Asevan±c±tig±th±vaººan±

3. Evameta½ devaputtassa vacana½ sutv± bhagav± “asevan± ca b±l±nan”ti g±tham±ha. Tattha asevan±ti abhajan± apayirup±san±. B±l±nanti balanti assasant²ti b±l±, assasitapassasitamattena j²vanti, na paññ±j²viten±ti adhipp±yo. Tesa½ b±l±na½. Paº¹it±nanti paº¹ant²ti paº¹it±, sandiµµhikasampar±yikesu atthesu ñ±ºagatiy± gacchant²ti adhipp±yo. Tesa½ paº¹it±na½. Sevan±ti bhajan± payirup±san± ta½sah±yat± ta½sampavaªkat± ta½samaªgit± p³j±ti sakk±ragaruk±ram±nanavandan±. P³janeyy±nanti p³j±rah±na½. Eta½ maªgalamuttamanti y± ca b±l±na½ asevan±, y± ca paº¹it±na½ sevan±, y± ca p³janeyy±na½ p³j±, ta½ sabba½ sampiº¹etv± ±ha “eta½ maªgalamuttaman”ti. Ya½ tay± puµµha½ “br³hi maªgalamuttaman”ti, ettha t±va eta½ maªgalamuttamanti gaºh±h²ti vutta½ hoti. Ayametiss± g±th±ya padavaººan±.
Atthavaººan± panass± eva½ veditabb±– evameta½ devaputtassa vacana½ sutv± bhagav± “asevan± ca b±l±nan”ti ima½ g±tham±ha. Tattha yasm± catubbidh± g±th± pucchitag±th±, apucchitag±th±, s±nusandhikag±th±, ananusandhikag±th±ti. Tattha “pucch±mi ta½, gotama, bh³ripañña, kathaªkaro s±vako s±dhu hot²”ti (su. ni. 378) ca “katha½ nu tva½, m±risa, oghamatar²”ti (sa½. ni. 1.1) ca evam±d²su pucchitena kathit± pucchitag±th±. “Ya½ pare sukhato ±hu, tadariy± ±hu dukkhato”ti evam±d²su (su. ni. 767) apucchitena attajjh±sayavasena kathit± apucchitag±th±. Sabb±pi buddh±na½ g±th± “sanid±n±ha½, bhikkhave, dhamma½ desess±m²”ti (a. ni. 3.126; kath±. 806) vacanato s±nusandhikag±th±. Ananusandhikag±th± imasmi½ s±sane natthi. Evamet±su g±th±su aya½ devaputtena pucchitena bhagavat± kathitatt± pucchitag±th±. Ayañca yath± cheko puriso kusalo maggassa kusalo amaggassa magga½ puµµho paµhama½ vijahitabba½ ±cikkhitv± pacch± gahetabba½ ±cikkhati “asukasmi½ n±ma µh±ne dvedh±patho hoti, tattha v±ma½ muñcitv± dakkhiºa½ gaºhath±”ti, eva½ sevitabb±sevitabbesu asevitabba½ ±cikkhitv± sevitabba½ ±cikkhati Bhagav± ca maggakusalapurisasadiso. Yath±ha–
“Puriso maggakusaloti kho, tissa, tath±gatasseta½ adhivacana½ arahato samm±sambuddhassa. So hi kusalo imassa lokassa, kusalo parassa lokassa, kusalo maccudheyyassa, kusalo amaccudheyyassa, kusalo m±radheyyassa, kusalo am±radheyyass±”ti.
Tasm± paµhama½ asevitabba½ ±cikkhanto ±ha– “asevan± ca b±l±na½, paº¹it±nañca sevan±”ti. Vijahitabbamaggo viya hi paµhama½ b±l± na sevitabb± na payirup±sitabb±, tato gahetabbamaggo viya paº¹it± sevitabb± payirup±sitabb±ti. Kasm± pana bhagavat± maªgala½ kathentena paµhama½ b±l±namasevan± paº¹it±nañca sevan± kathit±ti? Vuccate– yasm± ima½ diµµh±d²su maªgaladiµµhi½ b±lasevan±ya devamanuss± gaºhi½su, s± ca amaªgala½, tasm± tesa½ ta½ idhalokaparalokatthabhañjaka½ akaly±ºamittasa½sagga½ garahantena ubhayalokatthas±dhakañca kaly±ºamittasa½sagga½ pasa½santena bhagavat± paµhama½ b±l±namasevan± paº¹it±nañca sevan± kathit±ti.
