Sutamayipaññ±dik± tisso paññ± ±cariyena n±n±nayehi vibhatt±, amhehi ca ñ±t±, “t±su yassa ek± v± dve v± paññ± atthi, so puggalo kon±mo, yassa ek±pi natthi, so puggalo kon±mo”ti pucchitabbabh±vato yassa aya½ paññ±, im± v± atthi, so puggalo itthann±mo, yassa natthi, so puggalo itthann±moti paµipad±paññ±ppabhedena puggala½ vibhajitu½ “yassa im±”ti-±di vutta½.
Tattha yassa atitikkhapaññassa sutamay² paññ± ceva cint±may² paññ± ca im± dve paññ± atthi, aya½ atitikkhapañño uddesamatteneva j±nanato ugghaµitaññ³ n±ma. Yassa n±titikkhapaññassa uddesaniddesehi sutamay² paññ± atthi, cint±may² paññ± natthi, aya½ n±titikkhapañño uddesaniddesehi j±nanato vipañcitaññ³ n±ma. Yassa mandapaññassa uddesaniddesehi neva sutamay² paññ± atthi, na cint±may² paññ± ca, aya½ mandapañño uddesaniddesapaµiniddesehi j±nanato niravasesavitth±radesan±ya netabbato neyyo n±m±ti. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “id±ni yadattha½ im± paññ± uddhaµ±, tameva veneyyapuggalavibh±ga½ yojetv± dassetu½ ‘yass±’ti-±di vuttan”ti-±di (netti. aµµha. 8) vutta½.
9. “Tattha bhagav± ugghaµitaññuss±”ti-±din± desana½ vibh±veti, “tattha catasso paµipad±”ti-±din± paµipad±vibh±gehi, “sv±ya½ h±ro”ti-±din± ñ±ºavibh±gehi ca desan±bh±jana½ veneyyattaya½ ±cariyena vibhatta½, amhehi ca ñ±ta½, “y±ya desan±p±¼iy± desan±h±ra½ yojetu½ pubbe ‘dhamma½ vo, bhikkhave, desess±m²’ti-±din± desan±h±rassa visayabh±vena y± p±¼idesan± nikkhitt±, s± p±¼idesan± desan±h±rena niddh±ritesu ass±d±d²su atthesu kimattha½ desayat²”ti pucchitabbatt± “ima½ attha½ desayat²”ti niyametv± dassetu½ “s±ya½ dhammadesan±”ti-±di ±raddha½.
Tattha s±ya½ dhammadesan±ti y± dhammadesan± ±dikaly±º±dik± pubbe desan±h±rassa visayabh±vena nikkhitt±, s±ya½ dhammadesan± ass±d±d²su kimattha½ desayat²ti kathetuk±mat±ya pucchati, pucchitv± “catt±ri sacc±ni desayat²”ti vissajjeti, t±ni sar³pato dassetu½ “dukkha½ samudaya½ nirodha½ maggan”ti vutta½. Pavattipavattakanivattinivattanup±yabh±vena avipar²tabh±vato “sacc±n²”ti vutt±ni.
Yassa½ desan±ya½ sacc±ni desan±h±rena niddh±rit±ni, s± desan± catt±ri sacc±ni desayat²ti yutta½ hotu. Yassa½ desan±ya½ ass±d±dayo niddh±rit±, s± desan± catt±ri sacc±ni desayat²ti na sakk± vattu½. Heµµh± ca ass±d±dayo niddh±rit±, tasm± “ass±d±dayo”tipi vattabbanti codana½ manasi katv± “±d²navo phalañca dukkhan”ti-±di vutta½. Desan±h±rena sa½vaººan±nayena desan±ya½ niddh±rito ±d²navo ceva phalañca dukkhasacca½ hoti, ass±do samudayasacca½, nissaraºa½ nirodhasacca½, up±yo ceva ±ºatti ca maggasacca½ hoti, tasm± “catt±ri sacc±ni desayat²”ti vattabbamev±ti.
