2. Uddesav±ra-atthavibh±van±

1. Eva½ saªgahav±rena saªkhepato dassite h±r±dayo id±ni vibh±gena dassetu½ “tattha katame so¼asa h±r±”ti-±didesan± ±raddh± Atha v± so¼asah±r±disamud±y± netti n±ma may± mah±kacc±nena niddiµµh±ti vutt±, “katame te so¼asa h±r±”ti pucchitabbatt± vutta½ “tattha so¼asa h±r±”ty±di. Tattha tatth±ti tesu so¼asah±r±d²su. Desan± h±ro, vicayo h±ro…pe… s±m±ropano h±roti ime so¼asa h±r±ti daµµhabb±.
Tattha sabbas±dh±raºatt± h±rapadassa vacanattho paµhama½ vattabbo. Kenaµµhena h±r±ti? Har²yanti eteh²ti h±r±. Etehi sa½vaººan±visesehi sa½vaººiyesu suttageyy±d²su aññ±ºasa½sayavipall±s± har²yanti, iti aññ±º±diharaºak±raºatt± “eteh²”ti padena niddiµµh± sa½vaººan±vises± h±r± n±ma, hara-dh±tuy± ±cariyassa vac²bhedasaddo, ta½samuµµh±pako cittupp±do ca mukhyattho, veneyy±na½ sa½vaººetabbasuttassa atthaj±nan±diñ±ºasampayuttacittupp±do k±raº³pac±rattho, tassa upanissayapaccayabh³t±na½ sa½vaººan±vises±na½ upanissayapaccayasatti phal³pac±rattho, iti-saddena s± upanissayapaccayasattiyeva par±mas²yati. Ta½sattisampann± sa½vaººan±vises± ºa-paccayatth± honti. Esa nayo evar³pesu µh±nesupi. Vitth±ro aµµhakath±ya½ (netti. aµµha. 1) vutto eva.
As±dh±raºato pana des²yati et±y±ti desan±. Et±ya sa½vaººan±ya sa½vaººetabbasuttattho des²yati sa½vaºº²yati sa½vaººan±nus±rena ñ±p²yati, iti ñ±panak±raºatt± “et±y±”ti padena niddiµµh± visesasa½vaººan± desan± n±ma, na p±¼idesan±, p±¼idesan±ya sa½vaººetabbasa½vaººan±bh±vena sahacaraºato v± desan±. Kiñc±pi aññe h±r± desan±p±¼isaªkh±tassa suttassa atthasa½vaººan±bh±vato desan±ya sahac±rino honti, aya½ pana h±ro yebhuyyena yath±rutavaseneva viññ±yam±natt± p±¼idesan±ya saha carat²ti vattabbata½ arahati, na tath± pare. Na hi ass±d±d²navanissaraº±disandassanalakkhaºarahit± p±¼idesan± atthi, ayañca h±ro ass±d±disandassanalakkhaºoti.
Viciyanti eten±ti vicayo. Etena sa½vaººan±visesena sutte padapañh±dayo viciyanti, iti vic±raºak±raºatt± so sa½vaººan±viseso vicayo n±ma. Katvatth±dhikaraºatth±pi labbhanti. Sa½vaººetabbasuttena padapañh±divicayanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso vicayo h±ro.
Yutt±yutti vic±r²yati et±y±ti yutti. Et±ya visesasa½vaººan±ya sabbesa½ h±r±na½ bh³migocar±na½ yutt±yutti vic±r²yati, iti vic±raºak±raºatt± “et±y±”ti padena niddiµµh± visesasa½vaººan± yutti n±ma. Idha uttarapadalopo daµµhabbo, yuttiy± vic±raº±, vic±raº²yabh±vena sahacaraºato v± yutti. Sabbah±r±na½ bh³migocar±na½ yutt±yuttivic±raºalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso yutti h±ro.
Padati pavatteti phala½ eten±ti pada½, k±raºa½. Ýhanti tiµµhanti ettha phal±ni tad±yattavuttit±y±ti µh±na½, k±raºa½. Padañca ta½ µh±nañc±ti padaµµh±na½, ±sannak±raºa½. Sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ padaµµh±na½ vic±r²yati et±y±ti padaµµh±n±, visesasa½vaººan±, vic±raºalopova, sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ padaµµh±n±na½, tesañca padaµµh±n±na½ vic±raºalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso padaµµh±no h±ro.
Sutte avutt±pi sam±nalakkhaº± dhamm± lakkh²yanti etena sa½vaººan±visesen±ti lakkhaºo, sutte vuttena dhammena sam±nalakkhaº±na½ dhamm±na½ avutt±nampi niddh±raºalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso lakkhaºo h±ro.
