Vinaye ca hetvattho karaºattho ca sambhavati. Yo hi so sikkh±padapaññattisamayo s±riputt±d²hipi dubbiññeyyo, tena samayena hetubh³tena karaºabh³tena ca sikkh±pad±ni paññapento sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±no bhagav± tattha tattha vih±si, tasm± tadatthajotanattha½ tattha karaºavacananiddeso kato.
Idha pana aññasmiñca eva½j±tike suttantap±µhe accantasa½yogattho sambhavati. Yañhi samaya½ bhagav± ima½ añña½ v± suttanta½ desesi, accantameva ta½ samaya½ karuº±vih±rena vih±si. Tasm± tadatthajotanattha½ idha upayogavacananiddeso katoti viññeyyo. Hoti cettha–
“Ta½ ta½ atthamapekkhitv±, bhummena karaºena ca;
aññatra samayo vutto, upayogena so idh±”ti.
Bhagav±ti guºavisiµµhasattuttamagarug±rav±dhivacanameta½. Yath±ha–
“Bhagav±ti vacana½ seµµha½, bhagav±ti vacanamuttama½;
garu g±ravayutto so, bhagav± tena vuccat²”ti.
Catubbidhañhi n±ma½ ±vatthika½, liªgika½, nemittaka½, adhiccasamuppannanti. Adhiccasamuppanna½ n±ma “yadicchakan”ti vutta½ hoti. Tattha vaccho dammo balibaddhoti evam±di ±vatthika½, daº¹² chatt² sikh² kar²ti evam±di liªgika½, tevijjo cha¼abhiññoti evam±di nemittaka½, siriva¹¹hako dhanava¹¹hakoti evam±di vacanatthamanapekkhitv± pavatta½ adhiccasamuppanna½. Ida½ pana bhagav±ti n±ma½ guºanemittaka½, na mah±m±y±ya, na suddhodanamah±r±jena, na as²tiy± ñ±tisahassehi kata½, na sakkasantusit±d²hi devat±visesehi kata½. Yath±ha ±yasm± s±riputtatthero “bhagav±ti neta½ n±ma½ m±tar± kata½…pe… sacchik± paññatti yadida½ bhagav±”ti (mah±ni. 84).
Ya½ guºanemittakañceta½ n±ma½, tesa½ guº±na½ pak±sanattha½ ima½ g±tha½ vadanti–
“Bhag² bhaj² bh±g² vibhattav± iti,
ak±si bhagganti gar³ti bh±gyav±;
bah³hi ñ±yehi subh±vitattano,
bhavantago so bhagav±ti vuccat²”ti.
Niddes±d²su (mah±ni. 84; c³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa 2) vuttanayeneva cassa attho daµµhabbo.
Aya½ pana aparo pariy±yo–
“Bh±gyav± bhaggav± yutto, bhagehi ca vibhattav±;
bhattav± vantagamano, bhavesu bhagav± tato”ti.
Tattha “vaºº±gamo vaººavipariy±yo”ti eva½ niruttilakkhaºa½ gahetv± saddanayena v± pisodar±dipakkhepalakkhaºa½ gahetv± yasm± lokiyalokuttarasukh±bhinibbattaka½ d±nas²l±dip±rappatta½ bh±gyamassa atthi, tasm± bh±gyav±ti vattabbe bhagav±ti vuccat²ti ñ±tabba½. Yasm± pana lobhadosamohavipar²tamanasik±ra-ahirik±nottappakodh³pan±hamakkhapal±- iss±macchariyam±y±s±µheyyathambhas±rambham±n±tim±namadapam±dataºh±vijj±tividh±kusalam³laduccarita- sa½kilesamalavisamasaññ±vitakkapapañcacatubbidhavipariyesa-±savagantha-oghayoga-agatitaºhup±d±na- pañcacetokhilavinibandhan²varaº±bhinandanachaviv±dam³lataºh±k±yasatt±nusaya- aµµhamicchattanavataºh±m³lakadas±kusalakammapathadv±saµµhidiµµhigata- aµµhasatataºh±vicaritappabhedasabbadarathapari¼±hakilesasatasahass±ni saªkhepato v± pañca kilesakkhandha-abhisaªkh±ramaccudevaputtam±re abhañji, tasm± bhaggatt± etesa½ parissay±na½ bhaggav±ti vattabbe bhagav±ti vuccati. ¾ha cettha–
“Bhaggar±go bhaggadoso, bhaggamoho an±savo;
bhagg±ssa p±pak± dhamm±, bhagav± tena vuccat²”ti.