Taºh±vajj± tebh³makadhamm± dukkha½, te ca anicc±d²hi p²¼itatt± ±d²nav±yeva. Phalanti desan±ya phala½ lokiya½, na lokuttara½, tasm± dukkhanti vattabbameva. Ass±doti taºh±ss±dassa gahitatt± “ass±do samudayo”ti ca vattabba½. Ass±dekadeso dukkhameva, ass±dekadeso dukkhañceva samudayo ca. Saha vipassan±ya ariyamaggo ca bhagavato ±ºatti ca desan±ya phal±dhigamassa up±yabh±vato “up±yo, ±ºatti ca maggo”ti vutta½, nissaraºekadesopi maggoti daµµhabbo. “Im±ni catt±ri sacc±ni y± desan± visesato desayati, katam± s±”ti pucchitabbatt± visesa½ niyametv± dassetu½ “im±ni catt±ri sacc±ni ida½ dhammacakkan”ti vutta½. Ida½ vuccam±na½ dhammacakka½ im±ni catt±ri sacc±ni visesato desayat²ti yojan± k±tabb±.
“Y± desan± im±ni catt±ri sacc±ni visesato desayati, tass± desan±ya dhammacakkabh±va½ ki½ bhagav± ±h±”ti vattabbabh±vato “yath±ha bhagav±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha “j±tipi dukkh±”ti-±divacanato (mah±va. 14) taºh±vajja½ j±ti-±dika½ tebh³makadhammaj±ta½ dukkhassa adhiµµh±nabh±vena, dukkhadukkh±dibh±vena ca “dukkhan”ti vutta½. Meti may± pavattitanti yojan±. Bhikkhaveti savane uss±ha½ janetu½ ±lapati. B±r±ºasiyanti b±r±ºas²nagarassa avid³re. Isipataneti s²lakkhandh±d²na½ isanato gavesanato “is²”ti voharit±na½ paccekabuddh±na½ patanaµµh±ne. Migad±yeti mig±na½ abhayad±naµµh±ne k±rite assameva.
Anuttaranti uttaritar±bh±vena anuttara½ anatisaya½. Dhammacakkanti satipaµµh±n±dike sabh±vadh±raº±din± atthena dhammo ceva pavattanaµµhena cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½. Appaµivattiyanti appaµisedhan²ya½. Kasm±? Janakassa bhagavato dhammissaratt± samm±sambuddhatt±, jaññassa ca anuttaratt± koº¹aññ±d²nañceva aµµh±rasabrahmakoµiy± ca catusaccapaµivedhas±dhanato ca. “Kena appaµivattiyan”ti pucchitabbatt± “samaºena v±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha samaºen±ti pabbajjamatt³pagatena Br±hmaºen±ti j±tibr±hmaºena. Paramatth±nañhi samaºabr±hmaº±na½ paµisedhane cittupp±d±nuppajjanampi natthi. Deven±ti chak±m±vacaradevena. Brahmun±ti r³pabrahm± gahit±. “Samaºena v± …pe… brahmun±”ti ettakameva avatv±“kenac²”ti vuttavacanena avasesakhattiyagahapatiparisajan± saªgahit±. Tasm± khattiyabr±hmaºagahapatisamaºac±tumah±r±jikat±vati½sam±rabrahmaparis± aµµhavidh±pi paµisedhetu½ asamatth±yev±ti veditabb±. Lokasminti sattasam³he dhammacakk±dh±re.
“Dv±dasa pad±ni suttan”ti g±th±nur³pa½ dhammacakkasutte pad±ni vibhajanto “tattha aparim±º±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tatth±ti dhammacakkadesan±ya½ (sa½. ni. 5.1081; mah±va. 13 ±dayo; paµi. ma. 2.30). “Aparim±º± akkhar± aparim±º± pad±”ti avatv± “aparim±º± pad± aparim±º± akkhar±”ti uppaµip±µivacanehi yebhuyyena padasaªgahit±n²ti dasseti. Pad±, akkhar±, byañjan±ti ca liªgavipall±s±n²ti daµµhabb±ni. Etasseva atthass±ti vattabb±k±rassa catusaccasaªkh±tassa atthasseva saªk±san± pak±san± pak±san±k±ro paññatt±k±roti ±k±ravanta-±k±rasambandhe s±mivacana½. Saªk±san±k±roti ca saªk±san²yassa atthassa ±k±ro. Esa nayo sesesupi. Itip²ti iti imin± pak±renapi, imin± pak±renapi ida½ j±ti-±dika½ dukkha½ ariyasaccanti veditabba½.
