6. Catuby³hah±ravibhaªgavibh±van±

25. Yena yena sa½vaººan±visesabh³tena lakkhaºah±ravibhaªgena suttatthehi sam±natth± vibhatt±, so sa½vaººan±visesabh³to lakkhaºah±ravibhaªgo paripuººo, “katamo catuby³hah±ravibhaªgo”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha katamo catuby³ho h±ro”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu niddiµµhesu so¼asasu desan±h±r±d²su. Katamoti katamo sa½vaººan±viseso catuby³ho h±ro catuby³hah±ravibhaªgo n±m±ti viññeyyo. Tena vutta½– “tattha katamo catuby³ho h±roti catuby³hah±ravibhaªgo”ti (netti. aµµha. 25). “Imin± catuby³hah±rena katamassa nerutt±dayo gavesitabb±”ti pucchitabbatt± “byañjanen±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha byañjanen±ti catuby³hah±rassa suttassa visesato byañjanavicayabh±vato “byañjan±”ti voh±ritena imin± catuby³hah±rena suttassa neruttañca, suttassa adhipp±yo ca, suttassa nid±nañca, suttassa pubb±parasandhi ca sa½vaººentehi gavesitabboti attho.
“Catuby³hah±rena gavesitabbesu nerutt±d²su katama½ suttassa gavesitabba½ neruttan”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha katama½ neruttan”ti-±di vutta½. Tassattho– tattha tesu imin± catuby³hah±rena gavesitabbesu nerutt±d²su katama½ suttassa nerutta½ nibbacana½ n±m±ti ce puccheyya? Suttassa y± nirutti niddh±retv± vutt± sabh±vapaññatti gavesitabb±, ida½ sabh±vaniruttibh³ta½ nibbacana½ nerutta½ n±m±ti. “Y± nirutti nerutta½ n±m±ti vutt±, k± pana s± nirutt²”ti pucchitabbatt± “padasa½hit±”ti vutta½. Padesu sa½hit± yutt± padasa½hit±. Yath± yath± suttattho vattabbo, tath± tath± y± sabh±vanirutti pavatt±, s± pavatt± sabh±vaniruttiyeva nirutti n±m±ti yojan±. “K± pana s± sabh±vanirutt²”ti pucchitabbatt± ca “ya½ dhamm±na½ n±maso ñ±ºan”ti vutta½. Ya½ y±ya k±raºabh³t±ya n±mapaññattiy± dhamm±na½ neyy±na½ n±maso pathav²n±m±din± v± phassan±m±din± v± khandhan±m±din± v± vividhena n±mena atthadhamm±d²su kusalassa puggalassa ñ±ºa½ pavattati, s± k±raºabh³t± n±mapaññatti sabh±vanirutti n±m±ti attho. Yanti ca liªgavipall±so, y±y±ti attho. “Liªgapakatidhamm±na½ n±maso pavattam±na½ ñ±ºa½ vivaritv± katheh²”ti vattabbatt± “yad± h²”ti-±di vutta½. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “yad± hi bhikkh³ti-±din± ‘dhamm±na½ n±maso ñ±ºan’ti padassa attha½ vivarat²”ti (netti. aµµha. 25) vutta½. Tassattho aµµhakath±ya½ vibhajitv± vuttov±ti na vic±rito.
26. Nerutta½ ±cariyena vibhatta½, amhehi ca ñ±ta½ “katamo sutte gavesitabbo bhagavato adhipp±yo”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha katamo adhipp±yo”ti-±di vutta½. Tassattho p±kaµo. Apica “dhammo have rakkhat²”ti-±d²su yena puggalena attan± rakkhitena dhammena rakkhitabbabh±vo icchito, so dhamma½ rakkhissat²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo. Yo puggalo duggatito muccituk±mo, so dhamma½ rakkhissat²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo.
Coro yath± sandhimukhe gahitoti-±d²su yo coro gh±tanato muccituk±mo, so corakamma½ na karissat²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo. Yo puggalo ap±y±didukkhato muccituk±mo, so p±pakamma½ na karissat²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo.
Sukhak±m±n²ti-±d²su ye puggal± sukha½ icchanti, te parahi½sanato vivajjissant²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo.
Middh² yad± hoti mahagghaso c±ti-±d²su ye puggal± punappuna½ pavattam±naj±tijar±maraºato muccituk±m±, te bhojane mattaññuno bhavissanti, santuµµh± bhavissanti, suddh±j²v± bhavissanti, p±timokkhasa½varas²lasampann± bhavissanti, atandino bhavissanti, vipassak± bhavissanti, sag±rav± sappatiss± bhavissant²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo.
Appam±do amatapadanti-±d²su ye puggal± maccuno bh±yanti, nibb±namicchanti, te puggal± d±nas²labh±van±kammesu appamatt± bhavissant²ti bhagavato adhipp±yo.
