2. Vicayah±ravibhaªgavibh±van±

11. Yena yena sa½vaººan±visesabh³tena desan±h±ravibhaªgena ass±d±dayo suttatth± ±cariyena vibhatt±, so sa½vaººan±visesabh³to desan±h±ravibhaªgo paripuººo, “katamo vicayo h±ro”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha katamo vicayo h±ro”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu niddiµµhesu so¼asasu desan±h±r±d²su h±resu katamo sa½vaººan±viseso vicayo h±ro vicayah±ravibhaªgo n±m±ti pucchati. “Ya½ pucchitañca vissajjitañc±”ti-±diniddesag±th±ya id±ni may± vuccam±no “aya½ vicayo h±ro ki½ vicinat²”ti-±diko sa½vaººan±viseso vicayah±ravibhaªgo n±m±ti yojan±.
“Aya½ vicayo h±ro ki½ vicinat²”ti imin± yo vicayo vicinitabbo, ta½ vicaya½ vicinitabba½ pucchati, tasm± vicinitabba½ visaya½ visu½ visu½ niyametv± dassetu½ “pada½ vicinati, pañha½ vicinat²”ti-±di vutta½. “Ki½ vicayo padavicayo”ti-±di½ avatv± “ki½ vicinati, pada½ vicinat²”ti-±divacanena vicayasaddassa kattus±dhanattha½ dasseti. Tattha pada½ vicinat²ti navavidhassa suttantassa sabba½ pada½ y±va nigaman± n±mapad±dij±tisadd±di-itthiliªg±di-±k±rant±dipaµhamavibhatyant±di-ekavacan±divasena vicinati. Pañha½ vicinat²ti adiµµhajotan±disatt±dhiµµh±n±disammutivisay±di-at²tavisay±divasena vicinati. Vissajjana½ vicinat²ti eka½saby±karaºavissajjan±dis±vasesaby±karaºavissajjan±di sa-uttaraby±karaºa vissajjan±di lokiyaby±karaºavissajjan±divasena vicinati. Pubb±para½ vicinat²ti pubbena apara½ sa½sanditv± vicinati. Ass±da½ vicinat²ti ass±dakataºh±di-ass±detabbasukh±divasena vicinati. ¾d²nava½ vicinat²ti dukkhadukkhavipariº±madukkhasaªkh±radukkhavasena v± aniµµh±nubhavan±di-±di-antavantat±disa½kilesabh±giy±divasena v± vicinati. Nissaraºa½ vicinat²ti maggavasena v± nibb±navasena v± maggassa v± ±gamavasena, nibb±nassa asaªkhatadh±tu-±dipariy±yavasena v± vicinati. Phala½ vicinat²ti dhammacaraºassa duggatigaman±bh±vena v± maccutaraº±din± v± desan±ya phala½, desan±nus±rena caraºassa phala½ vicinati. Up±ya½ vicinat²ti anicc±nupassan±divasena pavattananibbid±ñ±º±divasena v± saddh±sativasena v± visuddhiy± up±ya½ vicinati. ¾ºatti½ vicinat²ti p±paparivajjan±ºattivasena v± lokassa suññat±pekkhan±ºattivasena v± vicinati. Anug²ti½ vicinat²ti vutt±nug²tivasena v± vuccam±n±nug²tivasena v± anur³pa½ g²ti½ vicinati. Sabbe nava suttante vicinat²ti suttageyy±dike nava sutte ±haccavacanavasena v± anusandhivacanavasena v± n²tatthavacanavasena v± neyyatthavacanavasena v± sa½kilesabh±giy±divasena v± vicinati.
Kiñc±pi padavicayo paµhama½ vibhatto, suttassa pana anupada½ vicinitabbat±ya atibh±riyo, na sukaro padavicayoti ta½ aggahetv± pañh±vicayavissajjanavicaye t±va vibhajanto “yath± ki½ bhave”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha yath± ki½ bhaveti yena pak±rena so pañh±vicayo pavattetabbo, ta½ pak±raj±ta½ k²disa½ bhaveyy±ti attho daµµhabbo. ¾yasm± ajito p±r±yane bhagavanta½ pañha½ yath± yena pak±rena pucchati, tath± tena pak±rena pañh±vicayo pavattetabboti attho. Tattha ±yasm±ti piyavacana½. Ajitoti b±var²br±hmaºassa paric±rakabh³t±na½ so¼asanna½ aññataro ajito. P±r±yaneti p±ra½ nibb±na½ ayati gacchati eten±ti p±r±yana½, ajitasutt±diso¼asasuttasseta½ adhivacana½.
“Kenassu nivuto loko, (icc±yasm± ajito,)
kenassu nappak±sati;
kiss±bhilepana½ br³si, ki½ su tassa mahabbhayan”ti. (Su. ni. 1038; c³¼ani. vatthug±th± 57, ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa 1)–

G±th±ya “kena dhammena loko ariyavajjo satto nivuto paµicch±dito, iti ±yasm± ajito pucchati. Kena hetun± yath±vuttaloko nappak±sati, assa yath±vuttalokassa ki½ abhilepana½ iti tva½ br³si, tassa yath±vuttalokassa ki½ mahabbhayanti tva½ br³s²ti pucchat²”ti attho.