Tattha b±l± n±ma ye keci p±º±tip±t±di-akusalakammapathasamann±gat± satt±, te t²h±k±rehi j±nitabb±. Yath±ha “t²ºim±ni, bhikkhave, b±lassa b±lalakkhaº±n²”ti sutta½ (a. ni. 3.3; ma. ni. 3.246). Apica p³raºakassap±dayo cha satth±ro, devadattakok±likakaµamodakatissakhaº¹adeviy±puttasamuddadattaciñcam±ºavik±dayo at²tak±le ca d²ghavidassa bh±t±ti ime aññe ca evar³p± satt± b±l±ti veditabb±.
Te aggipadittamiva ag±ra½ attan± duggahitena att±nañceva attano vacanak±rake ca vin±senti. Yath± d²ghavidassa bh±t± catubuddhantara½ saµµhiyojanamattena attabh±vena utt±no patito mah±niraye paccati, yath± ca tassa diµµhi½ abhirucanak±ni pañca kulasat±ni tasseva sahabyata½ upapann±ni mah±niraye paccanti. Vuttañceta½ bhagavat±–
“Seyyath±pi, bhikkhave, na¼±g±r± v± tiº±g±r± v± aggi mutto k³µ±g±r±nipi ¹ahati ullitt±valitt±ni niv±t±ni phusitagga¼±ni pihitav±tap±n±ni, evameva kho, bhikkhave, y±ni k±nici bhay±ni uppajjanti, sabb±ni t±ni b±lato uppajjanti, no paº¹itato. Ye keci upaddav± uppajjanti…pe… ye keci upasagg±…pe… no paº¹itato. Iti kho, bhikkhave, sappaµibhayo b±lo, appaµibhayo paº¹ito. Sa-upaddavo b±lo, anupaddavo paº¹ito, sa-upasaggo b±lo, anupasaggo paº¹ito”ti (a. ni. 3.1).
Apica p³timacchasadiso b±lo, p³timacchabandhapattapuµasadiso hoti tadupasev², cha¹¹an²yata½ jigucchan²yatañca p±puº±ti viññ³na½. Vuttañceta½–
“P³timaccha½ kusaggena, yo naro upanayhati;
kus±pi p³t² v±yanti, eva½ b±l³pasevan±”ti. (J±. 1.15.183; 2.22.1257).
Akittipaº¹ito c±pi sakkena dev±namindena vare diyyam±ne evam±ha–
“B±la½ na passe na suºe, na ca b±lena sa½vase;
b±lenall±pasall±pa½, na kare na ca rocaye.
“Kinnu te akara½ b±lo, vada kassapa k±raºa½;
kena kassapa b±lassa, dassana½ n±bhikaªkhasi.
“Anaya½ nayati dummedho, adhur±ya½ niyuñjati;
dunnayo seyyaso hoti, samm± vutto pakuppati;
vinaya½ so na j±n±ti, s±dhu tassa adassanan”ti. (J±. 1.13.90-92).
Eva½ bhagav± sabb±k±rena b±l³pasevana½ garahanto “b±l±namasevan± maªgalan”ti vatv± id±ni paº¹itasevana½ pasa½santo “paº¹it±nañca sevan± maªgalan”ti ±ha. Tattha paº¹it± n±ma ye keci p±º±tip±t±veramaºi-±didasakusalakammapathasamann±gat± satt±, te t²h±k±rehi j±nitabb±. Yath±ha “t²ºim±ni, bhikkhave, paº¹itassa paº¹italakkhaº±n²”ti (a. ni. 3.3; ma. ni. 3.253) sutta½. Apica buddhapaccekabuddha-as²timah±s±vak± aññe ca tath±gatassa s±vak± sunettamah±govindavidhurasarabhaªgamahosadhasutasomanimir±ja- ayogharakum±ra-akittipaº¹it±dayo ca paº¹it±ti veditabb±.