Bh±gyavat±ya cassa satapuññalakkhaºadharassa r³pak±yasampatti d²pit± hoti, bhaggadosat±ya dhammak±yasampatti. Tath± lokiyasarikkhak±na½ bahum±nabh±vo, gahaµµhapabbajitehi abhigaman²yat±. Tath± abhigat±nañca nesa½ k±yacittadukkh±panayane paµibalabh±vo, ±misad±nadhammad±nehi upak±rit±. Lokiyalokuttarasukhehi ca sa½yojanasamatthat± d²pit± hoti.
Yasm± ca loke issariyadhammayasasirik±mapayattesu chasu dhammesu bhagasaddo vattati, paramañcassa sakacitte issariya½, aºim±laghim±dika½ v± lokiyasammata½ sabb±k±raparip³ra½ atthi, tath± lokuttaro dhammo, lokattayaby±pako yath±bhuccaguº±dhigato ativiya parisuddho yaso, r³pak±yadassanaby±vaµajananayanamanappas±dajananasamatth± sabb±k±raparip³r± sabbaªgapaccaªgasir², ya½ ya½ anena icchita½ patthita½ attahita½ parahita½ v±, tassa tassa tatheva abhinipphannatt± icchitatthanipphattisaññito k±mo, sabbalokagarubh±vappattihetubh³to samm±v±y±masaªkh±to payatto ca atthi, tasm± imehi bhagehi yuttatt±pi bhag± assa sant²ti imin± atthena “bhagav±”ti vuccati.
Yasm± pana kusal±dibhedehi sabbadhamme, khandh±yatanadh±tusacca-indriyapaµiccasamupp±d±d²hi v± kusal±didhamme, p²¼anasaªkhatasant±pavipariº±maµµhena v± dukkhamariyasacca½, ±y³hananid±nasa½yogapalibodhaµµhena samudaya½, nissaraºavivek±saªkhata-amataµµhena nirodha½, niyy±nikahetudassan±dhipateyyaµµhena magga½ vibhattav±, vibhajitv± vivaritv± desitav±ti vutta½ hoti, tasm± vibhattav±ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vuccati.
Yasm± ca esa dibbabrahma-ariyavih±re k±yacitta-upadhiviveke suññat±ppaºihit±nimittavimokkhe aññe ca lokiyalokuttare uttarimanussadhamme bhaji sevi bahulamak±si, tasm± bhattav±ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vuccati.
Yasm± pana t²su bhavesu taºh±saªkh±ta½ gamana½ anena vanta½, tasm± bhavesu vantagamanoti vattabbe bhavasaddato bhak±ra½ gamanasaddato gak±ra½ vantasaddato vak±rañca d²gha½ katv± ±d±ya “bhagav±”ti vuccati, yath± loke “mehanassa khassa m±l±”ti vattabbe “mekhal±”ti.
Ett±vat± cettha eva½ me sutanti vacanena yath±suta½ yath±pariyatta½ dhamma½ desento paccakkha½ katv± bhagavato dhammasar²ra½ pak±seti, tena “nayida½ at²tasatthuka½ p±vacana½, aya½ vo satth±”ti bhagavato adassanena ukkaºµhitajana½ samass±seti.