Sutte dassiyam±n± nibbacan±dayo catt±ropi viy³h²yanti vibh±gena sampiº¹²yanti ettha, etena v±ti by³ho, catunna½ nibbacan±d²na½ by³ho catuby³ho. Nibbacan±dhipp±yabyañjan±nañceva desan±nid±nassa ca pubb±parena saddhi½ sandassanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso catuby³ho h±ro.
Desan±ya gahitadhammena sabh±g±, visabh±g± ca dhamm± ±vaµµ²yanti ettha, etena v±ti ±vaµµo, desan±ya gahitadhamm±na½ sabh±gavisabh±gadhammavasena ±vaµµanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso ±vaµµo h±ro.
As±dh±raº±s±dh±raº±na½ sa½kilesadhamme, vod±nadhamme ca s±dh±raº±s±dh±raºato, padaµµh±nato, bh³mito ca vibhajanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso vibhatti h±ro.
Sutte niddiµµh± dhamm± paµipakkhavasena parivatt²yanti imin±, ettha v±ti parivatto, sutte niddiµµh±na½ dhamm±na½ paµipakkhato parivattanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso parivattano h±ro.
Sutte vuttassa ekasseva atthassa v±caka½ vividha½ vacana½ ettha sa½vaººan±viseseti vivacana½, vivacanameva vevacana½, sutte vutte ekasmi½ atthe anekapariy±yasaddayojan±lakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso vevacano h±ro.
Sutte vutt± atth± pak±rehi ñ±p²yanti imin±, ettha v±ti paññatti, ekekassa dhammassa anek±hi paññatt²hi paññ±petabb±k±ralakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso paññatti h±ro.
Sutt±gat± dhamm± paµiccasamupp±d±d²su otar²yanti anuppaves²yanti ettha, etena v±ti otaraºo, paµiccasamupp±d±dimukhehi suttatthassa otaraºalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso otaraºo h±ro.
Sutte padapadatthapañh±rambh± sodh²yanti sam±dh²yanti ettha, etena v±ti sodhano, sutte padapadatthapañh±rambh±na½ sodhanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso sodhano h±ro.
S±maññavisesabh³t± dhamm± vin± vikappena adhiµµh²yanti anuppavatt²yanti ettha, etena v±ti adhiµµh±no, sutt±gat±na½ dhamm±na½ avikappanavasena s±maññavisesaniddh±raºalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso adhiµµh±no h±ro.
Yo hetu ceva paccayo ca phala½ parikaroti abhisaªkharoti, iti so hetu ceva paccayo ca parikkh±ro, yo sa½vaººan±viseso ta½ parikkh±ra½ hetuñceva paccayañca ±cikkhati, iti so sa½vaººan±viseso parikkh±ro n±ma. Sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ parikkh±rasaªkh±te hetupaccaye niddh±retv± sa½vaººan±lakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso parikkh±ro h±ro.
Sutte ±gatadhamm± padaµµh±n±dimukhena sam±rop²yanti ettha, etena v±ti sam±ropano, sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ padaµµh±navevacanabh±vapah±nasam±ropanavic±raºalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso sam±ropano h±ro. Bh±vas±dhanavasen±pi sabbattha vacanattho vattabboti tass±pi vasena yojetabbanti. Sesa½ sa½vaººan±nus±rena ñ±tabbanti.
“Tattha katame so¼asa h±r± desan±”ty±din± h±rasar³pa½ vutta½, kimattha½ “tass±nug²ti”ty±di vuttanti? Anug²tig±th±ya sukhaggahaºattha½ puna “tass±nug²ti desan± vicayo yutti”ty±di vutta½. Tattha tass±ti h±ruddesassa. Anug²t²ti anu pacch± g±yanag±th±. Pañcadasoti pañcadasamo. So¼asoti so¼asamo. Atthato asa½kiºº±ti desan±dipadatthato lakkhaºatthato saªkarato rahit±. Tena vutta½ aµµhakath±ya½ “so ca nesa½ asaªkaro lakkhaºaniddese sup±kaµo hot²”ti. Sesa½ sa½vaººan±nus±rena ñ±tabbanti. “Keci h±r± kehici h±rehi sa½kiºº± viya dissanti, kasm± asa½kiºº±ti ñ±tabban”ti vattabbatt± vutta½ “etesañcev±”ti-±di. Tattha etesañceva bhavat²ti etesa½ so¼asanna½ h±r±na½ yath± yen±k±rena asaªkaro hoti, tath± asaªkar±k±rena bhavati. Ayati pavattati nayavibhatt²ti ay±, vitth±rena ay±ti vitth±ratay±, ta-k±ro missakados±pagamatth±ya ±gato, nayavibhattivisesavacana½. Nayena ñ±yena vibhatti nayavibhatti, na pañcanayavibhatt±h±r±na½ vitth±rena pavatt± ñ±yavibhatti tath± asaªkar±k±rena bhavati tasmi½ asa½kiºº±ti ñ±tabb±ti adhipp±yo.
