Ya½kiñc²tig±th±vaººan±

3. Eva½ devat±su manuss±na½ upak±rakabh±va½ dassetv± tesa½ upaddavav³pasamanattha½ buddh±diguºappak±sanena ca devamanuss±na½ dhammassavanattha½ “ya½kiñci vittan”ti-±din± nayena saccavacana½ payuñjitum±raddho. Tattha ya½kiñc²ti aniyamitavasena anavasesa½ pariy±diyati ya½kiñci tattha tattha voh±r³paga½. Vittanti dhana½. Tañhi vitti½ janet²ti vitta½. Idha v±ti manussaloka½ niddisati. Hura½ v±ti tato para½ avasesaloka½, tena ca µhapetv± manusse sabbalokaggahaºe patte “saggesu v±”ti parato vuttatt± µhapetv± manusse ca sagge ca avases±na½ n±gasupaºº±d²na½ gahaºa½ veditabba½.
Eva½ imehi dv²hi padehi ya½ manuss±na½ voh±r³paga½ alaªk±raparibhog³pagañca j±tar³parajatamutt±maºive¼uriyapav±¼alohitaªkamas±ragall±dika½, yañca mutt±maºiv±lukatthat±ya bh³miy± ratanamayavim±nesu anekayojanasatavitthatesu bhavanesu uppann±na½ n±gasupaºº±d²na½ vitta½, ta½ niddiµµha½ hoti. Saggesu v±ti k±m±vacarar³p±vacaradevalokesu. Te hi sobhanena kammena aj²yant²ti sagg±. Suµµhu agg±tipi sagg±. Yanti ya½ sas±mika½ v± as±mika½ v±. Ratananti rati½ nayati vahati janayati va¹¹het²ti ratana½. Ya½kiñci citt²kata½ mahaggha½ atula½ dullabhadassana½ anomasattaparibhogañca, tasseta½ adhivacana½. Yath±ha–
“Citt²kata½ mahagghañca, atula½ dullabhadassana½;
anomasattaparibhoga½, ratana½ tena vuccat²”ti.
Paº²tanti uttama½ seµµha½ atappaka½. Eva½ imin± g±th±padena ya½ saggesu anekayojanasatappam±ºasabbaratanamayavim±nasudhammavejayantappabhut²su sas±mika½, yañca buddhupp±davirahena ap±yameva parip³rentesu sattesu suññavim±nappaµibaddha½ as±mika½, ya½ v± panaññampi pathavimah±samuddahimavant±dinissitamas±mika½ ratana½, ta½ niddiµµha½ hoti.
Na no sama½ atthi tath±gaten±ti na-iti paµisedhe. No-iti avadh±raºe. Samanti tulya½. Atth²ti vijjati. Tath±gaten±ti buddhena. Ki½ vutta½ hoti? Ya½ eta½ vittañca ratanañca pak±sita½, ettha ekampi buddharatanena sadisa½ ratana½ nevatthi. Yampi hi ta½ citt²kataµµhena ratana½, seyyathida½– rañño cakkavattissa cakkaratana½ maºiratanañca, yamhi uppanne mah±jano na aññattha citt²k±ra½ karoti, na koci pupphagandh±d²ni gahetv± yakkhaµµh±na½ v± bh³taµµh±na½ v± gacchati, sabbopi jano cakkaratanamaºiratanameva citt²k±ra½ karoti p³jeti, ta½ ta½ vara½ pattheti, patthitapatthitañcassa ekacca½ samijjhati, tampi ratana½ buddharatanena sama½ natthi. Yadi hi citt²kataµµhena ratana½, tath±gatova ratana½. Tath±gate hi uppanne ye keci mahesakkh± devamanuss± na te aññatra citt²k±ra½ karonti, na kañci añña½ p³jenti. Tath± hi brahm± sahampati sinerumattena ratanad±mena tath±gata½ p³jesi, yath±balañca aññe dev± manuss± ca bimbis±rakosalar±ja-an±thapiº¹ik±dayo. Parinibbutampi bhagavanta½ uddissa channavutikoµidhana½ vissajjetv± asokamah±r±j± sakalajambud²pe catur±s²ti vih±rasahass±ni patiµµh±pesi, ko pana v±do aññesa½ citt²k±r±na½. Apica kassaññassa parinibbutass±pi j±tibodhidhammacakkappavattanaparinibb±naµµh±n±ni paµim±cetiy±d²ni v± uddissa eva½ citt²k±ragaruk±ro pavattati yath± bhagavato. Eva½citt²kataµµhen±pi tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natthi.