Te bhaye viya rakkh± andhak±re viya pad²po khuppip±s±didukkh±bhibhave viya annap±n±dippaµil±bho attano vacanakar±na½ sabbabhayupaddav³pasaggaviddha½sanasamatth± honti. Tath± hi tath±gata½ ±gamma asaªkhyeyy± aparim±º± devamanuss± ±savakkhaya½ patt±, brahmaloke patiµµhit±, devaloke patiµµhit±, sugatiloke uppann±, s±riputtatthere citta½ pas±detv± cat³hi ca paccayehi thera½ upaµµhahitv± as²ti kulasahass±ni sagge nibbatt±ni. Tath± mah±moggall±namah±kassapappabhut²su sabbamah±s±vakesu, sunettassa satthuno s±vak± appekacce brahmaloke uppajji½su, appekacce paranimmitavasavatt²na½ dev±na½ sahabyata½…pe… appekacce gahapatimah±s±l±na½ sahabyata½ upapajji½su. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Natthi, bhikkhave, paº¹itato bhaya½, natthi paº¹itato upaddavo, natthi paº¹itato upasaggo”ti (a. ni. 3.1).
Apica tagaram±l±digandhasadiso paº¹ito, tagaram±l±digandhabandhapaliveµhanapattasadiso hoti tadupasev², bh±van²yata½ manuññatañca ±pajjati viññ³na½. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Tagarañca pal±sena, yo naro upanayhati;
patt±pi surabh² v±yanti, eva½ dh²r³pasevan±”ti. (Itivu. 76; j±. 1.15.184; 2.22.1258).
Akittipaº¹ito c±pi sakkena dev±namindena vare diyyam±ne evam±ha–
“Dh²ra½ passe suºe dh²ra½, dh²rena saha sa½vase;
dh²renall±pasall±pa½, ta½ kare tañca rocaye.
“Kinnu te akara½ dh²ro, vada kassapa k±raºa½;
kena kassapa dh²rassa, dassana½ abhikaªkhasi.
“Naya½ nayati medh±v², adhur±ya½ na yuñjati;
sunayo seyyaso hoti, samm± vutto na kuppati;
vinaya½ so paj±n±ti, s±dhu tena sam±gamo”ti. (J±. 1.13.94-96).
Eva½ bhagav± sabb±k±rena paº¹itasevana½ pasa½santo “paº¹it±na½ sevan± maªgalan”ti vatv± id±ni t±ya b±l±na½ asevan±ya paº¹it±na½ sevan±ya ca anupubbena p³janeyyabh±va½ upagat±na½ p³ja½ pasa½santo “p³j± ca p³janeyy±na½ maªgalan”ti ±ha. Tattha p³janeyy± n±ma sabbadosavirahitatt± sabbaguºasamann±gatatt± ca buddh± bhagavanto, tato pacch± paccekabuddh±, ariyas±vak± ca. Tesañhi p³j± appak±pi d²gharatta½ hit±ya sukh±ya hoti, sumanam±l±k±ramallik±dayo cettha nidassana½.
Tattheka½ nidassanamatta½ bhaº±ma– bhagav± hi ekadivasa½ pubbaºhasamaya½ niv±setv± pattac²varam±d±ya r±jagaha½ piº¹±ya p±visi. Atha kho sumanam±l±k±ro rañño m±gadhassa seniyassa bimbis±rassa pupph±ni gahetv± gacchanto addasa bhagavanta½ nagaradv±ramanuppatta½ p±s±dika½ pas±dan²ya½ dvatti½samah±purisalakkhaº±s²t±nubyañjanappaµimaº¹ita½ buddhasiriy± jalanta½, disv±nassa etadahosi “r±j± pupph±ni gahetv± sata½ v± sahassa½ v± dadeyya tañca idhalokamattameva sukha½ bhaveyya, bhagavato pana p³j± appameyya-asaªkhyeyyaphal± d²gharatta½ hitasukh±vah± hoti, hand±ha½ imehi pupphehi bhagavanta½ p³jem²”ti pasannacitto eka½ pupphamuµµhi½ gahetv± bhagavato paµimukha½ khipi, pupph±ni ±k±sena gantv± bhagavato upari m±l±vit±na½ hutv± aµµha½su. M±l±k±ro tam±nubh±va½ disv± pasannataracitto puna eka½ pupphamuµµhi½ khipi, t±nipi gantv± m±l±kañcuko hutv± aµµha½su. Eva½ aµµha pupphamuµµhiyo khipi, t±ni gantv± pupphak³µ±g±ra½ hutv± aµµha½su.
