(8) 3. ¾kaªkhavaggo

1-4. ¾kaªkhasutt±divaººan±

71-74. Tatiyassa paµhame s²lassa anavasesasam±d±nena akhaº¹±dibh±v±pattiy± ca paripuººas²l±. Sam±d±nato paµµh±ya avicchindanato s²lasamaªgino. Ett±vat± kir±ti (a. ni. 2.37) kira-saddo arucis³canattho. Tenettha ±cariyav±dassa attano aruccanabh±va½ d²peti. Sampannas²l±ti an±maµµhavisesa½ s±maññato s²lasaªkhepena gahita½. Tañca catubbidhanti ±cariyatthero “catup±risuddhis²la½ uddisitv±”ti ±ha. Tatth±ti catup±risuddhis²le. Jeµµhakas²lanti (sa½. ni. 5.412) padh±nas²la½. Ubhayatth±ti uddesaniddese. Idha niddese viya uddesepi p±timokkhasa½varo bhagavat± vutto “sampannas²l±”ti vuttatt±ti adhipp±yo. S²laggahaºañhi p±¼iya½ p±timokkhasa½varavasena ±gata½. Ten±ha “p±timokkhasa½varoyev±”ti-±di. Tattha avadh±raºena itaresa½ tiººa½ ekadesena p±timokkhantogadhata½ d²peti. Tath± hi anolokiyolokane ±j²vahetu chasikkh±padav²tikkame gil±napaccayassa apaccavekkhitaparibhoge ca ±patti vihit±ti. T²º²ti indriyasa½varas²l±d²ni. S²lanti vuttaµµh±na½ n±ma atth²ti s²lapariy±yena tesa½ katthaci sutte gahitaµµh±na½ n±ma ki½ atthi yath± p±timokkhasa½varoti ±cariyassa sammukhatt± appaµikkhipantova upac±rena pucchanto viya vadati. Ten±ha “ananuj±nanto”ti. Chadv±rarakkh±mattakamev±ti tassa sallahukabh±vam±ha citt±dhiµµh±namattena paµip±katikabh±v±pattito. Itaresupi eseva nayo. Paccayuppattimattakanti phalena hetu½ dasseti. Upp±danahetuk± hi paccay±na½ uppatti. Idamatthanti ida½ payojana½ imassa paccayassa paribhuñjaneti adhipp±yo. Nippariy±yen±ti imin± indriyasa½var±d²ni t²ºi padh±nassa s²lassa pariv±ravasena pavattiy± pariy±yas²l±ni n±m±ti dasseti.
Id±ni p±timokkhasa½varasseva padh±nabh±va½ byatirekato anvayato ca upam±ya vibh±vetu½ “yass±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha soti p±timokkhasa½varo. Ses±n²ti indriyasa½var±d²ni. Tasse v±ti “sampannas²l±”ti ettha ya½ s²la½ vutta½, tasseva. Sampannap±timokkh±ti ettha p±timokkhaggahaºena vevacana½ vatv± ta½ vitth±retv±…pe… ±dim±ha. Yath± aññatth±pi “idha bhikkhu s²lav± hot²”ti puggal±dhiµµh±n±ya desan±ya uddiµµha½ s²la½ “p±timokkhasa½varasa½vuto viharat²”ti (vibha. 508) niddiµµha½. Kasm± ±raddhanti desan±ya k±raºapucch±. S²l±nisa½sadassanatthanti payojananiddeso. “S²l±nisa½sadassanatthan”ti hi ettha byatirekato ya½ s²l±nisa½sassa adassana½, ta½ imiss± desan±ya k±raºanti kasm± ±raddhanti? Veneyy±na½ s²l±nisa½sassa adassanatoti atthato ±panno eva hoti. Ten±ha “sacep²”ti-±di. S²l±nisa½sadassanatthanti pana imassa attha½ vivaritu½ “tesan”ti-±di vutta½. ¾nisa½soti udayo. “S²lav± s²lasampanno k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± sugati½ sagga½ loka½ upapajjat²”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 3.316; a. ni. 5.213; mah±va. 285) pana vip±kaphalampi “±nisa½so”ti vutta½. Ko visesoti ko phalaviseso. K± va¹¹h²ti ko abbhudayo. Vijjam±nopi guºo y±th±vato vibh±vito eva abhiruci½ upp±deti, na avibh±vito, tasm± ekantato ±nisa½sakittana½ icchitabbamev±ti dassetu½ “appeva n±m±”ti-±dim±ha.
