1. Saªgahav±ra-atthavibh±van±

Tattha yassa sikkhattayasaªgahassa navaªgassa satthus±sanavarassa atthasa½vaººana½ ya½ nettippakaraºa½ k±tuk±mo, tassa nettippakaraºassa nissaya½ visayabh³ta½ sa½vaººetabbasahita½, sa½vaººetabba½ eva v± salokap±lena tilokena sad± p³jetabbassa ceva namassitabbassa ca naruttamassa satthuno s±sanavara½ vid³heva ñ±tabba½. Eta½ s±sanavara½ t±va dassento ta½janakena, ta½vij±nakavid³hi ca niyametu½, ratanattayaguºaparid²panañca k±tu½–
“Ya½ loko p³jayate, salokap±lo sad± namassati ca;
tasseta s±sanavara½, vid³hi ñeyya½ naravarass±”ti.– Paµhamag±tham±ha.
Im±ya hi paµhamag±th±ya “eta½ s±sanavara½ ñeyyan”ti ettakameva ekantato karaºavisesabh±vena adhippeta½. Eteneva visesakaraºena ekant±dhippetanettivisayas±sanavarassa dassitatt±. Ekant±dhippetas±sanavarameva nettisa½vaººan±ya sa½vaººetabbatt± visaya½ teneva vakkhati aµµhakath±cariyo
“Eta½ id±ni amhehi vibhajitabbah±ranayapaµµh±navic±raºavisayabh³ta½ s±sana½ ±dikaly±ºat±diguºasampattiy± vara½ agga½ uttama½ nipuºañ±ºagocarat±ya paº¹itavedan²yamev±”ti (netti. aµµha. saªgahav±ravaººan±) ca,
“Eta½ tividhampi ‘s±sanavaran’ti padena saªgaºhitv± tattha ya½ paµhama½, ta½ itaresa½ adhigam³p±yoti sabbas±sanam³labh³ta½, attano pakaraºassa ca visayabh³ta½ pariyattis±sanamev±”ti (netti. aµµha. saªgahav±ravaººan±) ca,
“Id±ni ya½ vutta½ ‘s±sanavara½ vid³hi ñeyyan’ti, tattha nettisa½vaººan±ya visayabh³ta½ pariyattidhammameva pak±rantarena niyametv± dassetun”ti (netti. aµµha. saªgahav±ravaººan±) ca.
Tattha pariyattis±sanass±pi m³la½ hot²ti vutta½ “sabbas±sanam³labh³tan”ti. Etena kammas±dhanenapi adhippetatthe siddhe n±n±vidhas±dhakavacana½ n±n±v±d±na½ anok±sakaraºatth±ya kata½. Sv±kkh±tat±didhammaguº± pana s±sanassa visesadesakanaravarasaddena v± parid²pakatthabh±vena v± d²pit± avin±bh±vato. S±sanavarassa pana janakasambandhipekkhatt± “naravarass±”ti vutta½. Tena ca aggapuggalo s±sanavarajanako v±cakatthasambandhibh±vena vutto. Anaññas±dh±raºamah±karuº±sabbaññutaññ±º±diguºavises± pana janakasambandhibh³tassa narassa visesakenavarasaddena v± parid²pakatthabh±vena v± d²pito.
Ki½ nu so s±sanavarajanako naravaro paramatthova, ud±hu p³jan²yo ceva namassan²yo c±ti vutta½ “ya½ loko…pe… namassati c±”ti, tena s±sanavarajanako naravaro paramatthova na hoti, atha kho salokap±lena lokena sad± sabbak±lesu p³jan²yo ceva namassan²yo c±ti visesito thomitoti.
Ettha ca p³jananamassanacetan±v±cakena v± p³jananamassanasaddena phal³pac±rattho puññamahattasaªkh±to p³jan²yabh±vo ceva ±savakkhayañ±ºapadaµµh±nasabbaññutaññ±º±diguºasaªkh±to namassan²yabh±vo ca d²pakatthabh±vena pariggahetv± d²pito. Ten±ha aµµhakath±cariyo “bhagavato sadevakassa lokassa p³jan²yavandan²yabh±vo, aggapuggalabh±vo ca vuccam±no guºavisiµµhata½ d²pet²”ti-±di (netti. aµµha. saªgahav±ravaººan±).