Eka½ samaya½ bhagav±ti vacanena tasmi½ samaye bhagavato avijjam±nabh±va½ dassento r³pak±yaparinibb±na½ dasseti. Tena “eva½vidhassa imassa ariyadhammassa deset± dasabaladharo vajirasaªgh±tak±yo sopi bhagav± parinibbuto, tattha kenaññena j²vite ±s± janetabb±”ti j²vitamadamatta½ jana½ sa½vejeti, saddhamme cassa uss±ha½ janeti.
Evanti ca bhaºanto desan±sampatti½ niddisati, me sutanti s±vakasampatti½, eka½ samayanti k±lasampatti½, bhagav±ti desakasampatti½.
S±vatthiya½ viharat²ti ettha s±vatth²ti savatthassa isino niv±saµµh±nabh³ta½ nagara½, yath± k±kand² m±kand²ti, eva½ itthiliªgavasena s±vatth²ti vuccati, eva½ akkharacintak±. Aµµhakath±cariy± pana bhaºanti “ya½kiñci manuss±na½ upabhogaparibhoga½ sabbamettha atth²”ti s±vatth². Satthasam±yoge ca “ki½ bhaº¹amatth²”ti pucchite “sabbamatth²”ti vacanamup±d±ya s±vatth².
“Sabbad± sabb³pakaraºa½, s±vatthiya½ samohita½;
tasm± sabbamup±d±ya, s±vatth²ti pavuccati.
“Kosal±na½ pura½ ramma½, dassaneyya½ manorama½;
dasahi saddehi avivitta½, annap±nasam±yuta½.
“Vu¹¹hi½ vepullata½ patta½, iddha½ ph²ta½ manorama½;
±¼akamand±va dev±na½, s±vatthipuramuttaman”ti. (Ma. ni. aµµha. 1.14).
Tassa½ s±vatthiya½. Sam²patthe bhummavacana½.
Viharat²ti avisesena iriy±pathadibbabrahma-ariyavih±resu aññataravih±rasamaªgiparid²panameta½. Idha pana µh±nagaman±sanasayanappabhedesu iriy±pathesu aññatara-iriy±pathasam±yogaparid²pana½, tena µhitopi gacchantopi nisinnopi say±nopi bhagav± viharaticceva veditabbo. So hi eka½ iriy±pathab±dhana½ aparena iriy±pathena vicchinditv± aparipatanta½ attabh±va½ harati pavatteti. Tasm± viharat²ti vuccati.
Jetavaneti ettha attano paccatthikajana½ jin±t²ti jeto, raññ± v± attano paccatthikajane jite j±toti jeto, maªgalakamyat±ya v± tassa eva½ n±mameva katantipi jeto. Vanayat²ti vana½, attasampad±ya satt±na½ bhatti½ k±reti, attani sineha½ upp±det²ti attho. Vanute iti v± vana½, n±n±vidhakusumagandhasammodamattakokil±divihaªgavirutehi mandam±lutacalitarukkhas±kh±viµapapupphaphalapallavapal±sehi ca “etha ma½ paribhuñjath±”ti p±ºino y±cati viy±ti attho. Jetassa vana½ jetavana½. Tañhi jetena r±jakum±rena ropita½ sa½va¹¹hita½ parip±lita½, so ca tassa s±m² ahosi, tasm± jetavananti vuccati. Tasmi½ jetavane.
An±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±meti ettha sudatto n±ma so gahapati m±t±pit³hi katan±mavasena, sabbak±masamiddhit±ya tu vigatamalamaccherat±ya karuº±diguºasamaªgit±ya ca niccak±la½ an±th±na½ piº¹a½ ad±si, tena an±thapiº¹ikoti saªkhya½ gato. ¾ramanti ettha p±ºino, visesena v± pabbajit±ti ±r±mo, tassa pupphaphalapallav±disobhanat±ya n±tid³ran±cc±sannat±dipañcavidhasen±sanaªgasampattiy± ca tato tato ±gamma ramanti abhiramanti anukkaºµhit± hutv± nivasant²ti attho. Vuttappak±r±ya v± sampattiy± tattha tattha gatepi attano abbhantara½yeva ±netv± ramet²ti ±r±mo. So hi an±thapiº¹ikena gahapatin± jetassa r±jakum±rassa hatthato aµµh±rasahiraññakoµisanth±rena kiºitv± aµµh±rasahiraññakoµ²hi sen±sana½ k±r±petv± aµµh±rasahiraññakoµ²hi vih±ramaha½ niµµh±petv± eva½ catupaññ±s±ya hiraññakoµiparicc±gena buddhappamukhassa bhikkhusaªghassa niyy±tito, tasm± “an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±mo”ti vuccati. Tasmi½ an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±me.
