca kuµµharog±bhibhavena chinnahatthap±daªguli ukk±ragatto samantato vissandam±n±savo kaº¹³tipatip²¼ito asuci duggandho jegucchatamo paramak±ruññata½ patto “n±ya½ k±yo imassa accantasantassa paº²tatamassa ariyadhammassa ±dh±ro bhavitu½ yutto”ti uppann±bhisandhin± viya saggasa½vattaniyena puññakammena ok±se kate app±yukasa½vattaniyena upacchedakena p±pakammena kat³pacitena codiyam±no taruºavacch±ya dhenuy± ±patitv± m±rito. Tena vutta½– “atha kho acirapakkanta½ suppabuddha½ kuµµhi½ g±v² taruºavacch± adhipatitv± j²vit± voropes²”ti.
So kira at²te eko seµµhiputto hutv± attano sah±yehi t²hi seµµhiputtehi saddhi½ k²¼anto eka½ nagarasobhini½ gaºika½ uyy±na½ netv± divasa½ sampatti½ anubhavitv± atthaªgate s³riye sah±ye etadavoca– “imiss± hatthe kah±paºasahassa½ bahukañca suvaººa½ mahaggh±ni ca pas±dhan±ni sa½vijjanti, imasmi½ vane añño koci natthi, ratti ca j±t±, handa ima½ maya½ m±retv± sabba½ dhana½ gahetv± gacch±m±”ti. Te catt±ropi jan± ekajjh±say± hutv± ta½ m±retu½ upakkami½su. S± tehi m±riyam±n± “ime nillajj± nikkaruº± may± saddhi½ kilesasanthava½ katv± nirapar±dha½ ma½ kevala½ dhanalobhena m±renti, ekav±ra½ t±va ma½ ime m±rentu, aha½ pana yakkhin² hutv± anekav±ra½ ime m±retu½ samatth± bhaveyyan”ti patthana½ katv± k±lamak±si. Tesu kira eko pakkus±ti kulaputto ahosi, eko b±hiyo d±ruc²riyo, eko tambad±µhiko coragh±tako, eko suppabuddho kuµµh², iti imesa½ catunna½ jan±na½ anekasate attabh±ve s± yakkhayoniya½ nibbatt± g±v² hutv± j²vit± voropesi. Te tassa kammassa nissandena tattha tattha antar±maraºa½ p±puºi½su. Eva½ suppabuddhassa kuµµhissa sahas± maraºa½ j±ta½, tena vutta½– “atha kho acirapakkanta½…pe… voropes²”ti.
Atha sambahul± bhikkh³ tassa k±lakiriya½ bhagavato ±rocetv± abhisampar±ya½ pucchi½su. Bhagav± by±k±si. Tena vutta½– “atha kho sambahul± bhikkh³”ti-±di.
Tattha tiººa½ sa½yojan±na½ parikkhay±ti sakk±yadiµµhi vicikicch± s²labbatapar±m±soti imesa½ tiººa½ bhavabandhan±na½ samucchedavasena pah±n±. Sot±pannoti sotasaªkh±ta½ ariyamagga½ ±dito panno. Vuttañheta½–
“Soto sototi ida½, ±vuso s±riputta, vuccati. Katamo nu kho, ±vuso, sototi? Ayameva ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 5.1001).
Avinip±tadhammoti vinipatana½ vinip±to, n±ssa vinip±to dhammoti avinip±tadhammo, cat³su ap±yesu upapajjanavasena apatanasabh±voti attho. Niyatoti dhammaniy±mena sammattaniy±mena niyato. Sambodhipar±yaºoti uparimaggattayasaªkh±t± sambodhi para½ ayana½ assa gati paµisaraºa½ avassa½ pattabbanti sambodhipar±yaºo. Etena “tassa k± gati, ko abhisampar±yo”ti pucch±ya bhaddik± eva suppabuddhassa gati, na p±pik±ti ayamattho dassito. Na pana tena sampatt± gati, ta½ pana pucch±nusandhivasena pak±setuk±mo dhammar±j± ettakameva abh±si. Passati hi bhagav± “may± ettake kathite imissa½yeva parisati anusandhikusalo eko bhikkhu suppabuddhassa kuµµhibh±vad±liddiyakapaºabh±v±na½ k±raºa½ pucchissati, ath±ha½ tassa ta½ k±raºa½ tena pucch±nusandhin± pak±setv± desana½ niµµh±pess±m²”ti. Tenev±ha– “eva½ vutte aññataro bhikkh³”ti-±di. Tattha het³ti as±dh±raºak±raºa½, s±dh±raºak±raºa½ pana paccayoti, ayametesa½ viseso. Yen±ti yena hetun± yena paccayena ca.