T±disassa naravarassa t±disa½ s±sanavara½ ki½ yena kenaci viññeyyanti vutta½ “vid³h²”ti. Tena tipiµakadhar± ariyabh³t± paº¹it± v±cakatthabh±vena gahit±, suppaµipannat±disaªghaguº± pana vandadh±tuvacanena v± d²pakatthabh±vena v± d²pit±ti. Eva½ pariggahetv± d²pite ratanattayaguºe sandh±ya “eva½ paµhamag±th±ya s±tisaya½ ratanattayaguºaparid²pana½ katv±”ti (netti. aµµha. saªgahav±ravaººan±) vakkhati, na g±th±ya niravasesatthe. Tattha evanti eva½ s±sanavaradassanabh³t±ya paµhamag±th±y±ti atthova daµµhabbo. Apare pan±cariy± “im±ya paµhamag±th±ya ekantato adhippet±n±dhippetavacan±ni ceva v±cakatthad²pakatthavises±ni ca suµµhu avic±retv± ‘eva½ paµhamag±th±ya s±tisaya½ ratanattayaguºaparid²pana½ katv±’ti vacanacch±ya½ niss±ya s±tisaya½ ratanattayaguºaparid²pana½ k±tu½ ‘ya½ lokoty±dim±h±’ti ca s±tisayaratanattayaguºe dassento ‘ya½ lokoty±dim±h±’ti” ca vadanti. Tesa½ v±do amh±ka½ nakkhamati. K±raºa½ pana may± heµµh± vutt±nus±rena ñ±tabbanti aya½ pad±nukkam±nur³p±nusandhyattho.
Atha v± eka½ samaya½ jambuvanasaº¹e nis²ditv± siss±na½ hita½ cintento, attano abhin²h±rasampatti½ passanto, samm±sambuddhena pasa½sito, mah±kacc±yano satth±r± anumodita½ s±san±yatta½ navaªgassatthavaººana½ so¼asah±r±di-anekatthavidha½ nettippakaraºa½ ±rabhanto, “ya½ loko”ty±dim±ha. Yadi eva½ yath±vuttappak±ra½ nettippakaraºabh³ta½ so¼asah±r±ty±dika½ ±rabhitabba½, ta½ an±rabhitv± kasm± nettippakaraºato bahibh³ta½ “ya½ loko”ty±dika½ ±rabhitabba½, seyyath±pi amba½ puµµho labuja½ by±kareyya, labuja½ puµµho amba½ by±kareyya, evameva nettippakaraºam±rabhanto añña½ ±rabhat²ti? Tath±pi yassa yath±vuttassa s±sanavarassa atthasa½vaººana½ ya½ nettippakaraºa½ k±tuk±mo yassa nettippakaraºassa visayabh³ta½ sa½vaººetabbasahita½, sa½vaººetabba½ eva v± ta½ s±sanavara½ t±va dassento ta½janakena, ta½vij±nakavid³hi ca niyametu½, ratanattayaguºaparid²panañca k±tu½ “ya½ loko”ty±dim±ha. Aya½ l²nantaracodan±sahito anusandhyattho.
“Ya½ loko p³jayate, salokap±lo sad± namassati ca;
tasseta s±sanavara½, vid³hi ñeyya½ naravarass±”ti.–

Niggahitalopa½ katv± racit± g±th± ariy±s±maññalakkhaºena sampann±. Katha½? Pubba¹¹he ti½sa matt±, apara¹¹he sattav²sa matt±. Sampiº¹it± sattapaññ±sa matt±va bhavanti. Akkhar±na½ pana imissa½ g±th±ya½ sattati½sa. Tesu garukkhar± v²sati, lahukkhar± sattarasa bhavanti. “Tasseta½ s±sanavaran”ti pana s±nun±sika½ virujjhati.

Tattha niddesattho aµµhakath±nus±rena vij±nitabbo. Salokap±lo sabbo sattaloko sakkacca½ sabbaññutaññ±º±di-anekaguº±nussaraºena v± p³jetabbap³janena v± paµipattip³janena v± sad± sabbak±lesu sakkacca½ ya½ naravara½ p³jayate ceva namassati ca, tassa p³jetabbassa ceva namassitabbassa ca satthuno naravarassa tilokaggassa may± sa½vaººetabbasahita½, sa½vaººetabba½ eva v± vid³heva ñeyya½ ñ±tabba½. Nipuºañ±ºagocara½ eta½ may± buddhiya½ µhapita½ s±sanavara½ may± ±rabhitabbassa nettippakaraºassa visayanti paµhama½ j±nitabba½ dassetv± tassa atthasa½vaººan±bh³ta½ nettippakaraºa½ aha½ ±rabhiss±mi, ta½ tumhe s±dhavo suº±tha manasi karoth±ti samud±yayojan±, avayavayojan±pi k±tabb±.
Katha½? “Salokap±lo loko”ti visesanavisesitabbabh±vena yojan±. Lokap±lo vajjetv± avaseso loko ca na hoti, atha kho lokap±lasahito lokoti viseseti. “Loko p³jayate ceva namassati c±”ti kattuk±raka-±khy±takiriy±bh±vena yojan± “yo karoti, sa katt±”ti vuttatt±. Yo loko k±rako, so katt± hotu. Yo loko p³jayate ceva namassati ca, katha½ so katt±ti? “Yo karoti, sa katt±”ti suttassa “yo karoti kiriya½ nipph±deti, so kiriy±nipph±dako katt±”ti atthasambhavato sayanabhuñjan±disabbakiriy±nipph±dako katt±yeva hoti. Ayañca loko p³jananamassanakiriy±nipph±dakoyev±ti. Katha½ aya½ loko kiriy±nipph±dakoti? “Loko”ti sattapaññattiy± paramatthato avijjam±n±yapi paññ±petabbo sant±ne pavattam±no hadayavatthunissito cittupp±do gahetabbo, so yath±raha½ het±dhipatisahaj±t±dipaccayena paccayo nipph±dako bhave. Eva½ lokassa kattuk±rakabh±vo vij±nitabboti paccayapaccayuppannabh±vena yojan±. Esa nayo t²su piµakesupi evar³pesu µh±nesu.