Ayanti k±mataºh±dibhed± aya½ taºh±. Dukkhasamudayoti dukkhanibbattanassa hetubh±vato dukkhasamudayo. Ayanti sabbasaªkhatato nissaµ± aya½ asaªkhat± dh±tu. Dukkhanirodhoti j±ti-±dippabhedassa dukkhassa anupp±dananirodhapaccayatt± dukkhanirodho. Ayanti samm±diµµh±diko aµµhaªgiko ariyo maggo. Dukkhanirodhabh³ta½ nibb±na½ ±rammaºakaraºavasena gatatt±, dukkhanirodhappattiy± paµipad±bh±vato ca dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±. Sesa½ vuttanayameva.
“Tattha aparim±º±”ti-±din± byañjanapada-atthapad±ni vibhajitv± tesa½ aññamañña½ visayivisayabh±vena sambandhabh±va½ dassetu½ “tattha bhagav± akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±di vutta½. Atha v± bhagav± ki½ s±maññehi akkhar±d²hi saªk±seti v± pak±seti v±, ud±hu yath±raha½ saªk±seti pak±set²ti-±divic±raº±ya sambhavato visayavisayibh±vena sambandhabh±va½ niyametv± dassetu½ “tattha bhagav± akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha “akkharehi saªk±set²”ti kasm± eva½ vutta½, nanu “dukkhasaccan”ti-±d²su padeneva dukkhasaccatthatt±diko saªk±sitabboti? Sacca½, pad±vayavassa pana akkharassa gahaºamukheneva akkharasamud±yassapi padassa gahaºa½ hoti, pade gahite ca dukkhasaccatth±dik±vabodho hotveva, eva½ sati padeneva sijjhanato akkharo visu½ na gahetabboti? Na, dukkhasaccatth±dik±vabodhassa visesuppattibh±vato. Du-iti akkharena hi anekupaddav±dhiµµh±nabh±vena kucchitattho gahito, kha-iti akkharena dhuvasubhasukhattabh±vavirahena tucchatthoti evam±dik±vabodhassa visesuppatti bhavati. Tena vutta½ “padatthagahaºassa vises±dh±na½ j±yat²”ti (netti. aµµha. 9). Padapariyos±ne v±kyapariyos±n±bh±vato akkharehi sa½khittena d²piyam±no attho padehi pak±sitov±ti vutta½ “padehi pak±set²”ti. V±kyapariyos±ne pana saªk±sito pak±sito attho vivarito vivaµo katov±ti vutta½. “Byañjanehi vivarat²”ti. Pak±rehi ca v±kyabhede kate so attho vibhatto n±m±ti vutta½ “±k±rehi vibhajat²”ti. V±ky±vayav±na½ pad±na½ pacceka½ nibbacanavibh±ge kate so attho p±kaµo katov±ti vutta½ “nirutt²hi utt±n²karot²”ti. Katanibbacanehi v±ky±vayavehi vitth±ravasena niravasesato desitehi veneyyasatt±na½ citte parisamantato tosana½ hoti, paññ±tejanañc±ti ±ha “niddesehi paññapet²”ti.
“Bhagav± akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±d²su “bhagav± ev±”ti v± “akkharehi ev±”ti v± avadh±raºe yojite “s±vako na saªk±seti, pad±d²hi na saªk±set²”ti attho bhaveyya, s±vako ca saªk±seti, pad±d²hi ca saªk±seti. Kattha avadh±raºa½ yojetabbanti ce? “Bhagav± akkharehi saªk±setiyev±”ti avadh±raºa½ yojetabba½. Evañhi sati s±vakena saªk±sito v± pad±d²hi saªk±sito v± attho saªgahito hoti. Atthapad±nañca akkhar±din±n±visayat± siddh± hoti. Tena ek±nusandhike sutte cha¼eva atthapad±ni niddh±retabb±ni, anek±nusandhike sutte anusandhibhedena visu½ visu½ cha cha atthapad±ni niddh±retabb±ni.
