G±ravoc±tig±th±vaººan±

9. Id±ni g±ravo c±ti ettha g±ravoti garubh±vo. Niv±toti n²cavuttit±. Santuµµh²ti santoso Katassa j±nanat± kataññut±. K±len±ti khaºena samayena. Dhammassa savana½ dhammassavana½. Sesa½ vuttanayamev±ti aya½ padavaººan±.
Atthavaººan± pana eva½ veditabb±– g±ravo n±ma garuk±rappayog±rahesu buddhapaccekabuddhatath±gatas±vaka-±cariyupajjh±yam±t±pitujeµµhakabh±tikabhagin²-±d²su yath±nur³pa½ garuk±ro garukaraºa½ sag±ravat±. Sa c±ya½ g±ravo yasm± sugatigaman±d²na½ hetu. Yath±ha–
“Garuk±tabba½ garu½ karoti, m±netabba½ m±neti, p³jetabba½ p³jeti. So tena kammena eva½ samattena eva½ sam±dinnena k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± sugati½ sagga½ loka½ upapajjati. No ce k±yassa…pe… upapajjati, sace manussatta½ ±gacchati, yattha yattha pacc±j±yati, ucc±kul²no hot²”ti (ma. ni. 3.295).
Yath± c±ha– “sattime, bhikkhave, aparih±niy± dhamm±. Katame satta? Satthug±ravat±”ti-±di (a. ni. 7.33), tasm± maªgalanti vuccati.
Niv±to n±ma n²camanat± niv±tavuttit±, y±ya samann±gato puggalo nihatam±no nihatadappo p±dapuñchanakaco¼asadiso chinnavis±ºa-usabhasamo uddhaµad±µhasappasamo ca hutv± saºho sakhilo sukhasambh±so hoti, aya½ niv±to. Sv±ya½ yas±diguºappaµil±bhahetuto maªgalanti vuccati. ¾ha ca “niv±tavutti atthaddho, t±diso labhate yasan”ti evam±di (d². ni. 3.273).
Santuµµhi n±ma itar²tarapaccayasantoso, so dv±dasavidho hoti. Seyyathida½– c²vare yath±l±bhasantoso, yath±balasantoso, yath±s±ruppasantosoti tividho. Eva½ piº¹ap±t±d²su.
Tass±ya½ pabhedavaººan±– idha bhikkhu c²vara½ labhati sundara½ v± asundara½ v±. So teneva y±peti, añña½ na pattheti, labhantopi na gaºh±ti, ayamassa c²vare yath±l±bhasantoso. Atha pana bhikkhu ±b±dhiko hoti, garu½ c²vara½ p±rupanto oºamati v± kilamati v±, so sabh±gena bhikkhun± saddhi½ ta½ parivattetv± lahukena y±pentopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa c²vare yath±balasantoso. Aparo bhikkhu paº²tapaccayal±bh² hoti, so paµµac²var±d²na½ aññatara½ mahaggha½ c²vara½ labhitv± “ida½ ther±na½ cirapabbajit±na½ bahussut±nañca anur³pan”ti tesa½ datv± attan± saªk±rak³µ± v± aññato v± kutoci nantak±ni uccinitv± saªgh±µi½ karitv± dh±rentopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa c²vare yath±s±ruppasantoso.
Idha pana bhikkhu piº¹ap±ta½ labhati l³kha½ v± paº²ta½ v±, so teneva y±peti, añña½ na pattheti, labhantopi na gaºh±ti, ayamassa piº¹ap±te yath±l±bhasantoso. Atha pana bhikkhu ±b±dhiko hoti, l³kha½ piº¹ap±ta½ bhuñjitv± g±¼ha½ rog±taªka½ p±puº±ti, so ta½ sabh±gassa bhikkhuno datv± tassa hatthato sappimadhukh²r±d²ni bhuñjitv± samaºadhamma½ karontopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa piº¹ap±te yath±balasantoso. Aparo bhikkhu paº²ta½ piº¹ap±ta½ labhati, so “aya½ piº¹ap±to ther±na½ cirapabbajit±na½ aññesañca paº²tapiº¹ap±ta½ vin± ay±pent±na½ sabrahmac±r²na½ anur³po”ti tesa½ datv± attan± piº¹±ya caritv± missak±h±ra½ bhuñjantopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa piº¹ap±te yath±s±ruppasantoso.
Idha pana bhikkhuno sen±sana½ p±puº±ti. So teneva santussati, puna añña½ sundaratarampi p±puºanta½ na gaºh±ti, ayamassa sen±sane yath±l±bhasantoso. Atha pana bhikkhu ±b±dhiko hoti, niv±tasen±sane vasanto ativiya pittarog±d²hi ±tur²yati. So ta½ sabh±gassa bhikkhuno datv± tassa p±puºane sav±te s²talasen±sane vasitv± samaºadhamma½ karontopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa sen±sane yath±balasantoso. Aparo bhikkhu sundara½ sen±sana½ pattampi na sampaµicchati “sundarasen±sana½ pam±daµµh±na½, tatra nisinnassa thinamiddha½ okkamati, nidd±bhibh³tassa ca puna paµibujjhato k±mavitakko samud±carat²”ti. So ta½ paµikkhipitv± ajjhok±sarukkham³lapaººakuµ²su yattha katthaci nivasantopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa sen±sane yath±s±ruppasantoso.
