Pañhavaººan±

Eka½ n±ma kintipañhavaººan±

Id±ni tesa½ atthavaººan± hoti– eka½ n±ma kinti bhagav± yasmi½ ekadhammasmi½ bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, yasmi½ c±yam±yasm± nibbindam±no anupubbena dukkhassantamak±si, ta½ dhamma½ sandh±ya pañha½ pucchati. “Sabbe satt± ±h±raµµhitik±”ti thero puggal±dhiµµh±n±ya desan±ya vissajjeti. “Katam± ca, bhikkhave, samm±sati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu k±ye k±y±nupass² viharat²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.8) evam±d²ni cettha sutt±ni eva½ vissajjanayuttisambhave s±dhak±ni. Ettha yen±h±rena sabbe satt± “±h±raµµhitik±”ti vuccanti, so ±h±ro ta½ v± nesa½ ±h±raµµhitikatta½ “eka½ n±ma kin”ti puµµhena therena niddiµµhanti veditabba½. Tañhi bhagavat± idha ekanti adhippeta½, na tu s±sane loke v± añña½ eka½ n±ma natth²ti ñ±petu½ vutta½. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
“Ekadhamme, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no samm± virajjam±no samm± vimuccam±no samm± pariyantadass±v² sammatta½ abhisamecca diµµheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamasmi½ ekadhamme? Sabbe satt± ±h±raµµhitik±. Imasmi½ kho, bhikkhave, ekadhamme bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Eko pañho eko uddeso eka½ veyy±karaºan’ti iti ya½ ta½ vutta½, idameta½ paµicca vuttan”ti (a. ni. 10.27).
¾h±raµµhitik±ti cettha yath± “atthi, bhikkhave, subhanimitta½. Tattha ayoniso manasik±rabahul²k±ro, ayam±h±ro anuppannassa v± k±macchandassa upp±d±y±”ti evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 5.232) paccayo ±h±roti vuccati, eva½ paccaya½ ±h±rasaddena gahetv± paccayaµµhitik± “±h±raµµhitik±”ti vutt±. Catt±ro pana ±h±re sandh±ya– “±h±raµµhitik±”ti vuccam±ne “asaññasatt± dev± ahetuk± an±h±r± aphassak± avedanak±”ti vacanato (vibha. 1017) “sabbe”ti vacanamayutta½ bhaveyya.
Tattha siy±– evampi vuccam±ne “katame dhamm± sapaccay±? Pañcakkhandh±– r³pakkhandho…pe… viññ±ºakkhandho”ti (dha. sa. 1089) vacanato khandh±na½yeva paccayaµµhitikatta½ yutta½, satt±nantu ayuttameveta½ vacana½ bhaveyy±ti. Na kho paneta½ eva½ daµµhabba½. Kasm± Sattesu khandhopac±rasiddhito. Sattesu hi khandhopac±ro siddho. Kasm±? Khandhe up±d±ya paññ±petabbato. Katha½? Gehe g±mopac±ro viya. Seyyath±pi hi geh±ni up±d±ya paññ±petabbatt± g±massa ekasmimpi dv²su t²supi v± gehesu da¹¹hesu “g±mo da¹¹ho”ti eva½ gehe g±mopac±ro siddho, evameva khandhesu paccayaµµhena ±h±raµµhitikesu “satt± ±h±raµµhitik±”ti aya½ upac±ro siddhoti veditabbo. Paramatthato ca khandhesu j±yam±nesu j²yam±nesu m²yam±nesu ca “khaºe khaºe tva½ bhikkhu j±yase ca j²yase ca m²yase c±”ti vadat± bhagavat± tesu sattesu khandhopac±ro siddhoti dassito ev±ti veditabbo. Yato yena paccay±khyena ±h±rena sabbe satt± tiµµhanti, so ±h±ro ta½ v± nesa½ ±h±raµµhitikatta½ ekanti veditabba½. ¾h±ro hi ±h±raµµhitikatta½ v± aniccat±k±raºato nibbid±µµh±na½ hoti. Atha tesu sabbasattasaññitesu saªkh±resu aniccat±dassanena nibbindam±no anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, paramatthavisuddhi½ p±puº±ti. Yath±ha–
“Sabbe saªkh±r± anicc±ti, yad± paññ±ya passati;
atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiy±”ti. (Dha. pa. 277).
Ettha ca “eka½ n±ma kin”ti ca “kih±”ti ca duvidho p±µho, tattha s²ha¼±na½ kih±ti p±µho. Te hi “kin”ti vattabbe “kih±”ti vadanti. Keci bhaºanti “ha-iti nip±to, theriy±nampi ayameva p±µho”ti ubhayath±pi pana ekova attho. Yath± ruccati, tath± paµhitabba½. Yath± pana “sukhena phuµµho atha v± dukhena (dha. pa. 83), dukkha½ domanassa½ paµisa½vedet²”ti evam±d²su katthaci dukhanti ca katthaci dukkhanti ca vuccati, eva½ katthaci ekanti, katthaci ekkanti vuccati. Idha pana eka½ n±m±ti ayameva p±µho.