Tath± yampi ta½ mahagghaµµhena ratana½. Seyyathida½– k±sika½ vattha½. Yath±ha– “jiººampi, bhikkhave, k±sika½ vattha½ vaººavantañceva hoti sukhasamphassañca mahagghañc±”ti (a. ni. 3.100), tampi buddharatanena sama½ natthi. Yadi hi mahagghaµµhena ratana½, tath±gatova ratana½. Tath±gato hi yesa½ pa½sukampi paµiggaºh±ti, tesa½ ta½ mahapphala½ hoti mah±nisa½sa½ seyyath±pi asokarañño, idamassa mahagghat±ya. Eva½ mahagghat±vacanena cettha dos±bh±vas±dhaka½ ida½ suttapada½ veditabba½–
“Yesa½ kho pana so paµiggaºh±ti c²varapiº¹ap±tasen±sanagil±napaccayabhesajjaparikkh±ra½, tesa½ ta½ mahapphala½ hoti mah±nisa½sa½. Idamassa mahagghat±ya vad±mi. Seyyath±pi ta½, bhikkhave, k±sika½ vattha½ mahaggha½, tath³pam±ha½, bhikkhave, ima½ puggala½ vad±m²”ti (a. ni. 3.100).
Eva½ mahagghaµµhenapi tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natthi.
Tath± yampi ta½ atulaµµhena ratana½. Seyyathida½– rañño cakkavattissa cakkaratana½ uppajjati indan²lamaºimayan±bhi sattaratanamayasahass±ra½ pav±¼amayanemi rattasuvaººamayasandhi, yassa dasanna½ dasanna½ ar±namupari eka½ muº¹±ra½ hoti v±ta½ gahetv± saddakaraºattha½, yena kato saddo sukusalappat±¼itapañcaªgikat³riyasaddo viya hoti, yassa n±bhiy± ubhosu passesu dve s²hamukh±ni honti, abbhantara½ sakaµacakkasseva susira½. Tassa katt± v± k±ret± v± natthi, kammapaccayena ututo samuµµh±ti. Ya½ r±j± dasavidha½ cakkavattivatta½ p³retv± tadahuposathe puººamadivase s²sa½nh±to uposathiko uparip±s±davaragato s²l±ni sodhento nisinno puººacanda½ viya s³riya½ viya ca uµµhenta½ passati, yassa dv±dasayojanato saddo suyyati, yojanato vaººo dissati, ya½ mah±janena “dutiyo maññe cando s³riyo v± uµµhito”ti ativiya kot³halaj±tena dissam±na½ nagarassa upari ±gantv± rañño antepurassa p±c²napasse n±ti-ucca½ n±tin²ca½ hutv± mah±janassa gandhapupph±d²hi p³jetu½, yuttaµµh±ne akkh±hata½ viya tiµµhati.
Tadeva anubandham±na½ hatthiratana½ uppajjati, sabbaseto rattap±do sattappatiµµho iddhim± veh±saªgamo uposathakul± v± chaddantakul± v± ±gacchati, uposathakul± ca ±gacchanto sabbajeµµho ±gacchati, chaddantakul± sabbakaniµµho sikkhitasikkho damath³peto, so dv±dasayojana½ parisa½ gahetv± sakalajambud²pa½ anusa½y±yitv± purep±tar±sameva saka½ r±jadh±ni½ ±gacchati.
Tampi anubandham±na½ assaratana½ uppajjati, sabbaseto rattap±do k±¼as²so muñjakeso val±hakassar±jakul± ±gacchati. Sesamettha hatthiratanasadisameva.
Tampi anubandham±na½ maºiratana½ uppajjati. So hoti maºi ve¼uriyo subho j±tim± aµµha½so suparikammakato ±y±mato cakkan±bhisadiso, vepullapabbat± ±gacchati. So caturaªgasamann±gatepi andhak±re rañño dhajagga½ gato yojana½ obh±seti, yassobh±sena manuss± “div±”ti maññam±n± kammante payojenti, antamaso kunthakipillika½ up±d±ya passanti.
Tampi anubandham±na½ itthiratana½ uppajjati, pakati-aggamahes² v± hoti, uttarakuruto v± ±gacchati maddar±jakulato v±, atid²ghat±dichadosavivajjit± atikkant± m±nusavaººa½ appatt± dibbavaººa½, yass± rañño s²tak±le uºh±ni gatt±ni honti, uºhak±le s²t±ni, satadh± phoµita t³lapicuno viya samphasso hoti, k±yato candanagandho v±yati, mukhato uppalagandho, pubbuµµh±yinit±di-anekaguºasamann±gat± ca hoti.