“Chasu byañjanapadesu katamena byañjanapadena katama½ kicca½ s±dhet²”ti pucchitabbatt± “imin± ida½ kicca½, imin± ida½ kicca½ s±dhet²”ti niyametv± dassetu½ “tattha bhagav± akkharehi ca padehi ca ugghaµet²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tatth±ti akkhar±d²su byañjanapadesu. Ugghaµet²ti ugghaµanakicca½ s±dhet²ti attho. Kiñc±pi desan±va ugghaµanakicca½ s±dheti, bhagav± pana desan±janakatt± ugghaµanakicca½ s±dhet²ti vuccati. Sesesupi evamattho daµµhabbo.
“Ugghaµanakiccas±dhik± desan±yeva ki½ vipañcanavitth±raºakiccas±dhik± desan±janakatt±, ud±hu visu½ visu½ kiccas±dhik± aññ±”ti pucchitabbabh±vato visu½ visu½ kiccas±dhik± aññ± desan±ti niyametv± dassetu½ “tattha ugghaµan± ±d²”ti-±dim±ha. Atha v± “katam± ugghaµan±, katam± vipañcan±, katam± vitth±raº±”ti pucchitabbatt± vutta½ “tattha ugghaµan± ±d²”ti-±di. Tattha tatth±ti ugghaµan±dikiccas±dhik±su desan±su. Ugghaµan±ti ugghaµanakiccas±dhik± desan± ±didesan± hoti. Vipañcan±ti vipañcanakiccas±dhik± desan± majjhedesan± hoti. Vitth±raº±ti vitth±raºakiccas±dhik± desan± pariyos±nadesan± hot²ti attho daµµhabbo.
“Ugghaµiyanto uddisiyam±no pariyatti-atthabh³to dhammavinayo katama½ puggala½ vineti, vipañciyanto niddisiyam±no pariyatti-atthabh³to dhammavinayo katama½ puggala½ vineti, vitth±riyanto paµiniddisiyam±no pariyatti-atthabh³to dhammavinayo katama½ puggala½ vinet²”ti pucchitabbatt± “soya½ dhammavinayo”ti-±dim±ha. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “eva½ ‘akkharehi saªk±set²’ti-±d²na½ channa½ byañjanapad±na½ by±p±ra½ dassetv± id±ni atthapad±na½ by±p±ra½ dassetu½ ‘soya½ dhammavinayo’ti-±di vuttan”ti (netti. aµµha. 9) vutta½.
Tattha ugghaµiyanto uddisiyam±no uddesapariyatti-atthabh³to so aya½ dhammavinayo ugghaµitaññupuggala½ vineti, tena ugghaµitaññuno puggalassa vinayanena na½ ugghaµiyanta½ uddisiyam±na½ uddesapariyatti-atthabh³ta½ vinaya½ “±dikaly±ºo”ti ±hu. Vipañciyanto niddisiyam±no niddesapariyatti-atthabh³to so aya½ dhammavinayo vipañcitaññupuggala½ vineti, tena vipañcitaññupuggalassa vinayanena na½ vipañciyanta½ niddisiyam±na½ niddesapariyatti-atthabh³ta½ vinaya½ “majjhekaly±ºo”ti ±hu. Vitth±riyanto paµiniddisiyam±no paµiniddesapariyatti-atthabh³to so aya½ dhammavinayo neyya½ puggala½ vineti vinayana½ janeti, tena neyyassa puggalassa vinayanena na½ vitth±riyanta½ paµiniddisiyam±na½ paµiniddesapariyatti-atthabh³ta½ vinaya½ “pariyos±nakaly±ºo”ti ±h³ti yojanatthoti daµµhabbo.