Dve n±ma kintipañhavaººan±

Eva½ imin± pañhaby±karaºena ±raddhacitto satth± purimanayeneva uttari½ pañha½ pucchati dve n±ma kinti? Thero dveti paccanubh±sitv± “n±mañca r³pañc±”ti dhamm±dhiµµh±n±ya desan±ya vissajjeti. Tattha ±rammaº±bhimukha½ namanato, cittassa ca natihetuto sabbampi ar³pa½ “n±man”ti vuccati. Idha pana nibbid±hetutt± s±savadhammameva adhippeta½ ruppanaµµhena catt±ro ca mah±bh³t±, sabbañca tadup±d±ya pavattam±na½ r³pa½ “r³pan”ti vuccati, ta½ sabbampi idh±dhippeta½. Adhipp±yavaseneva cettha “dve n±ma n±mañca r³pañc±”ti vutta½, na aññesa½ dvinnamabh±vato. Yath±ha–
“Dv²su bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu dv²su? N±me ca r³pe ca. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, dv²su dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Dve pañh±, dve uddes±, dve veyy±karaº±n²’ti iti ya½ ta½ vutta½, idameta½ paµicca vuttan”ti (a. ni. 10.27).
Ettha ca n±mar³pamattadassanena attadiµµhi½ pah±ya anatt±nupassan±mukheneva nibbindam±no anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, paramatthavisuddhi½ p±puº±t²ti veditabbo. Yath±ha–
“Sabbe dhamm± anatt±ti, yad± paññ±ya passati;
atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiy±”ti. (Dha. pa. 279).

T²ºi n±ma kintipañhavaººan±

Id±ni imin±pi pañhaby±karaºena ±raddhacitto satth± purimanayeneva uttari½ pañha½ pucchati t²ºi n±ma kinti? Thero t²º²ti paccanubh±sitv± puna by±karitabbassa atthassa liªg±nur³pa½ saªkhya½ dassento “tisso vedan±”ti vissajjeti. Atha v± “y± bhagavat± ‘tisso vedan±’ti vutt±, im±samatthamaha½ t²º²ti paccem²”ti dassento ±h±ti evampettha attho veditabbo. Anekamukh± hi desan± paµisambhid±pabhedena desan±vil±sappatt±na½. Keci pan±hu “t²º²ti adhikapadamidan”ti. Purimanayeneva cettha “tisso vedan±”ti vutta½, na aññesa½ tiººamabh±vato. Yath±ha–
“T²su, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu t²su? T²su vedan±su. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, t²su dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Tayo pañh±, tayo uddes±, t²ºi veyy±karaº±n²’ti iti ya½ ta½ vutta½ idameta½ paµicca vuttan”ti (a. ni. 10.27).
Ettha ca “ya½kiñci vedayita½, sabba½ ta½ dukkhasminti vad±m²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.259) vuttasutt±nus±rena v±.–
“Yo sukha½ dukkhato adda, dukkhamaddakkhi sallato;
adukkhamasukha½ santa½, addakkhi na½ aniccato”ti. (Itivu. 53)–

Eva½ dukkhadukkhat±vipariº±madukkhat±saªkh±radukkhat±nus±rena v± tissanna½ vedan±na½ dukkhabh±vadassanena sukhasañña½ pah±ya dukkh±nupassan±mukhena nibbindam±no anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, paramatthavisuddhi½ p±puº±t²ti veditabbo. Yath±ha–

“Sabbe saªkh±r± dukkh±ti, yad± paññ±ya passati;
atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiy±”ti. (Dha. pa. 278).

