3. Yuttih±ravibhaªgavibh±van±

18. Yena yena sa½vaººan±visesabh³tena vicayah±ravibhaªgena padapañh±dayo vicit±, so sa½vaººan±visesabh³to vicayah±ravibhaªgo paripuººo, “katamo yuttih±ravibhaªgo”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha katamo yuttih±ro”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu niddiµµhesu so¼asasu h±resu katamo sa½vaººan±viseso yuttih±ro yuttih±ravibhaªgoti pucchi. “Sabbesa½ h±r±nan”ti-±diniddesassa id±ni vuccam±no “aya½ yuttih±ro”ti-±diko vitth±rasa½vaººan±viseso yuttih±ravibhaªgo n±m±ti viññeyyo. Tena vutta½ “tattha katamo yuttih±roti-±di yuttih±ravibhaªgo”ti (netti. aµµha. 18). Aya½ yuttih±ro ki½ n±ma suttattha½ yutt±yuttivasena yojayat²ti yuñjitabba½ suttattha½ pucchati. Suttattho pana duvidho atath±k±rena gayham±no, tath±k±rena gayham±no atthoti. Tattha atath±k±rena gayham±nova attho y±th±vato yuttiniddh±raºena yojetabbo, itaro pana bh³takathanamattena yojetabbo. Yasm± pan±ya½ yuttigavesan± n±ma sa½vaººan± mah±padesehi vin± na sambhavati, tasm± yuttih±ra½ vibhajanto tassa yuttih±rassa lakkhaºa½ paµhama½ upadisitu½ “catt±ro mah±pades±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha mah±pades±ti mahante buddh±dayo apadisitv± vutt±ni k±raº±ni, mahant±ni v± dhammassa apades±ni patiµµh±n±ni. Apadis²yateti apadeso, buddho apadeso etassa k±raºass±ti buddh±padeso. Sesesupi eseva nayo netabbo. “Buddhassa sammukh± eta½ sutta½ may± sutan”ti vatv± ±bhatassa ganthassa suttavinayehi sa½sandana½ dhammo, asa½sandana½ adhammoti vinicchayak±raºa½ mah±padesoti adhipp±yo. “Buddhassa sammukh± may± ±bhata½, saªghassa sammukh± may± ±bhata½, sambahulatther±na½ sammukh± may± ±bhata½, ekattherassa sammukh± may± ±bhatan”ti vatv± ±bhatassa ganthassa y±ni byañjanapada-atthapad±ni santi, t±ni padabyañjan±ni bhagavat± desite sutte otarayitabb±ni anuppavesit±ni, vinaye r±g±divinaye sandassayitabb±ni sa½sandetabb±ni. Dhammat±ya½ upanikkhipitabb±ni pakkhipitabb±ni. Yadi suttatthena, vinayatthena, dhammat±ya ca aviruddh±ni honti, eva½ sati tava ±bhatapadabyañjan±ni yutt±n²ti vinicchayantehi vatv± gahetabb±n²ti adhipp±yo.
Suttavinayadhammat±su otarayitabb±ni sandassayitabb±ni upanikkhipitabb±n²ti ±cariyena vutt±ni, “kattha sutte, kattha vinaye, kattha dhammat±yan”ti vattabbatt± “katamasmi½ sutte”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha cat³su ariyasacces³ti catunna½ ariyasacc±na½ dassanakesu suttesu. R±go vinassati v³pasamati etena asubh±din±ti r±gavinaya½, ki½ ta½? Asubh±dinimitta½, ta½ assa atth²ti r±gavinayo, ko so? Asubh±dinimittadassanako suttantaviseso. Esa nayo dosavinayoti-±d²supi. Paµiccasamupp±do n±ma sassatadiµµhi-ucchedadiµµhi½ vivajjetv± ekattanay±d²na½ d²panena avijj±disaªkh±r±disabh±vadhamm±na½ paccayapaccayuppannabh±vad²pakoti vutta½ “katamissa½ dhammat±ya½ upanikkhipitabb±ni? Paµiccasamupp±de”ti.
“Sutt±d²su avatarante sandissante avilomente ki½ na janet²”ti vattabbato “cat³s³”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha “buddh±d²na½ sammukh± may± ±bhatan”ti vatv± ±bhatagantho cat³su ariyasaccesu yadi avatarati, eva½ sati ±bhatagantho ±save na janeti. R±g±dikilesavinaye yadi sandissati, eva½ sati ±bhatagantho ±save na janeti. Dhammatañca yadi na vilometi, eva½ sati ±bhatagantho ±save na janet²ti attho daµµhabbo.