2. So¼asa h±r± sar³pato vutt±, amhehi ca viññ±t±, “katame pañca nay±”ti vattabbabh±vato tath± pucchitv± sar³pato uddisitu½ “tattha katame pañca nay±”ty±di vutta½. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “eva½ h±re uddisitv± id±ni naye uddisitu½ ‘tattha katame’ti-±di vuttan”ti (netti. aµµha. 2) vutta½. “Tattha nayanti sa½kilese, vod±ne ca vibh±gato ñ±pent²ti nay±, n²yanti v± t±ni ettha, etehi v±ti nay±”ti-±din± (netti. aµµha. 2) aµµhakath±ya½ vitth±rena vacanattho vutto. -dh±tuy± nandiy±vaµµ±dinay±nus±rena sa½kilese, vod±ne ca ±lambitv± pavatto ñ±ºasampayuttacittupp±do mukhyattho, nandiy±vaµµ±dinay±na½ upanissayapaccayasatti phal³pac±rato gahit±, iti-saddo ta½ phal³pac±rato gahitasatti½ par±masi, ta½sattisahit± nandiy±vaµµ±dinay± a-paccayatth±.
Taºh±-avijj±hi sa½kilesapakkhassa suttassa, samathavipassan±hi vod±napakkhassa suttassa catusaccayojanamukhena nayanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso nandiy±vaµµo nayo. Tattha catusaccanti taºh± ca avijj± ca bhavam³latt± samudayasacca½, avases± tebh³mak± dhamm± dukkhasacca½, samathavipassan± maggasacca½, tena pattabb± asaªkhatadh±tu nirodhasaccanti.
T²hi avayavehi lobh±d²hi sa½kilesapakkhe, t²hi avayavehi alobh±d²hi ca vod±napakkhe pukkhalo sobhanoti tipukkhalo, akusalam³lehi sa½kilesapakkhassa, kusalam³lehi vod±napakkhassa suttatthassa catusaccayojanamukhena nayanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso tipukkhalo.
S²hassa bhagavato vikk²¼ita½ ettha nayeti s²havikk²¼ito, subhasaññ±d²hi vipall±sehi sakalasa½kilesapakkhassa, saddhindriy±d²hi vod±napakkhassa suttatthassa catusaccayojanamukhena nayanalakkhaºo sa½vaººan±viseso s²havikk²¼itanayo.
Atthanayattayadis±bh±vena kusal±didhamm±na½ ±locana½ dis±locana½. Tassa tassa atthanayassa yojanattha½ katesu suttassa atthavissajjanesu ye vod±n±dayo, sa½kilesik± ca tassa tassa nayassa dis±bh³t± dhamm± suttato niddh±retv± kathit±, tesa½ yath±vuttadhamm±na½ citteneva “aya½ paµham± dis±, aya½ dutiy± dis±”ti-±din± ±locana½ dis±locana½.
Tath± ±locit±na½ dhamm±na½ atthanayattayayojane sam±nayanato aªkuso viy±ti aªkuso, tassa tassa nayassa dis±bh³t±na½ kusal±didhamm±na½ sam±nayana½ aªkuso nayo.
Lañjet²ti lañjako. Yo nayo suttattha½ lañjeti pak±seti, iti lañjanato pak±sanato so nayo lañjako n±ma, nayo ca so lañjako c±ti nayalañjako. Nayalañjako paµhamo nandiy±vaµµo n±ma, nayalañjako dutiyo tipukkhalo n±ma, nayalañjako tatiyo s²havikk²¼ito n±m±ti yojetabbo.
Uggat±na½ visesena uggatoti uttamo, ta½ uttama½. Gat±ti ñ±t±, mat±ti attho. “Mat±”ti v± p±µho. Sesamettha vuttanay±nus±renapi sa½vaººan±nus±renapi j±nitabbanti.