27. Sutte gavesitabbo adhipp±yo ±cariyena vibhatto, amhehi ca viññ±to, “katama½ suttassa gavesitabba½ nid±nan”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha katama½ nid±nan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha nid±nanti phala½ n²haritv± det²ti nid±na½. Ki½ ta½? K±raºa½. Dhaniyoti dhanava¹¹hanak±raºe niyuttoti dhaniyo. Gop±lakoti g±vo issarabh±vena p±leti rakkhat²ti gop±lako. Upadh²h²ti puttagoº±d²hi (su. ni. aµµha. 1.33). Narass±ti puttimantassa v± gop±lakassa v± narass±ti ca padaµµh±navasena v± yebhuyyavasena v± g±th±ya½ ±gatavasena v± vutta½, n±riy±pi upadh²hi nandan± atthev±ti daµµhabb±.
Imin± vatthun±ti upadhisaªkh±tena imin±va puttagav±din± vatthun±. Vasati pavattati nandan± ettha puttagoº±diketi vatthu. Nandana½ n²haritv± deti puttagoº±dikanti nid±nanti attha½ gahetv± dhaniyo “upadh²hi narassa nandan±”ti ±ha. Bhagav± pana “vasati pavattati socan± ettha puttagoº±dikehi vatthu, socana½ n²haritv± deti puttagoº±dikanti nid±nan”ti attha½ gahetv± “upadh²hi narassa socan±”ti ±ha. Pariggah²yateti pariggaha½. Ki½ ta½? Puttagoº±dika½, ta½ pariggaha½ “upadh²”ti ±ha, na kiles³padhik±yakhandh³padhinti.
Upadh²s³ti khandhasaªkh±tesu k±yesu. K±ya½ “upadh²”ti ±ha, na puttagav±dika½, na pariggaha½.
B±hiresu vatth³s³ti maºikuº¹alaputtad±r±d²su vatth³su.
K±masukhanti k±man²yesu ass±dasukhavasena pavatt± taºh±. B±hiravatthuk±ya taºh±y±ti k±man²yesu b±hiravatth³su ass±dasukhavasena pavatt±ya taºh±ya.
Ajjhattikavatthuk±y±ti r³pak±yasaªkh±te ajjhattikavatthumhi abhinandanavasena pavatt±ya.
Puna ajjhattikavatthuk±y±ti pañcakkhandhasaªkh±te ajjhattikavatthumhi sinehavasena pavatt±ya.
Gavesitabba½ nid±na½ vibhatta½, amhehi ca ñ±ta½, “katamo gavesitabbo pubb±parasandh²”ti pucchitabbatt± tattha katamo pubb±parasandh²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu nerutt±dhipp±yanid±napubb±parasandh²su. Yath±ti yena andhak±r±din± sabh±vena “k±mandh±…pe… m±taran”ti ya½ k±mataºha½ bhagav± ±ha, aya½ k±mataºh± tath± tena andhak±r±din± sabh±vena “k±mandh±…pe… m±taran”ti g±th± vutt±ti yojan±.
G±th±ttho pana– k±met²ti k±mo, k±mataºh±, k±mena atthassa aj±nanat±ya dhammassa, apassanat±ya ca andh±ti k±mandh±. K±mataºh±saªkh±tena j±lena atthadhamm±na½ aj±nan±passanena sañchann± paliguºµhit±ti j±lasañchann±. Taºh±saªkh±tena chadanena tesa½yeva atthadhamm±na½ aj±nan±passanena ch±dit± pihit±ti taºh±chadanach±dit±. Atthadhammesu pamattasaªkh±tena pam±dena bandhanena baddh± bandhitabb± puggal± jar±maraºa½ anventi, kumin±mukhe pavatt± macch± maraºa½ anventi iva ca, kh²rapako vaccho m±tara½ anveti iva ca, tath± jar±maraºa½ anvent²ti gahetabbo.
“K±mandh±…pe… m±taran’ti y±ya desan±ya, g±th±ya v± k±mataºh± vutt±, s± desan±, g±th± v± katamena desan±bh³tena aparena yujjat²”ti pucchitabbatt± tath± pucchitv± im±ya desan±ya, g±th±ya v± yujjat²ti dassetu½ “s± katamen±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ti “k±mandh±…pe… anvent²”ti desan±, g±th± v±. Pubb±paren±ti tato desan±to pubbena desan±vacanena, g±th±vacanena v± aparena desan±vacanena, g±th±vacanena v±. Yujjati yujjana½ eti samet²ti pucchati.
Yath±ti yena andhakaraº±din±. “Ratto…pe… naran”ti ya½ g±th±vacana½ bhagav± ±ha, tena g±th±vacanena tath± andhakaraº±din± yujjat²ti yojan±. G±th±ttho pana– ratto rañjanto puggalo attha½ attahitapayojana½ parahitapayojana½ na j±n±ti. Ratto rañjanto dhamma½ yath±vuttassa atthassa hetu½ paññ±cakkhun± na passati. R±go ya½ nara½ yad± sahate, tad± tassa narassa andha½ andhak±ra½ tama½ aññ±ºa½ hot²ti gahetabbo.