Ettha ca “jetavane”ti vacana½ purimas±miparikittana½, “an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±me”ti pacchimas±miparikittana½. Kimetesa½ parikittane payojananti? Vuccate– adhik±rato t±va “kattha bh±sitan”ti pucch±niy±makaraºa½ aññesa½ puññak±m±na½ diµµh±nugati-±pajjane niyojanañca. Tattha hi dv±rakoµµhakap±s±dam±pane bh³mivikkayaladdh± aµµh±rasa hiraññakoµiyo anekakoµi-agghanak± rukkh± ca jetassa paricc±go, catupaññ±sa koµiyo an±thapiº¹ikassa. Yato tesa½ parikittanena “eva½ puññak±m± puññ±ni karont²”ti dassento ±yasm± ±nando aññepi puññak±me tesa½ diµµh±nugati-±pajjane niyojeti. Evamettha puññak±m±na½ diµµh±nugati-±pajjane niyojana½ payojananti veditabba½.
Etth±ha– “yadi t±va bhagav± s±vatthiya½ viharati, ‘jetavane an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±me’ti na vattabba½. Atha tattha viharati, ‘s±vatthiyan’ti na vattabba½. Na hi sakk± ubhayattha eka½ samaya½ viharitun”ti. Vuccate– nanu vuttameta½ “sam²patthe bhummavacanan”ti, yato yath± gaªg±yamun±d²na½ sam²pe goy³th±ni carant±ni “gaªg±ya caranti, yamun±ya carant²”ti vuccanti, evamidh±pi yadida½ s±vatthiy± sam²pe jetavana½ an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±mo, tattha viharanto vuccati “s±vatthiya½ viharati jetavane an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±me”ti veditabbo. Gocarag±manidassanattha½ hissa s±vatthivacana½, pabbajit±nur³paniv±saµµh±nanidassanattha½ sesavacana½.
Tattha s±vatthikittanena bhagavato gahaµµh±nuggahakaraºa½ dasseti, jetavan±dikittanena pabbajit±nuggahakaraºa½. Tath± purimena paccayaggahaºato attakilamath±nuyogavivajjana½, pacchimena vatthuk±mappah±nato k±masukhallik±nuyogavajjan³p±yadassana½. Purimena ca dhammadesan±bhiyoga½, pacchimena vivek±dhimutti½. Purimena karuº±ya upagamana½, pacchimena ca paññ±ya apagamana½. Purimena satt±na½ hitasukhanipph±dan±dhimuttita½, pacchimena parahitasukhakaraºe nirupalepata½. Purimena dhammikasukh±paricc±ganimitta½ ph±suvih±ra½, pacchimena uttarimanussadhamm±nuyoganimitta½. Purimena manuss±na½ upak±rabahulata½, pacchimena dev±na½. Purimena loke j±tassa loke sa½va¹¹habh±va½, pacchimena lokena anupalittatanti evam±di.
Ath±ti avicchedatthe, khoti adhik±rantaranidassanatthe nip±to. Tena avicchinneyeva tattha bhagavato vih±re idamadhik±rantara½ udap±d²ti dasseti. Ki½ tanti? Aññatar± devat±ti-±di. Tattha aññatar±ti aniyamitaniddeso. S± hi n±magottato ap±kaµ±, tasm± “aññatar±”ti vutt±. Devo eva devat±, itthipurisas±dh±raºameta½. Idha pana puriso eva, so devaputto kintu, s±dh±raºan±mavasena devat±ti vutto.