Bh³tapubbanti j±tapubba½. At²te k±le nibbatta½ ta½ dassetu½ “suppabuddho”ti-±di vutta½. Kad± pana bh³tanti? At²te kira anuppanne tath±gate b±r±ºasiy± s±mant± ekasmi½ g±me ek± kuladh²t± khetta½ rakkhati. S± eka½ paccekabuddha½ disv± pasannacitt± tassa pañcahi l±j±satehi saddhi½ eka½ padumapuppha½ datv± pañca puttasat±ni patthesi. Tasmi½yeva khaºe pañcasat± migaluddak± paccekabuddhassa madhurama½sa½ datv± “etiss± putt± bhaveyy±ma, tumhehi pattavisesa½ labheyy±m±”ti ca patthayi½su. S± y±vat±yuka½ µhatv± devaloke nibbatt±. Tato cut± ekasmi½ j±tassare padumagabbhe nibbatti. Tameko t±paso disv± paµijaggi. Tass± vicarantiy± p±duddh±re p±duddh±re bh³mito padum±ni uµµhahanti. Eko vanacarako disv± b±r±ºasirañño ±rocesi. R±j± ta½ ±netv± aggamahesi½ ak±si. Tass± kucchiya½ gabbho saºµh±si. Mah±padumakum±ro tass± kucchiya½ vasi, ses± gabbhamala½ niss±ya nibbatt±, te vayappatt± uyy±ne padumasare k²¼ant± ekekasmi½ padume nis²ditv± paripakkañ±º± saªkh±resu khayavaya½ paµµhapetv± paccekabodhi½ p±puºi½su. Tesa½ by±karaºag±th± ahosi–
“Saroruha½ padumapal±sapatraja½,
supupphita½ bhamaragaº±nukiººa½;
aniccata½ khayavayata½ viditv±,
eko care khaggavis±ºakappo”ti.
Eva½ paccekabodhi½ abhisambuddhesu tesu pañcasu paccekabuddhasatesu abbhantaro tagarasikh² n±ma paccekasambuddho gandham±danapabbate nandam³lapabbh±re satt±ha½ nirodhasam±patti½ sam±pajjitv± satt±hassa accayena nirodh± vuµµhito ±k±sena ±gantv± isigilipabbate otaritv± pubbaºhasamaya½ niv±setv± pattac²varam±d±ya r±jagaha½ piº¹±ya p±visi. Tasmiñca samaye r±jagahe eko seµµhiputto mahat± pariv±rena uyy±nak²¼anattha½ nagarato nikkhamanto tagarasikhipaccekabuddha½ disv± “ko aya½ bhaº¹uk±s±vavasano, kuµµh² bhavissati, tath± hi kuµµhic²varena sar²ra½ p±rupitv± gacchat²”ti niµµhubhitv± apasabya½ katv± pakk±mi. Ta½ sandh±ya vutta½– “suppabuddho kuµµh² imasmi½yeva r±jagahe…pe… pakk±m²”ti.
Tattha kv±yanti ko aya½. Khu½sanavasena vadati. “Kov±yan”tipi p±¼i. Kuµµh²ti akuµµhi½yeva ta½ seµµhi kuµµharoga½ akkosavatthu½ p±pento vadati. Kuµµhic²varen±ti kuµµh²na½ c²varena. Yebhuyyena hi kuµµhino ¹a½samakasasar²sapapaµib±hanattha½ rogapaµicch±danatthañca ya½ v± ta½ v± pilotikakhaº¹a½ gahetv± p±rupati, evamayamp²ti dasseti. Pa½suk³lac²varadharatt± v± agga¼±na½ anekavaººabh±vena kuµµhasar²rasadisoti h²¼ento “kuµµhic²varen±”ti ±ha. Niµµhubhitv±ti khe¼a½ p±tetv±. Apasabyato karitv±ti paº¹it± t±disa½ paccekabuddha½ disv± vanditv± padakkhiºa½ karonti, aya½ pana aviññut±ya paribhavena ta½ apasabya½ katv± attano apasabya½ apadakkhiºa½ katv± gato. “Apasaby±mato”tipi p±µho. Tassa kammass±ti tagarasikhimhi paccekabuddhe “kv±ya½ kuµµh²”ti h²¼etv± niµµhubhana-apasabyakaraºavasena pavattap±pakammassa. Niraye paccitth±ti niraye nirayaggin± dayhittha. “Paccitv± nirayaggin±”tipi paµhanti. Tasseva kammassa vip±k±vasesen±ti yena kammena so niraye paµisandhi½ gaºhi, na ta½ kamma½ manussaloke vip±ka½ deti. Y± panassa n±nakkhaºik± cetan± tad± paccekabuddhe vippaµipajjanavasena pavatt± apar±pariyavedan²yabh³t±, s± apar±pariyavedan²yeneva puññakammena manussesu tihetukapaµisandhiy± dinn±ya pavattiya½ kuµµhibh±va½ d±liddiya½ paramak±ruññata½ ±p±desi. Ta½ sandh±ya kammasabh±gat±vasena “tasseva kammassa vip±kavasesen±”ti vutta½. Sadisepi hi loke tabboh±ro diµµho yath± ta½ “s± eva tittir², t±niyeva osadh±n²”ti.