“Ya½ naravara½ p³jayate ceva namassati c±”ti kammak±raka-±khy±takiriy±bh±vena yojan± “ya½ karoti, ta½ kamman”ti vuttatt±. Ya½ k±tabba½, ta½ kamma½ hotu. Ya½ p³jayati ceva namassati ca, katha½ ta½ kammanti? “Ya½ karoti, ta½ kamman”ti suttassa “ya½ karoti kiriy±ya sambajjhati, kiriy±ya sambajjhitabba½ kamman”ti atthasambhavato karaºav±cakavacan²y±disabbakiriy±ya sambajjhitabba½ kamma½ hotveva. Ayañca naravaro p³jananamassanakiriy±ya v±cakavacan²yabh±vena sambajjhitabboyev±ti. Katha½ aya½ naravaro vacan²yoti? P³jananamassanacetan±ya ±rammaºakaraºavasena naravaro vacan²yo, cetan± v±cak±, eva½ v±cakavacitabbabh±vo hotveva. “Ya½ naravaran”ti paññattiy± paramatthato avijjam±n±yapi paññ±petabbo sant±navasena pavattam±no lokiyalokuttaraguºasahito khandhapañcako vutto, so ±rammaºapaccayena paccayo, cetan± paccayuppann±ti paccayapaccayuppannabh±vena yojan±. Esa nayo t²su piµakesu evar³pesu µh±nesu.
“Tassa naravarass±”ti visesanavisesitabbabh±vena yojan±. Naravaro n±ma nimantitabb±diko na hoti, atha kho p³jetabbo namassitabbo ev±ti viseseti. Tassa p³jetabbassa ceva namassitabbassa ca naravarassa s±sanavaranti jaññajanakabh±vena yojan±. S±sanavara½ n±ma paccekabuddhas±vakabuddhar±jar±j±d²na½ s±sanavara½ na hoti, p³jetabbassa ceva namassitabbassa ca naravarassa tilokasseva s±sanavaranti niyameti.
“Vid³hi ñeyyan”ti kattuk±rakakitakiriy±bh±vena yojan±. Kattubh±vo heµµh± vuttova. “Vid³h²”ti sattapaññattiy± paramatthato avijjam±n±yapi paññ±petabbo sant±ne pavattam±no s±sanavare sammohadha½sakañ±ºasahito hadayavatthunissito cittupp±do vutto, so yath±raha½ het±dhipatisahaj±t±dipaccayena paccayo nipph±dako bhave. ѱ-itidh±tuy± atthabh³ta½ ñ±ºa½ paccayuppanna½ nipph±deyya½ bhave, eva½ paccayapaccayuppannabh±vena yojan±.
“Ñeyya½ s±sanavaran”ti visesanavisesyabh±vena yojan±. S±sanavara½ n±ma na yena kenaci ñeyya½, atha kho vid³heva saºhasukhumañ±ºena ñeyya½ s±sanavaranti viseseti.
“Eta½ s±sanavaran”ti visesanavisesyabh±vena yojan±. S±sanavara½ n±ma may± buddhiya½ aµµhapita½ appavattetabba½ hoti, may± id±ni nettippakaraºassa visayabh±vena buddhiya½ viparivattam±na½ µhapetabba½ pavattetabba½ s±sanavaranti viseseti. Eta½ s±sanavara½ nettippakaraºassa visayanti yojan± k±tabb±. Ten±ha “eta½ id±ni amhehi vibhajitabbah±ranayapaµµh±navic±raºavisayabh³ta½ s±sanan”ti (netti. aµµha. saªgahav±ravaººan±). Icceva½ nettiy± paµhamag±th±ya saªkhepena yojanattho samatto.
Tattha yanti aniyamanaravarassa satthuno v±caka½ payogavantasabban±ma½. Aniyamo ca p³jananamassanakiriy±ya aniyamitatt± vutto, na naravarato aññasattassa sambhavatoti. Esa nayo ses±niyatesupi t²su piµakesu. Lokiyanti ettha puññ±puññ±ni, tabbip±ko c±ti loko.Ettha sattanik±ye puññ±puññ±ni lokiyanti pavattanti, tabbip±ko ca lokiyati pavattati, iti sattanik±yassa puññ±puññ±na½, tabbip±kassa ca pavattanassa ±dh±rabh±vato “etth±”tipadena niddiµµho sattanik±yo lokon±ma. P³jayateti viggahavirahita½ ±khy±tapada½, sakkacca½ p³jana½ karoti.