Abhikkant±ya rattiy±ti ettha abhikkantasaddo khayasundar±bhir³pa-abbhanumodan±d²su dissati. Tattha “abhikkant±, bhante, ratti, nikkhanto paµhamo y±mo, ciranisinno bhikkhusaªgho, uddisatu, bhante, bhagav± bhikkh³na½ p±timokkhan”ti evam±d²su (c³¼ava. 383; a. ni. 8.20) khaye dissati. “Aya½ imesa½ catunna½ puggal±na½ abhikkantataro ca paº²tataro c±”ti evam±d²su (a. ni. 4.100) sundare.
“Ko me vandati p±d±ni, iddhiy± yasas± jala½;
abhikkantena vaººena, sabb± obh±saya½ dis±”ti. (Vi. va. 857).–

Evam±d²su abhir³pe. “Abhikkanta½, bho gotama, abhikkanta½, bho gotam±”ti evam±d²su (a. ni. 2.16; p±r±. 15) abbhanumodane. Idha pana khaye. Tena abhikkant±ya rattiy±ti parikkh²º±ya rattiy±ti vutta½ hoti.

Abhikkantavaºº±ti ettha abhikkantasaddo abhir³pe, vaººasaddo pana chavithutikulavaggak±raºasaºµh±napam±ºar³p±yatan±d²su dissati. Tattha “suvaººavaººosi bhagav±”ti evam±d²su (ma. ni. 2.399; su. ni. 553) chaviya½. “Kad± saññ³¼h± pana te gahapati ime samaºassa gotamassa vaºº±”ti evam±d²su (ma. ni. 2.77) thutiya½. “Catt±rome, bho gotama, vaºº±”ti evam±d²su (d². ni. 3.115) kulavagge. “Atha kena nu vaººena, gandhathenoti vuccat²”ti evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.234) k±raºe. “Mahanta½ hatthir±javaººa½ abhinimminitv±”ti evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.138) saºµh±ne. “Tayo pattassa vaºº±”ti evam±d²su pam±ºe. “Vaººo gandho raso oj±”ti evam±d²su r³p±yatane. So idha chaviya½ daµµhabbo. Tena abhikkantavaºº±ti abhir³pacchav²ti vutta½ hoti.
Kevalakappanti ettha kevalasaddo anavasesayebhuyya-aby±miss±natirekada¼hatthavisa½yog±di-anekattho Tath± hissa “kevalaparipuººa½ parisuddha½ brahmacariyan”ti evam±d²su (p±r±. 1) anavasesat± attho. “Kevalakapp± ca aªgam±gadh± pah³ta½ kh±dan²ya½ bhojan²ya½ ±d±ya upasaªkamissant²”ti evam±d²su (mah±va. 43) yebhuyyat±. “Kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hot²”ti evam±d²su (vibha. 225) aby±missat±. “Kevala½ saddh±mattaka½ n³na ayam±yasm±”ti evam±d²su (mah±va. 244) anatirekat±. “¾yasmato, bhante, anuruddhassa b±hiyo n±ma saddhivih±riko kevalakappa½ saªghabhed±ya µhito”ti evam±d²su (a. ni. 4.243) da¼hatthat±. “Keval² vusitav± uttamapurisoti vuccat²”ti evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.57) visa½yogo. Idha panassa anavasesattamattho adhippeto.