Iti imin± pabhedena catt±ri im±ni g±th±p±dapad±ni pucchit±ni pucch±vasena vutt±ni, pucchitatthad²pak±ni v±, padh±navasena pana so “eko pañho”ti mato, yadipi catunna½ pad±na½ pucchanavasena pavattatt± catubbidhoti vattabbo, ñ±tu½ pana icchitassa ekasseva atthassa sambhavato “eko pañho”ti vutta½. “K±raºa½ vadeh²”ti vattabbatt± k±raºam±ha “ekavatthupariggah±”ti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– “yadipi niv±raº±pak±san±bhilepanamahabbhayasaªkh±t± catt±ro atth± pucch±ya½ gahit±, ekassa pana abhidheyyatthassa gahaºato ‘eko pañho’ti padh±navasena gahitoti daµµhabbo”ti. “Ekavatthupariggahaºa½ katha½ amhehi saddahitabban”ti vattabbabh±vato “evañhi ±h±”ti vutta½. Eva½ ekavatthupariggahaºeneva bhagav± hi yasm± ±ha, iti tasm± ekavatthupariggahaºa½ tumhehi saddahitabbanti vutta½ hoti.
“Kenassu nivuto loko”ti imin± lok±dhiµµh±na½ paµicch±dana½ pucchati, na n±n±dhamm±dhiµµh±na½. “Kenassu nappak±sat²”ti imin± lokasseva appak±sana½ pucchati, na n±n±sabh±vadhammassa. “Kiss±bhilepana½ br³s²”ti imin± lokasseva abhilepana½ pucchati, na n±n±sabh±vadhammassa. “Ki½ su tassa mahabbhayan”ti imin± tasseva lokassa mahabbhaya½ pucchati, na n±n±sabh±vadhammassa. Tasm± “kenassu nivuto loko”ti-±dipañho ek±dhiµµh±nan±n±dhiµµh±nesu ek±dhiµµh±no, dhamm±dhiµµh±nasatt±dhiµµh±nesu satt±dhiµµh±no, adiµµhajotan±d²su adiµµhajotan±pañhoti-±din± yath±sambhava½ vicinitabboti adhipp±yo.
“Pañhassa yo loko ‘adhiµµh±no’ti gahito, so loko tividho”ti vattabbabh±vato “loko tividho”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tayo vidh± etassa lokass±ti tividho. Kilissati r±g±divasena k±m±vacarasattoti kileso, kileso ca so loko c±ti kilesaloko, k±m±vacarasatto. So hi r±g±dikilesabahulat±ya kilesalokoti. Bhavati jh±n±bhiññ±hi buddh²h²ti bhavo, bhavo ca so loko c±ti bhavaloko, r³p±vacarasatto. So hi jh±n±dibuddh²hi bhavat²ti. Indriyena samann±gatoti indriyo, indriyo ca so loko c±ti indriyaloko, ar³p±vacarasatto. So hi ±neñjasam±dhibahulat±ya visuddhindriyo hot²ti lokasamaññ± pariy±pannadhammavasena pavatt±, tasm± ariy± na gahit±ti.
“Kenassu nivuto loko”ti-±dig±th±ya pucch±vicayo h±ro ±cariyena vibhatto, amhehi ca ñ±to, “vissajjan±vicayo h±ro kattha vissajjan±ya vibhatto”ti pucchitabbatt± “tattha vissajjan±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tassa½ “kenassu nivuto loko”ti-±dipucch±ya½–
“Avijj±ya nivuto loko, (ajit±ti bhagav±,)
vivicch± pam±d± nappak±sati;
japp±bhilepana½ br³mi, dukkhamassa mahabbhayan”ti. (Su. ni. 1039; c³¼ani. vatthug±th± 58, ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa)–

Aya½ g±th± vissajjan±ti daµµhabb±. Tattha avijj±ya nivuto lokoti k±¼apakkhacatuddas², ghanavanasaº¹a, meghapaµalacch±dana, a¹¹haratt²na½ vasena caturaªgasamann±gatena andhak±rena rathaghaµ±di paµicch±dito viya dhammasabh±vapaµicch±danalakkhaº±ya avijj±ya sattaloko nivuto paµicch±dito. “Ajit±”ti ca ±lapana½ katv± bhagav± ±ha. Vivicch±ti vicikicch±ya pam±dahetu yath±vuttaloko nappak±sati. Jappa½ taºha½ yath±vuttalokassa “abhilepanan”ti aha½ br³m²ti bhagav± ±ha, dukkha½ j±ti-±divaµµadukkha½ assa yath±vuttalokassa “mahabbhayan”ti aha½ br³m²ti bhagav± ajita½ ±h±ti attho.