Tampi anubandham±na½ gahapatiratana½ uppajjati rañño pakatikammak±ro seµµhi, yassa cakkaratane uppannamatte dibba½ cakkhu p±tubhavati, yena samantato yojanamatte nidhi½ passati as±mikampi sas±mikampi, so r±j±na½ upasaªkamitv± pav±reti “appossukko tva½, deva, hohi, aha½ te dhanena dhanakaraº²ya½ kariss±m²”ti.
Tampi anubandham±na½ pariº±yakaratana½ uppajjati rañño pakatijeµµhaputto. Cakkaratane uppannamatte atirekapaññ±veyyattiyena samann±gato hoti, dv±dasayojan±ya paris±ya cetas± citta½ parij±nitv± niggahapaggahasamattho hoti, so r±j±na½ upasaªkamitv± pav±reti “appossukko tva½, deva, hohi, aha½ te rajja½ anus±siss±m²”ti. Ya½ v± panaññampi evar³pa½ atulaµµhena ratana½, yassa na sakk± tulayitv± t²rayitv± aggho k±tu½ “sata½ v± sahassa½ v± agghati koµi½ v±”ti. Tattha ekaratanampi buddharatanena sama½ natthi. Yadi hi atulaµµhena ratana½, tath±gatova ratana½. Tath±gato hi na sakk± s²lato v± sam±dhito v± paññ±d²na½ v± aññatarato kenaci tulayitv± t²rayitv± “ettakaguºo v± imin± samo v± sappaµibh±go v±”ti paricchinditu½. Eva½ atulaµµhenapi tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natthi.
Tath± yampi ta½ dullabhadassanaµµhena ratana½, seyyathida½ dullabhap±tubh±vo r±j± cakkavatti, cakk±d²ni ca tassa ratan±ni, tampi buddharatanena sama½ natthi. Yadi hi dullabhadassanaµµhena ratana½, tath±gatova ratana½, kuto cakkavatti-±d²na½ ratanatta½. T±ni hi ekasmi½yeva kappe anek±ni uppajjanti. Yasm± pana asaªkhyeyyepi kappe tath±gatasuñño loko hoti, tasm± tath±gatova kad±ci karahaci uppajjanato dullabhadassano. Vuttampi ceta½ bhagavat± parinibb±nasamaye–
“Devat±, ±nanda, ujjh±yanti ‘d³r± ca vatamha ±gat± tath±gata½ dassan±ya, kad±ci karahaci tath±gat± loke uppajjanti arahanto samm±sambuddh±, ajjeva rattiy± pacchime y±me tath±gatassa parinibb±na½ bhavissati, ayañca mahesakkho bhikkhu bhagavato purato µhito ov±rento, na maya½ labh±ma pacchime k±le tath±gata½ dassan±y±”’ti (d². ni. 2.200).
Eva½ dullabhadassanaµµhen±pi tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natthi.
Tath± yampi ta½ anomasattaparibhogaµµhena ratana½. Seyyathida½– rañño cakkavattissa cakkaratan±di tañhi koµisatasahassadhan±nampi sattabh³mikap±s±davaratale vasant±nampi caº¹±lavenanes±darathak±rapukkus±d²na½ n²cakulik±na½ omakapuris±na½ supinantepi paribhogatth±ya na nibbattati. Ubhato suj±tassa pana rañño khattiyasseva parip³ritadasavidhacakkavattivattassa paribhogatth±ya nibbattanato anomasattaparibhoga½yeva hoti, tampi buddharatanasama½ natthi. Yadi hi anomasattaparibhogaµµhena ratana½, tath±gatova ratana½. Tath±gato hi loke omakasattasammat±na½ anupanissayasampann±na½ vipar²tadassan±na½ p³raºakassap±d²na½ channa½ satth±r±na½ aññesañca evar³p±na½ supinantepi aparibhogo. Upanissayasampann±na½ pana catuppad±yapi g±th±ya pariyos±ne arahattamadhigantu½ samatth±na½ nibbedhikañ±ºadassan±na½ b±hiyad±ruc²riyappabhut²na½ aññesañca mah±kulappasut±na½ mah±s±vak±na½ paribhogo, te hi ta½ dassan±nuttariyasavan±nuttariyap±ricariy±nuttariy±d²ni s±dhent± tath±gata½ paribhuñjanti. Eva½ anomasattaparibhogaµµhen±pi tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natthi.