Yath±vuttanayavisesasa½vaººan±ya µ²k±ya½–
“Sam³h±di½ up±d±ya lokasaªketasiddh± voh±ramattat± sammutisabh±vo, pathav²phass±d²na½ kakkha¼aphusan±dilakkhaºa½ paramatthasabh±vo. Ayañhettha saªkhepo– yasmi½ bhinne, itar±pohe v± cittena kate na tath± buddhi, ida½ sammutisacca½ yath± ghaµe, sasambh±rajale ca, tabbipariy±yena paramatthasaccan”ti–

Vacane ghaµakathala-±pajalakaddam±disaªkh±ta½ sam³h±di½ up±d±ya lokassa pubbe ghaµakathala-±pajalakaddam±disaªketasiddh± ghaµakathala-±pajalakaddam±divoh±ramattat± sammutisabh±vo saªketavasena avitathatt±. Pathav²-±d²na½ kakkha¼±dilakkhaºa½, phass±d²na½ phusan±dilakkhaºa½ paramatthasabh±vo. “Yadi eva½ ghaµ±dike abhinne v± ±p±dike v± anur³pena ³nabh±vena appavattam±ne v± sati sammutibh±vo hotu, bhinne v± ³ne v± katha½ sammutibh±vo bhaveyya, pathav²phass±d²nampi bhijjam±natt±, kakkha¼aphusan±d²nañca pathav²phass±d²hi anaññatt± katha½ paramatthasabh±vo bhaveyya, katamena saªkhepena atthena sammutisabh±vo, paramatthasabh±vo ca amhehi j±nitabbo”ti vattabbabh±vato “ayañhettha saªkhepo”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha etth±ti etesu sammutisabh±vaparamatthasabh±vesu aya½ nayo vuccam±no saªkhepo attho daµµhabbo.

Yasmi½ ghaµ±dike bhinne sati tato ghaµ±dito itaro kathal±dibh±vo cittena pubbe katena yath± yena kathal±divoh±rena bhavati, yasmi½ ±p±dike sambh±rajal±dike ³nabh±vena pavattam±ne sati v± tato ±p±dito itaro kaddam±dibh±vo cittena pubbe katena yath± yena kaddam±divoh±rena bhavati, tath± tena voh±rena buddhi kathal±disabh±vaj±nana½ kaddam±disabh±vaj±nana½ bhavati, ida½ abhinne ghaµ±dika½ v± bhinne kathal±dika½ v± an³ne ±p±dika½ v± ³ne kaddam±dika½ v± sabba½ sammutisacca½ hotveva. “Kaddamasmi½ bhinne, kaddamasmi½ ³ne v± sati itaro sammutisabh±vo”ti pucchitabbabh±vato “ghaµe, sambh±rajale c±”ti vutta½.
Sammutisaccasabh±vo tumhehi vutto, amhehi ca ñ±to, “katamo paramatthasaccasabh±vo”ti vattabbabh±vato “tabbipariy±yena paramatthasaccan”ti vutta½. Pathav²-±d²na½ kakkha¼±dilakkhaºato itarassa phusan±dilakkhaºassa asambhavato, phass±d²nañca phusan±dilakkhaºato itarassa kakkha¼±dilakkhaºassa asambhavato pathav²phass±d²na½ lakkha¼aphusan±dilakkhaºa½ paramatthasacca½ hotvev±ti imasmi½ saªkhepatthe gahite koci virodho natth²ti adhipp±yoti.
3. Pañca nay± sar³pato ±cariyena uddiµµh±, amhehi ca viññ±t±, “y±ni pad±ni aµµh±rasa m³lapad±ni uddiµµh±ni, katam±ni t±n²”ti pucchitabbatt± t±ni sar³pato dassetu½ “tattha katam±ni aµµh±rasa m³lapad±ni”ty±dim±ha. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “eva½ nayepi uddisitv± id±ni m³lapad±ni uddisitu½ ‘tattha katam±n²’ti-±di ±raddhan”ti vutta½. Tattha kusal±ni nava pad±ni, akusal±ni nava pad±ni aµµh±rasa m³lapad±n²ti daµµhabb±n²ti yojan±. M³lanti patiµµhahanti etehi nay±, patiµµh±navibh±g± c±ti m³l±ni, padanti patiµµhahanti ettha nay±, paµµh±navibh±g±, adhigam± c±ti pad±ni, vuttappak±raµµhena m³l±ni ca t±ni pad±ni c±ti m³lapad±ni. Kucchite p±padhamme salayant²ti kusal±ni, kuse r±g±dayo lunant²ti kusal±ni, kus± viya lunant²ti kusal±ni, kusena ñ±ºena l±tabb±ni pavattetabb±n²ti kusal±ni. Kusal±na½ paµipakkh±n²ti akusal±ni a-saddo cettha paµipakkhatthoti.