“Kimattha½ yuttih±ravibhaªge catt±ro mah±pades± ±bhat±”ti vattabbatt± “cat³hi mah±padeseh²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha ±bhataganthe ya½ ya½ atthaj±ta½, ya½ ya½ dhammaj±ta½ v± cat³hi mah±padesehi yujjati, ta½ ta½ atthaj±ta½ v± ta½ ta½ dhammaj±ta½ v± sa½vaººetabbasutte gahetabba½. Yena yena k±raºena ca cat³hi mah±padesehi yujjati, ta½ ta½ k±raºa½ sa½vaººan±vasena sa½vaººetabbasutte gahetabba½. Yath± yath± pak±rena cat³hi mah±padesehi yujjati, so so pak±ro sa½vaººan±vasena sa½vaººetabbasutte gahetabbo. Eva½ g±haºattha½ catt±ro mah±pades± ±bhat±ti attho.
19. Cat³hi mah±padesehi yutta½ aviruddha½ ta½ ta½ atthaj±ta½ gahetabbanti ±cariyena vutta½, “kattha kena yuttiniddh±raºa½ k±tabban”ti vattabbatt± “pañha½ pucchiten±”ti-±di vutta½. Pañhe pañha½ pucchitena puggalena yuttiniddh±raºa½ k±tabbanti. Tattha pañhanti pañhitabba½ sabh±vadhamma½. Pucchiten±ti vissajjetu½ samatthena paº¹itapuggalena. Pañheti pucch±vasena pavattap±µhe. Pad±ni kati kittak±ni hont²ti padaso paµhama½ pariyog±hitabba½ yuttih±rena vicetabba½ v²ma½sitabba½. “Katha½ vicetabban”ti pucchitabbatt± “yadi sabb±n²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha sabb±ni pad±n²ti pucchitap±µhe niravases±ni pad±ni eka½ sam±na½ attha½ yadi abhivadanti, eva½ sati atthavasena eko pañho. Esa nayo sesesupi. Tena vutta½ “tadatthassekassa ñ±tu½ icchitatt±”ti (netti. aµµha. 19).
Ekanti atthavasena ekavidha½ pañha½. Upaparikkham±nena puggalena aññ±tabba½ da¼ha½ j±nitabba½. “Ko ±j±nan±k±ro”ti pucchitabbatt± ±j±nan±k±ra½ dassento “ki½ ime dhamm±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha “ye hi pariyattidhamm± sa½vaººetabb±, ime pariyattidhamm± n±natth± honti ki½, n±n±byañjan± honti ki½, ud±hu imesa½ pariyattidhamm±na½ eko attho hoti, byañjanameva n±na½ hoti kin”ti yuttito vicetv± aññ±tabbanti yojan±. “Yath±vutto pañho ki½ bhave”ti pucchitabbatt± yath±vutta½ pañha½ ekadesa½ dassetu½ “yath± ki½ bhave”ti pucchitv± “yath± s±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tassa½ pucch±g±th±ya½– coragh±takena manussena coro abbh±hato viya kena dhammena sattaloko sad± abbh±hato, m±luvalat±ya attano nissitarukkho pariv±rito ajjhotthaµo viya kena dhammena sattaloko sad± pariv±rito ajjhotthaµo, visapp²takhurappena sallena otiººo anupaviµµho viya kena sallena sattaloko sad± otiººo anupaviµµho, kissa kena k±raºena sattaloko sad± dh³p±yito sant±pitoti yojan±.
“Im±ya pucch±g±th±ya kittak±ni pad±n²”ti pucchitabbatt± “im±n²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha pucchit±n²ti pucchitatth±ni pad±ni catt±ri honti. “Kittak± pañh±”ti pucchitabbatt± “te tayo pañh±”ti vutta½.
Bhagav± devat±ya hi yasm± vissajjeti, iti tasm± vissajjanato “tayopañh±”ti viññ±yati. “Katam± vissajjanag±th±”ti pucchitabbatt±–
“Maccun±bbh±hato loko, jar±ya pariv±rito;
taºh±sallena otiººo, icch±dh³p±yito sad±”ti.–

Vutta½. Tassa½ vissajjanag±th±ya½– coragh±takena manussena coro abbh±hato viya maccun± sattaloko sad± abbh±hato, m±luvalat±ya attano nissitarukkho pariv±rito ajjhotthaµo viya jar±ya sattaloko sad± pariv±rito ajjhotthaµo, visapp²takhurappena sallena otiººo anupaviµµho viya taºh±sallena sattaloko sad± otiººo anupaviµµho, icch±ya sattaloko sad± dh³p±yito sant±pitoti yojan±.

20. “Katama½ maccu, katam± jar±”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha jar±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tissa½ vissajjanag±th±ya½. Dutiyapade vutt± jar± ca paµhamapade vutta½ maraºañca im±ni dve saªkhatassa khandhapañcakassa saªkhatalakkhaº±ni honti, saªkhata½ khandhapañcaka½ muñcitv± visu½ na upalabbhat²ti attho. “Saªkhatalakkhaº±na½ jar±maraº±na½ katha½ bhedo j±nitabbo”ti vattabbatt± “jar±ya½ µhitass±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha jar±ya½ µhitassa aññathattanti µhitassa khandhappabandhassa ya½ aññathatta½, aya½ p±kaµajar± n±ma, na khaºaµµhitijar±. Maraºa½ vayoti sammutimaraºa½ cutiyeva hoti, na khaºikamaraºa½, na samucchedamaraºa½. Tena vutta½ “upp±do paññ±yati, vayo paññ±yati, µhitassa aññathatta½ paññ±yat²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.38; a. ni. 3.47; kath±. 214).