Yampi ta½ avisesato ratijananaµµhena ratana½. Seyyathida½– rañño cakkavattissa cakkaratana½. Tañhi disv±va r±j± cakkavatti attamano hoti, evampi ta½ rañño rati½ janeti. Puna capara½ r±j± cakkavatti v±mena hatthena suvaººabhiªk±ra½ gahetv± dakkhiºena hatthena cakkaratana½ abbhukkirati “pavattatu bhava½ cakkaratana½, abhivijin±tu bhava½ cakkaratanan”ti. Tato cakkaratana½ pañcaªgika½ viya t³riya½ madhurassara½ niccharanta½ ±k±sena puratthima½ disa½ gacchati anvadeva r±j±, cakkavatti cakk±nubh±vena dv±dasayojanavitthiºº±ya caturaªginiy± sen±ya n±ti-ucca½ n±tin²ca½ uccarukkh±na½ heµµh±bh±gena, n²carukkh±na½ uparibh±gena, rukkhesu pupphaphalapallav±dipaºº±k±ra½ gahetv± ±gat±na½ hatthato paºº±k±rañca gaºhanto “ehi kho, mah±r±j±”ti evam±din± paramanipaccak±rena ±gate paµir±j±no “p±ºo na hantabbo”ti-±din± nayena anus±santo gacchati. Yattha pana r±j± bhuñjituk±mo v± div±seyya½ v± kappetuk±mo hoti, tattha cakkaratana½ ±k±s± orohitv± udak±disabbakiccakkhame same bh³mibh±ge akkh±hata½ viya tiµµhati. Puna rañño gamanacitte uppanne purimanayeneva sadda½ karonta½ gacchati, ta½ sutv± dv±dasayojanik±pi paris± ±k±sena gacchati Cakkaratana½ anupubbena puratthima½ samudda½ ajjhog±hati, tasmi½ ajjhog±hante udaka½ yojanappam±ºa½ apagantv± bhitt²kata½ viya tiµµhati. Mah±jano yath±k±ma½ satta ratan±ni gaºh±ti. Puna r±j± suvaººabhiªk±ra½ gahetv± “ito paµµh±ya mama rajjan”ti udakena abbhukkiritv± nivattati. Sen± purato hoti, cakkaratana½ pacchato, r±j± majjhe. Cakkaratanena osakkitosakkitaµµh±na½ udaka½ parip³rati. Eteneva up±yena dakkhiºapacchimuttarepi samudde gacchati.
Eva½ catuddisa½ anusa½y±yitv± cakkaratana½ tiyojanappam±ºa½ ±k±sa½ ±rohati. Tattha µhito r±j± cakkaratan±nubh±vena vijitavijayo pañcasataparittad²papaµimaº¹ita½ sattayojanasahassaparimaº¹ala½ pubbavideha½, tath± aµµhayojanasahassaparimaº¹ala½ uttarakuru½, sattayojanasahassaparimaº¹ala½yeva aparagoy±na½, dasayojanasahassaparimaº¹ala½ jambud²pañc±ti eva½ catumah±d²padvisahassaparittad²papaµimaº¹ita½ eka½ cakkav±¼a½ suphullapuº¹ar²kavana½ viya oloketi. Eva½ olokayato cassa anappak± rati uppajjati. Evampi ta½ cakkaratana½ rañño rati½ janeti, tampi buddharatanasama½ natthi. Yadi hi ratijananaµµhena ratana½, tath±gatova ratana½, ki½ karissati eta½ cakkaratana½? Tath±gato hi yass± dibb±ya ratiy± cakkaratan±d²hi sabbehipi janit± cakkavattirati saªkhampi kalampi kalabh±gampi na upeti, tatopi ratito uttaritarañca paº²tatarañca attano ov±dappaµikar±na½ asaªkhyeyy±nampi devamanuss±na½ paµhamajjh±narati½ dutiyatatiyacatutthapañcamajjh±narati½, ±k±s±nañc±yatanarati½, viññ±ºañc±yatana-±kiñcaññ±yatananevasaññ±n±saññ±yatanarati½, sot±pattimaggarati½, sot±pattiphalarati½, sakad±g±mi-an±g±mi-arahattamaggaphalaratiñca janeti. Eva½ ratijananaµµhen±pi tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natth²ti.
Apica ratana½ n±meta½ duvidha½ hoti saviññ±ºakamaviññ±ºakañca. Tattha aviññ±ºaka½ cakkaratana½ maºiratanañca, ya½ v± panaññampi anindriyabaddhasuvaººarajat±di, saviññ±ºaka½ hatthiratan±dipariº±yakaratanapariyos±na½, ya½ v± panaññampi evar³pa½ indriyabaddha½. Eva½ duvidhe cettha saviññ±ºakaratana½ aggamakkh±yati Kasm±? Yasm± aviññ±ºaka½ suvaººarajatamaºimutt±diratana½ saviññ±ºak±na½ hatthiratan±d²na½ alaªk±ratth±ya upan²yati.