Nava pad±ni kusal±ni, nava pad±ni akusal±n²ti gaºanaparicchedato, j±tibhedato ca uddiµµh±ni, “katam±ni t±n²”ti pucchitabbatt± nava pad±ni akusal±ni pacc±sattiny±yena sar³pato dassetu½ “katam±ni nava pad±ni akusal±n²”ti-±di vutta½. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana–
“Eva½ gaºanaparicchedato, j±tibhedato ca m³lapad±ni dassetv± id±ni sar³pato dassento sa½kilesapakkha½yeva paµhama½ uddisati ‘taºh±’ti-±din±”ti (netti. aµµha. 3)–

Vutta½. Tattha r³p±dike khandhe tasati paritasat²ti taºh±. Avindiya½ k±yaduccarit±di½ vindat²ti avijj± vindiya½ k±yasucarit±di½ na vindat²ti avijj±, vijj±ya paµipakkh±ti v± avijj±. Lubbhanti ten±ti lobho, lubbhat²ti v± lobho, lubbhana½ v± lobho. Dosamohesupi eseva nayo. Asubhe r³pakkhandh±dike “subhan”ti pavatt± saññ± subhasaññ±. Dukkhadukkh±dike “sukhan”ti pavatt± saññ± sukhasaññ±. Anicce saªkh±radhamme “niccan”ti pavatt± saññ± niccasaññ±. Anattasabh±vesu cakkh±d²su khandhesu “att±”ti pavatt± saññ± attasaññ±. Yatth±ti yesu padesu sabbo akusalapakkho saªgaha½ samosaraºa½ gacchati, t±ni pad±ni akusal±n²ti yojan±. Saªgaha½ gaºana½. Samosaraºa½ sam±ropana½.

Paccan²kadhamme uddhacc±dike n²varaºe sameti v³pasameti tadaªgavikkhambhanavasen±ti samatho. Saªkh±re anicc±d²hi vividhehi ±k±rehi passat²ti vipassan±. Lobhassa paµipakkho alobho. Dosassa paµipakkho adoso. Mohassa paµipakkho amoho. Etth±pi a-saddo paµipakkhattho, na abh±vatth±dikoti adhipp±yo. Asubhe r³pakkhandh±dike, cakkh±dimhi v± “asubhan”ti pavatt± saññ±padh±nacittupp±d± asubhasaññ±, visesato k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ Dukkhadukkhat±d²su “dukkhan”ti pavatt± saññ±padh±nacittupp±d± dukkhasaññ±, visesato vedan±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½. Anicce khandh±dike vipariº±madhamme “aniccan”ti pavatt± saññ±padh±nacittupp±d± aniccasaññ±, visesato citt±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½. Anattasabh±ve khandhe, cakkh±dimhi v± “anatt±”ti pavatt± saññ±padh±nacittupp±d± anattasaññ±, visesato dhamm±nupassan±satipadh±na½. Paññ±satis²sena hi pavatt± aya½ desan±. Tena vutta½ bhagavat± “kathañca, bhikkhave, satibala½ daµµhabba½? Cat³su satipaµµh±nesu, ettha satibala½ daµµhabban”ti. Yatth±ti yesu padesu sabbo kusalapakkho saªgaha½ samosaraºa½ gacchati, t±ni pad±ni kusal±n²ti yojan±.
Udd±nanti uddha½ d±na½ rakkhaºa½ udd±na½, saªgahavacananti attho. Udd±ne avutte sati heµµh± vuttassa atthassa vippakiººabh±vo dinno viya bhaveyya, tasm± vippakiººabh±vassa niv±raºattha½ udd±nanti adhipp±yo. Caturo ca vipall±s±ti subhasukhanicca-attasaññ±. Kiles± bhavanti ettha navapades³ti bh³m², kiles±na½ bh³m²ti kilesabh³m², kilesapavattanaµµh±n±ni nava pad±n²ti vutta½ hoti.
Caturo satipaµµh±n±ti asubhadukkha-anicca-anattasaññ±. Indriyabh³m²ti saddh±d²na½ vimuttiparip±canindriy±na½ bh³m² pavattanaµµh±n±ni samosaraºaµµh±n±ni.
Navahi kusalapadehi kusalapakkh± yujjanti yoj²yanti, navahi akusalapadehi akusalapakkh± yujjanti yoj²yanti. Navahi kusalapadehi saha kusalapakkh± yujjanti yujjant± bhavanti, navahi akusalapadehi saha akusalapakkh± yujjanti yujjant± bhavant²ti uddesav±re vutt±vaseso sa½vaººan±nus±rena vij±nitabbo.

Iti sattibal±nur³p± racit±

Uddesav±rassa atthavibh±van± niµµhit±.