Yadi µhitasseva maraºa½ siy±, eva½ sati jar±maraº±na½ n±natta½ yutta½ na siy±, ayutte sati “te tayo pañh±”ti vacanampi ayuttamev±ti vattabbato “tattha jar±ya c±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tissa½ vissajjanag±th±ya½ vutt±ya jar±ya ca vuttassa maraºassa ca atthato n±natta½ yutta½.
“Kena k±raºena yutta½, katha½ k±raºena n±natta½ sampaµicchitabban”ti vattabbatt± “gabbhagat±pi hi m²yant²”ti vutta½. Jara½ appatt± gabbhagat±pi satt± hi yasm± m²yanti, tasm± n±natta½ sampaµicchitabba½. “Gabbhagat±pi jarappatt± bhaveyyun”ti vattabbatt± “na ca te jiºº± bhavant²”ti vutta½. Jarappatt±pi ajiººatt± jiººajara½ appatt±va m²yanti, eva½ idh±dhippetassa jiººajar±virahitassa maraºassa sambhavato aññ± jar±, añña½ maraºanti ñ±tabbanti vutta½ hoti. “Na gabbhagat±na½yeva jiººajara½ appatta½ maraºa½ atthi, aññesampi atth²”ti vattabbabh±vato “atthi ca dev±na½ maraºan”ti vutta½. “Dev±pi cirak±lasambhavato jara½ patt± bhaveyyun”ti vattabbatt± “na ca tesa½ sar²r±ni j²rant²”ti vutta½. “Jar±maraº±na½ n±natte k±raºa½ ettakamev±”ti vattabbatt± aññampi atth²ti dassetu½ “sakkate v±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha jiººajar±ya paµikamma½ k±tu½ sakkateva, maraºassa pana paµikammassa k±tu½ na sakkateva, imin±pi k±raºena jar±maraº±na½ n±natta½ sampaµicchitabbamev±ti attho. “Na sakkate maraºassa paµikamma½ k±tun”ti kasm± vutta½, nanu iddhip±dabh±van±ya vas²bh±ve sati sakk± maraºass±pi paµikamma½ k±tunti codana½ manasi katv± “aññatreva iddhimant±na½ iddhivisay±”ti vutta½.
Jar±maraº±na½ aññamañña½ n±n±bh±vo ±cariyena dassito, amhehi ca ñ±to, “katha½ pana taºh±ya jar±maraºehi n±n±bh±vo”ti vattabbato tehi taºh±ya n±natta½ dassetu½ “ya½ pan±h±”ti-±di vutta½. Taºh±ya avijjam±n±yapi j²rant±pi m²yant±pi v²tar±g± yasm± dissanti, tasm± taºh±ya jar±maraºehi n±n±bh±vo sampaµicchitabbo.
“Taºh±ya j²raºabhijjanalakkhaºa½ atth²ti tehi taºh±ya anaññatte ko n±ma doso siy±”ti vattabbato dosa½ dassetu½ “yadi c±”ti-±di vutta½. Jar±maraºa½ yath± yena j²raºabhijjanalakkhaºena p±kaµa½, eva½ j²raºabhijjanalakkhaºena taºh±pi p±kaµ±. Yadi ca siy±; eva½ sante yobbanaµµh±pi sabbe m±ºav± vigatataºh± siyu½, na ca vigatataºh±, tasm± n±n±bh±vo sampaµicchitabbo. Tato aññopi doso ±pajjeyy±ti dassetu½ “yath± ca taºh± dukkhass±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha jar±maraº±na½ taºh±ya anaññatte sati taºh±ya bhavataºh±ya dukkhasamudayo hoti, eva½ jar±maraºampi dukkhasamudayo siy±. Yasm± na jar±maraºa½ dukkhasamudayo, tasm± jar±maraºehi taºh±ya n±natta½ veditabba½.
Tehi t±ya anaññatte sati evampi doso ±pajjeyy±ti dassetu½ “yath± ca taºh± maggavajjh±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tehi t±ya anaññatte sati yath± taºh± maggavajjh± hoti, eva½ jar±maraºampi maggavajjha½ siy±. Yath± jar±maraºa½ maggavajjha½ na hoti, eva½ taºh±pi maggavajjh± na siy±, tath± ca na hoti pah±tabb±pah±tabbabh±vato, tasm±pi jar±maraºehi taºh±ya n±natta½ veditabba½.