Saviññ±ºakaratanampi duvidha½ tiracch±nagataratana½, manussaratanañca. Tattha manussaratana½ aggamakkh±yati. Kasm±? Yasm± tiracch±nagataratana½ manussaratanassa opavayha½ hoti. Manussaratanampi duvidha½ itthiratana½, purisaratanañca. Tattha purisaratana½ aggamakkh±yati. Kasm±? Yasm± itthiratana½ purisaratanassa paric±rikatta½ ±pajjati. Purisaratanampi duvidha½ ag±rikaratana½, anag±rikaratanañca. Tattha anag±rikaratana½ aggamakkh±yati. Kasm±? Yasm± ag±rikaratanesu aggo cakkavattipi s²l±diguºayutta½ anag±rikaratana½ pañcapatiµµhitena vanditv± upaµµhahitv± payirup±sitv± dibbam±nusik± sampattiyo p±puºitv± ante nibb±nasampatti½ p±puº±ti.
Eva½ anag±rikaratanampi duvidha½ ariyaputhujjanavasena. Ariyaratanampi duvidha½ sekh±sekhavasena. Asekharatanampi duvidha½ sukkhavipassakasamathay±nikavasena. Samathay±nikaratanampi duvidha½ s±vakap±ramippattamappattañca. Tattha s±vakap±ramippatta½ aggamakkh±yati. Kasm±? Guºamahantat±ya. S±vakap±ramippattaratanatopi paccekabuddharatana½ aggamakkh±yati. Kasm±? Guºamahantat±ya. S±riputtamoggall±nasadis±pi hi anekasat± s±vak± ekassa paccekabuddhassa guº±na½ satabh±gampi na upenti. Paccekabuddharatanatopi samm±sambuddharatana½ aggamakkh±yati. Kasm±? Guºamahantat±ya. Sakalampi hi jambud²pa½ p³retv± pallaªkena pallaªka½ ghaµent± nisinn± paccekabuddh± ekassa samm±sambuddhassa guº±na½ neva saªkha½ na kala½ na kalabh±ga½ upenti. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±– “y±vat±, bhikkhave, satt± apad± v±…pe… tath±gato tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti-±di (a. ni. 4.34; 5.32; itivu. 90). Eva½ kenaci pariy±yena tath±gatasama½ ratana½ natthi. Ten±ha bhagav±– “na no sama½ atthi tath±gaten±”ti.
Eva½ bhagav± buddharatanassa aññehi ratanehi asamata½ vatv± id±ni tesa½ satt±na½ uppanna-upaddavav³pasamattha½ neva j±ti½ na gotta½ na kolaputtiya½ na vaººapokkharat±di½ niss±ya, apica kho av²cimup±d±ya bhavaggapariyante loke s²lasam±dhikkhandh±d²hi guºehi buddharatanassa asadisabh±va½ niss±ya saccavacana½ payuñjati “idampi buddhe ratana½ paº²ta½, etena saccena suvatthi hot³”ti.
Tassattho– idampi idha v± hura½ v± saggesu v± ya½kiñci atthi vitta½ v± ratana½ v±, tena saddhi½ tehi tehi guºehi asamatt± buddhe ratana½ paº²ta½. Yadi hi eta½ sacca½, atha etena saccena imesa½ p±º²na½ suvatthi hotu, sobhan±na½ atthit± hotu arogat± nirupaddavat±ti. Ettha ca yath± “cakkhu kho, ±nanda, suñña½ attena v± attaniyena v±”ti evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.85) attabh±vena v± attaniyabh±vena v±ti attho. Itarath± hi cakkhu att± v± attaniya½ v±ti appaµisiddhameva siy±. Eva½ ratana½ paº²tanti ratanatta½ paº²ta½, ratanabh±vo paº²toti ayamattho veditabbo. Itarath± hi buddho neva ratananti sijjheyya. Na hi yattha ratana½ atthi, ta½ ratananti na sijjhati. Yattha pana citt²kat±di-atthasaªkh±ta½ yena v± tena v± vidhin± sambandhagata½ ratana½ atthi, yasm± ta½ ratanattamup±d±ya ratananti paññ±p²yati, tasm± tassa ratanassa atthit±ya ratananti sijjhati. Atha v± idampi buddhe ratananti imin±pi pak±rena buddhova ratananti evamattho veditabbo. Vuttamatt±ya ca bhagavat± im±ya g±th±ya r±jakulassa sotthi j±t±, bhaya½ v³pasanta½. Imiss± g±th±ya ±º± koµisatasahassacakkav±¼esu amanussehi paµiggahit±ti.