Bhagav± antok³µ±g±re ahosi, mah±janak±yo sannipati. Bhagav± m±l±k±ra½ passanto sita½ p±tv±k±si. ¾nandatthero “na buddh± ahet³ apaccay± sita½ p±tukaront²”ti sitak±raºa½ pucchi. Bhagav± ±ha “eso, ±nanda, m±l±k±ro imiss± p³j±ya ±nubh±vena satasahassakappe devesu ca manussesu ca sa½saritv± pariyos±ne sumanissaro n±ma paccekabuddho bhavissat²”ti. Vacanapariyos±ne dhammadesanattha½ ima½ g±tha½ abh±si–
“Tañca kamma½ kata½ s±dhu, ya½ katv± n±nutappati;
yassa pat²to sumano, vip±ka½ paµisevat²”ti. (Dha. pa. 68).
G±th±vas±ne catur±s²tiy± p±ºasahass±na½ dhamm±bhisamayo ahosi. Eva½ appak±pi tesa½ p³j± d²gharatta½ hit±ya sukh±ya hot²ti veditabb±. S± ca ±misap³j±va, ko pana v±do paµipattip³j±ya? Yato ye kulaputt± saraºagamanasikkh±padappaµiggahaºena uposathaªgasam±d±nena catup±risuddhis²l±d²hi ca attano guºehi bhagavanta½ p³jenti, ko tesa½ p³j±phala½ vaººayissati? Te hi tath±gata½ param±ya p³j±ya p³jent²ti vutt±. Yath±ha–
“Yo kho, ±nanda, bhikkhu v± bhikkhun² v± up±sako v± up±sik± v± dhamm±nudhammappaµipanno viharati s±m²cippaµipanno anudhammac±r², so tath±gata½ sakkaroti garu½ karoti m±neti p³jeti apaciyati param±ya p³j±y±”ti (d². ni. 2.199).
Eten±nus±rena paccekabuddha-ariyas±vak±nampi p³j±ya hitasukh±vahat± veditabb±.
Apica gahaµµh±na½ kaniµµhassa jeµµho bh±t±pi bhagin²pi p³janeyy±, puttassa m±t±pitaro, kulavadh³na½ s±mikasassusasur±ti evamettha p³janeyy± veditabb±. Etesampi hi p³j± kusaladhammasaªkh±tatt± ±yu-±divu¹¹hihetutt± ca maªgalameva. Vuttañheta½–
“Te matteyy± bhavissanti petteyy± s±maññ± brahmaññ± kule jeµµh±pac±yino, ida½ kusala½ dhamma½ sam±d±ya vattissanti, te tesa½ kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±d±nahetu ±yun±pi va¹¹hissanti, vaººenapi va¹¹hissant²”ti-±di (d². ni. 3.105).
Id±ni yasm± “ya½ yattha maªgala½. Vavatthapetv± ta½ tassa, maªgalatta½ vibh±vaye”ti iti m±tik± nikkhitt±, tasm± ida½ vuccati– evametiss± g±th±ya b±l±na½ asevan±, paº¹it±na½ sevan±, p³janeyy±nañca p³j±ti t²ºi maªgal±ni vutt±ni. Tattha b±l±na½ asevan± b±lasevanapaccayabhay±diparitt±ºena ubhayalokatthahetutt±, paº¹it±na½ sevan± p³janeyy±na½ p³j± ca t±sa½ phalavibh³tivaººan±ya½ vuttanayeneva nibb±nasugatihetutt± maªgalanti veditabb±. Ito para½ tu m±tika½ adassetv± eva ya½ yattha maªgala½, ta½ vavatthapetv± tassa maªgalatta½ vibh±vayiss±m±ti.
Niµµhit± asevan± ca b±l±nanti imiss± g±th±ya atthavaººan±.