Atha v± “akkharehi saªk±set²”ti-±din± channa½ pad±na½ by±p±ro dassito, eva½ sati attho niby±p±ro siy±, attho ca nippariy±yato saby±p±royev±ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha “soya½ dhammavinayo”ti-±di. Etena atthoyeva mukhyato veneyyattayassa vinayanakicca½ s±dheti, atthav±cako pana saddo µh±n³pac±rato veneyyattayassa vinayanakicca½ s±dhet²ti dasseti. Padaparamassa pana saccappaµivedhassa patiµµh±n±bh±vato so idha na vutto. Sekkhaggahaºena v± kaly±ºaputhujjanassa viya neyyaggahaºena padaparamassa puggalass±pi gahaºa½ daµµhabba½ Akkhareh²ti-±d²su karaºatthe karaºavacana½, na hetvatthe. Akkhar±d²nañhi ugghaµan±d²ni payojan±niyeva honti, na ugghaµan±d²na½ akkhar±d²ni payojan±n²ti “annena vasat²”ti-±d²su viya na hetu-attho gahetabbo. Tattha hi annena hetun± vasati, vasanena hetun± anna½ laddhanti vasanakiriy±ya phala½ vasanakiriy±ya hetubh±vena gahita½. “Ajjhesanena vasat²”ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Ten±ha “yadatth± ca kiriy±, so het³”ti (netti. aµµha. 9). Tattha yadatth±ti so ann±diko attho yass± vasan±dikiriy±y±ti yadatth±, vasan±dikiriy±, so ann±diko attho tass± vasan±dikiriy±ya het³ti attho veditabbo.
10. “Tattha aparim±º± pad±”ti-±din± “dhamma½ vo bhikkhave desess±m²”ti uddiµµh±ya p±¼iy± dv±dasapadasampattisaªkh±ta½ tividhakaly±ºata½ dassetv± id±ni cha-atthapadachabyañjanapadabhedena sampattisaªkh±ta½ atthapadabyañjanapadakaly±ºata½ dassento “tattha chappad±ni attho”ti-±dim±ha. Atha v± “dv±dasa pad±ni suttan”ti vutt±nur³pa½ “tattha aparim±º±”ti-±din± “dhamma½ vo bhikkhave desess±m²”ti uddiµµh±ya p±¼iy± dv±dasapadat± dassetv± “±dikaly±ºa½ majjhekaly±ºa½ pariyos±nakaly±ºan”ti vutt±nur³pa½ “tattha bhagav± akkharehi c±”ti-±din± tass± p±¼iy± tividhakaly±ºat± dassit±, dassetv± id±ni “s±ttha½ sabyañjana½ kevalaparipuººa½ parisuddhan”ti vutt±nur³pa½ tass± p±¼iy± cha-atthapadabyañjanapadasampannata½ dassetu½ “tattha chappad±ni attho”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tatth±ti tissa½ desan±h±ravisayasaªkh±t±ya½ p±¼iya½ chappad±ni attho. Katam±ni chappad±ni? Saªk±san±, pak±san±, vivaraº±, vibhajan±, utt±n²kamma½, paññatti im±ni chappad±ni. Attho yassa atthi tasm± s±ttha½. Tatth±ti tissa½ desan±h±ravisayasaªkh±t±ya½ p±¼iya½ chappad±ni byañjana½. Katam±ni chappad±ni? Akkhara½, pada½, byañjana½, ±k±ro, nirutti, niddeso im±ni chappad±ni. Byañjana½ yassa atth²ti sabyañjananti yojan± k±tabb±. Ten±ti tass± p±¼iy± tividhakaly±ºacha-atthapadasampannachabyañjanapadasampannaµµhena, “dhamma½ vo, bhikkhave…pe… suddhan”ti bhagav± ±h±ti attho.