It²ti eva½. Andhat±ya andhakaraºat±ya sañchannat±ya sañchannakaraºat±ya. S±yeva taºh±ti “k±mandh±…pe… m±taran”ti g±th±vacanena y± k±mataºh± vutt±, s±yeva k±mataºh±. Abhilapit±ti “ratto…pe… naran”ti aparena g±th±vacanena bhagavat± voh±rit± voharaºena ñ±pit±, abhilapitassa atthassa sam±nat± pubbadesan± aparadesan±ya yujjat²ti vutta½ hoti.
“Dv²su g±th±su katamehi padehi s±yeva taºh± abhilapit±”ti pucchitabbatt± imehi abhilapit±ti niyametv± dassetu½ “yañc±h±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha paµhamag±th±ya½ “k±mandh±…pe… ch±dit±”ti yañca pada½ ±ha, dutiyag±th±yañca “ratto…pe… na passat²”ti yañca pada½ ±ha. Pariyuµµh±nehi pariyuµµh±nad²pakehi imehi “k±mandh±…pe… passat²”ti padehi s±yeva paµhamag±th±ya vutt± k±mataºh± ca bhagavat± abhilapit±.
“Ya½ andhak±ra½ vutta½, katama½ ta½? Y± taºh± ponobhavik± vutt±, katam± s±”ti pucchitabbatt± “ya½ andhak±ran”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha andhak±ra½ ya½ aññ±ºa½ vutta½, aya½ dukkhasamudayo bhave. Y± ca taºh± ponobhavik± vutt±, ayañca dukkhasamudayo bhaveti yojan±.
“K±m±”ti yañca pada½ bhagav± ±ha, tena padena ime kilesak±m± vutt±. “J±lasañchann±”ti yañca pada½ bhagav± ±ha, tena padena tesa½yeva kilesak±m±na½ payogena samud±c±rena pariyuµµh±na½ bhagav± dasseti. Tasm±ti yasm± yasmi½ sant±ne taºh± uppann±, ta½ sant±na½ sa½s±rato nissaritu½ adatv± r³p±rammaº±d²hi palobhayam±n± hutv± citta½ kilesehi pariy±d±ya tiµµhati, tasm± taºh±ya citta½ pariy±d±ya sant±ne tiµµham±natt±. Kilesavasen±ti v²tikkamakilesavasena. Pariyuµµh±navasen±ti v²tikkamana½ appatv± uppajjam±navasena. Yeti vuttappak±rataºh±sahitapuggalasadis±. Teti te taºh±bandhanabaddh± ca edisak± ca puggal±. Jar±maraºa½ anventi jar±maraºa½ atikkamitu½ na sakkuºanti. Ayanti jar±maraº±nuppavatti “jar±maraºamanvent²”ti imin± vacanena bhagavat± dassit±ti yojan±.
“K±mandh±”ti-±dig±th±ya ceva “ratto”ti-±dig±th±ya ca pubb±parasandhi ±cariyena vibhatto amhehi ca ñ±to, “katha½ ‘yassa papañc± µhit² c±’ti-±dig±th±su pubb±parasandhi amhehi viññ±tabbo”ti vattabbatt± yassa papañc±”ti-±di vutta½. Tass± g±th±ya– yassa munino papañc± taºh±m±nadiµµh² ca natthi, taºh±m±nadiµµh²hi abhisaªkhat± saªkh±r± ca natthi, µhit² anusay± taºh± ca natthi, sand±nasadisa½ taºh±pariyuµµh±na½ natthi, palighasadiso moho ca natthi, so muni papañc±dika½ sabba½ v²tivatto atikkantoti vuccati. Nittaºha½ nim±na½ nidiµµhi½ nisand±na½ nipaligha½ loke caranta½ ta½ muni½ sadevako taºh±sahito loko na vij±n±t²ti attho.
G±th±ya½ papañc±dayo bhagavat± vutt±, “katame te”ti pucchitabbatt± “papañc± n±m±”ti-±di vutta½. Attano ±dh±rapuggala½ sa½s±re cira½ papañcant±pent² taºh±m±nadiµµhiyo ca, t±hi taºh±m±nadiµµh²hi sahaj±tavasena v± upatthambhanavasena v± abhisaªkhat± saªkh±r± ca papañc± n±ma. Sant±ne appah²naµµhena anusay± taºh± satt±na½ tiµµhanahetutt± µhit² n±ma. Pavattam±n±ya taºh±ya ya½ pariyuµµh±nañca chatti½sataºh±ya j±liniy± y±ni vicarit±ni ca vutt±ni, ida½ sabba½ attano ±dh±ra½ puggala½ bandhanaµµhena sand±nasadisatt± sand±na½ n±ma. Moho attano ±dh±rassa puggalassa nibb±nanagarappavesanassa paµisedhakatt± palighasadisatt± paligho n±ma. “Yassa papañc±dayo natthi, so ki½ v²tivatto”ti pucchitabbatt± “ye c±”ti-±di vutta½. Ye vuttappak±r± papañc± saªkh±r±, y± ca vuttappak±r± µhiti, ya½ vuttappak±ra½ sand±nañca, ya½ vuttappak±ra½ palighañca natth²ti vutt±, sabba½ eta½ papañc±dika½ yo muni samatikkanto, aya½ muni “nittaºho”ti vuccat²ti daµµhabbo.