Catt±ri n±ma kintipañhavaººan±

Eva½ imin±pi pañhaby±karaºena ±raddhacitto satth± purimanayeneva uttari½ pañha½ pucchati catt±ri n±ma kinti? Tattha imassa pañhassa by±karaºapakkhe katthaci purimanayeneva catt±ro ±h±r± adhippet±. Yath±ha–
“Cat³su bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu cat³su? Cat³su ±h±resu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, cat³su dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Catt±ro pañh± catt±ro uddes± catt±ri veyy±karaº±n²’ti iti ya½ ta½ vutta½, idameta½ paµicca vuttan”ti (a. ni. 10.27).
Katthaci yesu subh±vitacitto anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, t±ni catt±ri satipaµµh±n±ni. Yath±ha kajaªgal± bhikkhun²–
“Cat³su, ±vuso, dhammesu bhikkhu samm± subh±vitacitto samm± pariyantadass±v² sammatta½ abhisamecca diµµheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu cat³su? Cat³su satipaµµh±nesu. Imesu kho, ±vuso, cat³su dhammesu bhikkhu samm± subh±vitacitto…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Catt±ro pañh± catt±ro uddes± catt±ri veyy±karaº±n²’ti iti ya½ ta½ vutta½ bhagavat±, idameta½ paµicca vuttan”ti (a. ni. 10.28).
Idha pana yesa½ catunna½ anubodhappaµivedhato bhavataºh±chedo hoti, yasm± t±ni catt±ri ariyasacc±ni adhippet±ni. Yasm± v± imin± pariy±yena by±kata½ suby±katameva hoti, tasm± thero catt±r²ti paccanubh±sitv± “ariyasacc±n²”ti vissajjeti. Tattha catt±r²ti gaºanaparicchedo. Ariyasacc±n²ti ariy±ni sacc±ni, avitath±ni avisa½v±dak±n²ti attho. Yath±ha–
“Im±ni kho, bhikkhave, catt±ri ariyasacc±ni tath±ni avitath±ni anaññath±ni, tasm± ariyasacc±n²ti vuccant²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1097).
Yasm± v± sadevakena lokena araº²yato abhigaman²yatoti vutta½ hoti, v±yamitabbaµµh±nasaññite aye v± iriyanato, anaye v± na iriyanato, sattati½sabodhipakkhiya-ariyadhammasam±yogato v± ariyasammat± buddhapaccekabuddhabuddhas±vak± et±ni paµivijjhanti, tasm±pi “ariyasacc±n²”ti vuccanti. Yath±ha–
“Catt±rim±ni bhikkhave, ariyasacc±ni…pe… im±ni kho, bhikkhave, catt±ri ariyasacc±ni, ariy± im±ni paµivijjhanti, tasm± ariyasacc±n²ti vuccant²”ti.

Apica ariyassa bhagavato sacc±n²tipi ariyasacc±ni. Yath±ha–

“Sadevake, bhikkhave…pe… sadevamanuss±ya tath±gato ariyo, tasm± ariyasacc±n²ti vuccant²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1098).

Atha v± etesa½ abhisambuddhatt± ariyabh±vasiddhitopi ariyasacc±ni. Yath±ha–

“Imesa½ kho, bhikkhave, catunna½ ariyasacc±na½ yath±bh³ta½ abhisambuddhatt± tath±gato araha½ samm±sambuddhoti vuccat²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1093).
Ayametesa½ padattho. Etesa½ pana ariyasacc±na½ anubodhappaµivedhato bhavataºh±chedo hoti. Yath±ha–
“Tayida½ bhikkhave, dukkha½ ariyasacca½ anubuddha½ paµividdha½…pe… dukkhanirodhag±minipaµipad± ariyasacca½ anubuddha½ paµividdha½, ucchinn± bhavataºh±, kh²º± bhavanetti, natthi d±ni punabbhavo”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1091).

Pañca n±ma kintipañhavaººan±

Imin±pi pañhaby±karaºena ±raddhacitto satth± purimanayeneva uttari½ pañha½ pucchati pañca n±ma kinti? Thero pañc±ti paccanubh±sitv± “up±d±nakkhandh±”ti vissajjeti. Tattha pañc±ti gaºanaparicchedo. Up±d±najanit± up±d±najanak± v± khandh± up±d±nakkhandh±. Ya½kiñci r³pa½, vedan±, saññ±, saªkh±r±, viññ±ºañca s±sav± up±d±niy±, etesameta½ adhivacana½. Pubbanayeneva cettha “pañcup±d±nakkhandh±”ti vutta½, na aññesa½ pañcannamabh±vato. Yath±ha–
“Pañcasu, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu pañcasu? Pañcasu up±d±nakkhandhesu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, pañcasu dhammesu bhikkhu samm± nibbindam±no…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Pañca pañh±, pañca uddes± pañca veyy±karaº±n²’ti iti ya½ ta½ vutta½, idameta½ paµicca vuttan”ti (a. ni. 10.27).