“Im±ya vissajjan±ya katha½ vicineyy±”ti pucchitabbatt± “im±ni catt±ri pad±n²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha im±ni catt±ri pad±n²ti “kenassu nivuto loko”ti-±dipucch±g±th±ya½ vutt±ni g±th±pad±ni. Imehi cat³hi padeh²ti “avijj±ya nivuto loko”ti vissajjan±g±th±ya½ vuttehi g±th±padehi vissajjit±ni. Katha½? Paµhama½ pada½ paµhamena padena, dutiya½ pada½ dutiyena padena, tatiya½ pada½ tatiyena padena, catuttha½ pada½ catutthena padena vissajjita½.
“Kenassu nivuto loko”ti paµhamapañhe “avijj±ya nivuto loko”ti paµham± vissajjan± kat±, na uppaµip±µiy±. Vijj±ya paµipakkh± avijj±, tasm± avijj±ya aj±nako loko bhaveyya. Katha½ nivuto saddahitabboti ±ha “n²varaºehi nivuto loko”ti. Yadi eva½ “n²varaºena nivuto loko”ti vissajjan± k±tabb±ti codana½ manasi katv± vutta½ “avijj±n²varaº± hi sabbe satt±”ti. “Sabbasatt±na½ avijj±n²varaºabh±vo kena vacanena saddahitabbo”ti vattabbatt± “yath±ha bhagav±”ti-±di vutta½.
“Sabbasatt±na½, bhikkhave, sabbap±º±na½ sabbabh³t±na½, pariy±yato ekameva n²varaºa½ vad±mi, yadida½ avijj±. Avijj±n²varaº± hi sabbe satt±. Sabbasova bhikkhave avijj±ya nirodh± c±g± paµinissagg± natthi satt±na½ n²varaºanti vad±m²”ti ya½ vacana½ yath± yena pak±rena bhagav± ±ha, tath± tena pak±rena vuttena tena vacanena tumhehi sabbasatt±na½ avijj±n²varaºabh±vo saddahitabboti.
“Avijj±ya nivuto loko”ti padena “kenassu nivuto loko”ti paµhamasseva padassa vissajjan± na siy±, “kenassu nappak±sat²”ti dutiyapadass±pi vissajjan± siy±ti codana½ manasi katv± “tena c±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tena “avijj±ya nivuto loko”ti padena “kenassu nivuto loko”ti paµhamassa padassa vissajjan± yutt± yuttatar± hoti, yuttataratt± “kenassu nivuto loko”ti pañhe “avijj±ya nivuto loko”ti vissajjan±ti may± vattabb±yev±ti adhipp±yo.
“Kenassu nappak±sat²”ti imasmi½ pañhe “vivicch± pam±d± nappak±sat²”ti aya½ vissajjan± k±tabb±, vivicch±ya pavattatt±, pam±d± ca loko nappak±sat²ti attho. Avijj±n²varaº±ya nivuto loko nappak±sat²ti vissajjan± k±tabb±, “katha½ vivicch± pam±d± loko nappak±sat²ti vissajjan± kat±”ti vattabbatt± “yo puggalo”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha yo puthujjanabh³to puggalo avijj±n²varaºehi nivuto, so puthujjanabh³to puggalo vivicch±ya vivicchati. “Y±ya vivicch±ya vivicchati, s± vivicch± katam± n±m±”ti pucchitabbatt± “vivicch± n±ma vuccati vicikicch±”ti vutta½. “T±ya kasm± nappak±sat²”ti vattabbatt± “so vicikicchanto”ti-±di vutta½. T±ya vicikicchanto so puthujjanabh³to puggalo saddahitabbesu n±bhisaddahati; saddahitabbesu na abhisaddahanto akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ pah±n±ya, kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sacchikiriy±ya ±rabhitabba½ v²riya½ n±rabhati; an±rabhanto so puggalo idha loke pam±damanuyutto viharat²ti, pam±dena viharanto pamatto puggalo sukke dhamme na upp±diyati; anupp±dayantassa tassa puggalassa te sukk± dhamm± anupp±diyam±n± hutv± nappak±santi pak±sanavasena na pavattanti; tasm± “vivicch± pam±d± loko nappak±sat²”ti vissajjan± k±tabb±ti adhipp±yo.