Idha pana bhikkhu bhesajja½ labhati har²taka½ v± ±malaka½ v±. So teneva y±peti, aññehi laddhasappimadhuph±ºit±dimpi na pattheti, labhantopi na gaºh±ti, ayamassa gil±napaccaye yath±l±bhasantoso. Atha pana bhikkhu ±b±dhiko hoti, telenatthiko ph±ºita½ labhati, so ta½ sabh±gassa bhikkhuno datv± tassa hatthato telena bhesajja½ katv± samaºadhamma½ karontopi santuµµhova hoti, ayamassa gil±napaccaye yath±balasantoso. Aparo bhikkhu ekasmi½ bh±jane p³timuttahar²taka½ µhapetv± ekasmi½ catumadhura½ “gaºhatha, bhante, yadicchas²”ti vuccam±no sacassa tesa½ dvinnamaññatarenapi by±dhi v³pasammati, atha “p³timuttahar²taka½ n±ma buddh±d²hi vaººitan”ti ca “p³timuttabhesajja½ niss±ya pabbajj±, tattha te y±vaj²va½ uss±ho karaº²yoti vuttan”ti (mah±va. 128) ca cintento catumadhurabhesajja½ paµikkhipitv± p³timuttahar²takena bhesajja½ karontopi paramasantuµµhova hoti. Ayamassa gil±napaccaye yath±s±ruppasantoso.
Eva½pabhedo sabbopeso santoso santuµµh²ti vuccati. S± atricchat±mahicchat±p±picchat±d²na½ p±padhamm±na½ pah±n±dhigamahetuto, sugatihetuto, ariyamaggasambh±rabh±vato, c±tuddis±dibh±vahetuto ca maªgalanti veditabb±. ¾ha ca–
“C±tuddiso appaµigho ca hoti,
santussam±no itar²taren±”ti. Evam±di (su. ni. 42).
Kataññut± n±ma appassa v± bahussa v± yena kenaci katassa upak±rassa punappuna½ anussaraºabh±vena j±nanat±. Apica nerayik±didukkhaparitt±ºato puññ±ni eva p±º²na½ bah³pak±r±ni, tato tesampi upak±r±nussaraºat± kataññut±ti veditabb±. S± sappurisehi pasa½san²y±din±nappak±ravises±dhigamahetuto maªgalanti vuccati. ¾ha ca “dveme, bhikkhave, puggal± dullabh± lokasmi½. Katame dve? Yo ca pubbak±r² yo ca kataññ³ kataved²”ti (a. ni. 2.120).
K±lena dhammassavana½ n±ma yasmi½ k±le uddhaccasahagata½ citta½ hoti, k±mavitakk±d²na½ v± aññatarena abhibh³ta½, tasmi½ k±le tesa½ vinodanattha½ dhammassavana½. Apare ±hu “pañcame pañcame divase dhammassavana½ k±lena dhammassavana½ n±ma. Yath±ha ±yasm± anuruddho ‘pañc±hika½ kho pana maya½, bhante, sabbaratti½ dhammiy± kath±ya sannis²d±m±”’ti (ma. ni. 1.327; mah±va. 466).
Apica yasmi½ k±le kaly±ºamitte upasaªkamitv± sakk± hoti attano kaªkh±vinodaka½ dhamma½ sotu½, tasmi½ k±lepi dhammassavana½ k±lena dhammassavananti veditabba½. Yath±ha “te k±lena k±la½ upasaªkamitv± paripucchati paripañhat²”ti-±di (d². ni. 3.358). Tadeta½ k±lena dhammassavana½ n²varaºappah±nacatur±nisa½sa-±savakkhay±din±nappak±ravises±dhigamahetuto maªgalanti veditabba½. Vuttañheta½–
“Yasmi½ bhikkhave, samaye ariyas±vako aµµhi½ katv± manasi katv± sabba½ cetas± samann±haritv± ohitasoto dhamma½ suº±ti, pañcassa n²varaº± tasmi½ samaye na hont²”ti ca (sa½. ni. 5.219).
“Sot±nugat±na½, bhikkhave, dhamm±na½…pe… suppaµividdh±na½ catt±ro ±nisa½s± p±µikaªkh±”ti ca (a. ni. 4.191).
“Catt±rome, bhikkhave, dhamm± k±lena k±la½ samm± bh±viyam±n± samm± anuparivattiyam±n± anupubbena ±sav±na½ khaya½ p±penti. Katame catt±ro? K±lena dhammassavanan”ti ca evam±di (a. ni. 4.147).
Eva½ imiss± g±th±ya g±ravo, niv±to, santuµµhi, kataññut±, k±lena dhammassavananti pañca maªgal±ni vutt±ni. Maªgalattañca nesa½ tattha tattha vibh±vitamev±ti.
Niµµhit± g±ravo c±ti imiss± g±th±ya atthavaººan±.