Kevalasaddassa sakal±di-atthav±cakatt± adhippetattha½ niyametv± dassetu½ “kevalanti lokuttara½ na missa½ lokiyehi dhammeh²”ti vutta½. Paripuººanti adhippetatthe ekopi attho ³no natthi, v±cakasaddesupi anatthako ekopi saddo adhiko natth²ti paripuººa½ an³na½ anatireka½. Parisuddhanti saddadosa-atthados±divirahato v± parisuddha½, r±g±dimalavirahato v± pariyod±t±na½ uttarimanussadhammavises±na½ upaµµhitaµµh±natt± parisuddha½ pariyod±ta½. Niggata½ mala½ etassa dhammass±ti nimmala½. Saddados±divirahato v± r±g±divirahato v± sabbamalehi apagata½ pari samantato od±tanti pariyod±ta½. Upaµµhitanti upatiµµhanti ettha sabbavises±ti upaµµhita½ yath± “padakkantan”ti. Padakkanta½ padakkantaµµh±na½. Visisanti manussadhammeh²ti vises±, sabbe vises± sabbavises±, sabbato v± vises±ti sabbavises±, uttarimanussadhamm±. Tesa½ sabbavises±na½ upaµµhitanti yojan±. Idanti sikkhattayasaªgaha½ s±sanabrahmacariya½. Tath±gatassa samm±sambuddhassa padanti tath±gatapada½. Padanti ca paµipattigamanena v± desan±gamanena v± kilesaggahaºa½. Ottharitv± gamanaµµh±na½ itipi vuccati pavuccati, tath±gatena gocar±sevanena v± bh±van±sevanena v± nisevita½ bhajita½ itipi vuccati, tath±gatassa mah±vajirañ±ºasabbaññutaññ±ºadantehi ±rañjita½ ±rañjitaµµh±na½ itipi vuccati, ato tath±gatapad±dibh±vena vattabbabh±vato eta½ s±sanabrahmacariya½ iti paññ±yati. Brahmacariyanti brahmuno sabbasattuttamassa bhagavato cariya½, brahma½ v± sabbaseµµha½ cariya½ brahmacariya½. Paññ±yat²ti yath±vuttehi pak±rehi ñ±yat²ti attho veditabbo.
“Imassa sikkhattayassa saªgahassa s±sanassa paripuººabh±vaparisuddhabh±vasaªkh±ta½ tath±gatapadabh±va½!Tath±gatapadabh±va½, tath±gatanisevitabh±va½, tath±gata-±rañjitabh±va½, tehi pak±rehi ñ±pitabh±va½ katha½ maya½ nikkaªkh± j±niss±m±”ti vattabbato “ten±ha bhagav±”ti-±di vutta½, tabbh±vad²pakena bhagavat± vuttena vacanena tumhehi nikkaªkhehi j±nitabboti vutta½ hoti.
Yadi bhagav± akkharehi ca padehi ca ugghaµeti, byañjanehi ca ±k±rehi ca vipañcayati, nirutt²hi ca niddesehi ca vitth±reti, eva½ sati ±cariyena racitena desan±h±rena payojana½ na bhavati, desan±h±rena na vin± bhagavato desan±yameva atthasijjhanatoti codana½ manasi katv± “kesa½ aya½ dhammadesan±”ti pucchitv± “yog²nan”ti ±ha. Tattha yog²nanti yujjanti catusaccakammaµµh±nabh±van±yanti yogino, tesa½ yog²na½. Tena may± racitena desan±h±rena sa½vaººit± aya½ vuttappak±r± bhagavato desan± ugghaµan±dikicca½ s±dhet²ti desan±h±ro yog²na½ s±tthakoyev±ti daµµhabbo. “Desan±h±rassa ass±d±didesan±h±rabh±vo kena amhehi j±nitabbo saddahitabbo”ti vattabbatt± “ten±ha ±yasm±…pe… desan±h±ro”ti vutta½. Tattha tena ass±d±didesan±h±rabh±vena ±yasm± mah±kacc±no “ass±d±d²navat±…pe… desan±h±ro”ti ya½ vacana½ ±ha, tena vacanena tumhehi desan±h±rassa yog²na½ ass±d±didesan±h±rabh±vo j±nitabbo saddahitabboti vutta½ hoti.
“Ki½ pana ett±vat± desan±h±ro paripuººo, añño niyutto natth²”ti pucchitabbatt± “niyutto desan±h±ro”ti vutta½. Tattha yassa½ desan±ya½ ass±d±dayo yena desan±h±rena niddh±rit±, tassa½ desan±ya½ so desan±h±ro niddh±retv± yojitoti attho daµµhabboti.

Iti desan±h±ravibhaªge sattibal±nur³p± racit±

Vibh±van± niµµhit±.

Paº¹itehi pana aµµhakath±µ²k±nus±rena gambh²rattho vitth±rato vibhajitv± gahetabboti.