Ett±vat± “ko nu kho, bhante, het³”ti tena bhikkhun± puµµhapañha½ vissajjetv± id±ni yo “tassa k± gati, ko abhisampar±yo”ti pubbe bhikkh³hi puµµhapañho, ta½ vissajjetu½ “so tath±gatappaveditan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tath±gatappaveditanti tath±gatena bhagavat± desita½ akkh±ta½ pak±sitanti tath±gatappavedita½. ¾gamm±ti adhigantv±, niss±ya ñatv± v±. “Tath±gatappavedite dhammavinaye”tipi p±µho. Saddha½ sam±diy²ti samm±sambuddho bhagav±, sv±kkh±to bhagavat± dhammo, suppaµipanno bhagavato s±vakasaªghoti ratanattayasannissaya½ pubbabh±gasaddhañceva lokuttarasaddhañc±ti duvidhampi saddha½ samm± ±diyi. Yath± na puna ±d±tabb± hoti, eva½ y±va bhavakkhay± gaºhi, attano cittasant±ne upp±des²ti attho. S²la½ sam±diy²ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. S²lanti pubbabh±gas²lena saddhi½ maggas²la½ phalas²lañca Sutanti pariyattib±husacca½ paµivedhab±husaccañc±ti duvidhampi suta½. Pariyattidhamm±pi hi tena dhammassavanak±le saccappaµivedh±ya s±vakehi yath±laddhappak±ra½ sut± paricit± manas±nupekkhit± diµµhiy± suppaµividdh± c±ti. C±ganti paµhamamaggavajjhakiles±bhisaªkh±r±na½ vossaggasaªkh±ta½ c±ga½, yena ariyas±vak± deyyadhammesu muttac±g± ca honti payatap±º² vossaggarat±. Paññanti saddhi½ vipassan±paññ±ya maggapaññañceva phalapaññañca.
K±yassa bhed±ti up±dinnakkhandhaparicc±g±. Para½ maraº±ti tadanantara½ abhinibbattakkhandhagahaº±. Atha v± k±yassa bhed±ti j²vitindriyassa upacched±. Para½ maraº±ti cutito uddha½. Sugati½ sagga½ lokanti padattayen±pi devalokameva vadati. So hi sampatt²na½ sobhanatt± sundar± gat²ti sugati, r³p±d²hi visesehi suµµhu aggoti saggo, sabbak±la½ sukhamevettha lokiyati, lujjat²ti v± lokoti vuccati. Upapannoti paµisandhiggahaºavasena upagato. Sahabyatanti sahabh±va½. Vacanattho pana saha byati pavattati, vasat²ti v± sahabyo, sahaµh±y² sahav±y² v±. Tassa bh±vo sahabyat±. Atirocat²ti atikkamma abhibhavitv± rocati virocati. Vaººen±ti r³pasampattiy±. Yasas±ti pariv±rena. So hi asucimakkhita½ jajjara½ mattik±bh±jana½ cha¹¹etv± anekaratanavicitta½ pabhassarara½sij±lavinaddhasuddhajambunadabh±jana½ gaºhanto viya vuttappak±ra½ ka¼evara½ idha nikkhipitv± ekacittakkhaºena yath±vutta½ dibbattabh±va½ mahat± pariv±rena saddhi½ paµilabh²ti.
Etamattha½ viditv±ti eta½ p±p±na½ aparivajjane ±d²nava½, parivajjane ca ±nisa½sa½ sabb±k±rato viditv± tadatthavibh±vana½ ima½ ud±na½ ud±nesi.
Tass±ya½ saªkhepattho– yath± cakkhum± puriso parakkame k±yikav²riye vijjam±ne sar²re vahante visam±ni pap±t±diµµh±n±ni caº¹abh±vena v± visam±ni hatthi-assa-ahikukkuragor³p±d²ni parivajjaye, eva½ j²valokasmi½ imasmi½ sattaloke paº¹ito sappañño puriso t±ya sappaññat±ya attano hita½ j±nanto p±p±ni l±mak±ni duccarit±ni parivajjeyya. Evañhi yath±ya½ suppabuddho tagarasikhimhi paccekabuddhe p±pa½ aparivajjetv± mahanta½ anayabyasana½ ±pajji, eva½ ±pajjeyy±ti adhipp±yo. Yath± v± suppabuddho kuµµh² mama dhammadesana½ ±gamma id±ni sa½vegappatto p±p±ni parivajjento u¼±ra½ visesa½ adhigañchi, eva½ aññopi u¼±ra½ vises±dhigama½ icchanto p±p±ni parivajjeyy±ti adhipp±yo.

Tatiyasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.