Kappasaddo pan±ya½ abhisaddahanavoh±rak±lapaññattichedanavikappalesasamantabh±v±di-anekattho. Tath± hissa “okappan²yameta½ bhoto gotamassa, yath± ta½ arahato samm±sambuddhass±”ti evam±d²su (ma. ni. 1.387) abhisaddahanamattho. “Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, pañcahi samaºakappehi phala½ paribhuñjitun”ti evam±d²su (c³¼ava. 250) voh±ro. “Yena suda½ niccakappa½ vihar±m²”ti evam±d²su (ma. ni. 1.387) k±lo. “Icc±yasm± kappo”ti evam±d²su (su. ni. 1098; c³¼ani. kappam±ºavapucch± 117, kappam±ºavapucch±niddesa 61) paññatti. “Alaªkato kappitakesamass³”ti evam±d²su (j±. 2.22.1368) chedana½. “Kappati dvaªgulakappo”ti evam±d²su (c³¼ava. 446) vikappo. “Atthi kappo nipajjitun”ti evam±d²su (a. ni. 8.80) leso. “Kevalakappa½ ve¼uvana½ obh±setv±”ti evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.94) samantabh±vo. Idha panassa samantabh±vo attho adhippeto. Yato kevalakappa½ jetavananti ettha anavasesa½ samantato jetavananti evamattho daµµhabbo.
Obh±setv±ti ±bh±ya pharitv±, candim± viya s³riyo viya ca ekobh±sa½ ekapajjota½ karitv±ti attho.
Yena bhagav± tenupasaªkam²ti bhummatthe karaºavacana½. Yato yattha bhagav±, tattha upasaªkam²ti evamettha attho daµµhabbo. Yena v± k±raºena bhagav± devamanussehi upasaªkamitabbo, teneva k±raºena upasaªkam²ti evampettha attho daµµhabbo. Kena ca k±raºena bhagav± upasaªkamitabbo? N±nappak±raguºavises±dhigam±dhipp±yena, s±durasaphal³pabhog±dhipp±yena dijagaºehi niccaphalitamah±rukkho viya. Upasaªkam²ti ca gat±ti vutta½ hoti. Upasaªkamitv±ti upasaªkamanapariyos±nad²pana½ Atha v± eva½ gat± tato ±sannatara½ µh±na½ bhagavato sam²pasaªkh±ta½ gantv±ti vutta½ hoti. Bhagavanta½ abhiv±detv±ti bhagavanta½ vanditv± paºamitv± namassitv±.
Ekamantanti bh±vanapu½sakaniddeso ekok±sa½ ekapassanti vutta½ hoti. Bhummatthe v± upayogavacana½. Aµµh±s²ti nisajj±dipaµikkhepo, µh±na½ kappesi, µhit± ahos²ti attho.
Katha½ µhit± pana s± ekamanta½ µhit± ah³ti?
“Na pacchato na purato, n±pi ±sannad³rato;
na kacche nopi paµiv±te, na c±pi oºatuººate;
ime dose vivajjetv±, ekamanta½ µhit± ah³”ti.
Kasm± pan±ya½ aµµh±si eva, na nis²d²ti? Lahu½ nivattituk±mat±ya. Devat±yo hi kañcideva atthavasa½ paµicca sucipuriso viya vaccaµµh±na½ manussaloka½ ±gacchanti. Pakatiy± pana t±sa½ yojanasatato pabhuti manussaloko duggandhat±ya paµik³lo hoti, na ettha abhiramanti, tena s± ±gatakicca½ katv± lahu½ nivattituk±mat±ya na nis²di. Yassa ca gaman±di-iriy±pathaparissamassa vinodanattha½ nis²danti, so dev±na½ parissamo natthi, tasm±pi na nis²di. Ye ca mah±s±vak± bhagavanta½ pariv±retv± µhit±, te patim±neti, tasm±pi na nis²di. Apica bhagavati g±raveneva na nis²di. Devat±nañhi nis²dituk±m±na½ ±sana½ nibbattati, ta½ aniccham±n± nisajj±ya cittampi akatv± ekamanta½ aµµh±si.
Ekamanta½ µhit± kho s± devat±ti eva½ imehi k±raºehi ekamanta½ µhit± kho s± devat±. Bhagavanta½ g±th±ya ajjhabh±s²ti bhagavanta½ akkharapadaniyamitaganthitena vacanena abh±s²ti attho. Katha½? Bah³ dev± manuss± ca…pe… br³hi maªgalamuttamanti.