Piyoti piy±yitabbo. Piyassa n±ma dassana½ ekantato abhinanditabba½ hot²ti ±ha “piyacakkh³hi sampassitabbo”ti. P²tisamuµµh±nappasannasommar³papariggahañhi cakkhu “piyacakkh³”ti vuccati. Tesanti sabrahmac±r²na½. Manava¹¹hanakoti p²timanassa paribr³hanato upar³pari p²ticittasseva upp±danako. Garuµµh±niyoti garukaraºassa µh±nabh³to. J±na½ j±n±t²ti ñ±ºena j±nitabba½ j±n±ti. Yath± v± aññe aj±nant±pi j±nant± viya pavattanti, na evamaya½, aya½ pana j±nanto eva j±n±ti. Passa½ passat²ti dassanabh³tena paññ±cakkhun± passitabba½ passati, passanto eva v± passati. Eva½ sambh±van²yoti eva½ viññut±ya paº¹itabh±vena sambh±vetabbo. S²lesvevassa parip³rak±r²ti s²lesu parip³rak±r² eva bhaveyy±ti. Eva½ uttarapad±vadh±raºa½ daµµhabba½. Evañhi imin± padena uparisikkh±dvaya½ anivattitameva hoti. Yath± pana s²lesu parip³rak±r² n±ma hoti, ta½ phalena dassetu½ “ajjhattan”ti-±di vutta½. Vipassan±dhiµµh±nasam±dhisa½vattanikat±ya hi idha s²lassa p±rip³r², na kevala½ akhaº¹±dibh±vamatta½. Vuttañheta½ “y±ni kho pana t±ni akhaº¹±ni…pe… sam±dhisa½vattanik±n²”ti. Evañca katv± uparisikkh±dvaya½ s²lassa sambh±rabh±vena gahitanti s²lassevettha padh±naggahaºa½ siddha½ hoti. S²l±nurakkhak± hi cittekaggat±saªkh±rapariggah±. An³nen±ti akhaº¹±dibh±vena, kassaci v± ah±panena upapannena. ¾k±ren±ti karaºena samp±danena.
Ajjhattanti v± attanoti v± eka½ ekattha½, byañjanameva n±na½. Bhummatthe ceta½, “samathan”ti upayogavacana½ “an³”ti imin± upasaggena yoge siddhanti ±ha “attano cittasamathe yutto”ti. Tattha cittasamatheti cittassa sam±dh±ne. Yuttoti aviyutto pasuto. Yo sabbena sabba½ jh±nabh±van±ya ananuyutto, so ta½ bahi n²harati n±ma. Yo ±rabhitv± antar± saªkoca½ ±pajjati, so ta½ vin±seti n±ma. Yo pana ²diso ahutv± jh±na½ upasampajja viharati, so anir±katajjh±noti dassento “bahi an²haµajjh±no”ti-±dim±ha. N²haraºavin±satthañhi ida½ nir±karaºa½ n±ma. “Thambha½ nira½katv± niv±tavutt²”ti-±d²su (su. ni. 328) cassa payogo daµµhabbo.
Sattavidh±ya anupassan±y±ti ettha anicc±nupassan±, dukkh±nupassan±, anatt±nupassan±, nibbid±nupassan±, vir±g±nupassan±, nirodh±nupassan±, paµinissagg±nupassan±ti im± sattavidh± anupassan±. Suññ±g±ragato bhikkhu tattha laddhak±yavivekat±ya samathavipassan±vasena cittaviveka½ paribr³hento yath±nusiµµhapaµipattiy± loka½ s±sanañca attano vises±dhigamaµµh±nabh³ta½ suññ±g±rañca upasobhayam±no guºavises±dhiµµh±nabh±v±p±danena viññ³na½ atthato ta½ br³hento n±ma hot²ti vutta½ “br³het± suññ±g±r±nan”ti. Ten±ha “ettha c±”ti-±di. Ekabh³mak±dip±s±de kurum±nopi pana neva suññ±g±r±na½ br³het±ti daµµhabbo. Suññ±g±raggahaºena cettha araññarukkham³l±di sabba½ padh±n±nuyogakkhama½ sen±sana½ gahitanti daµµhabba½.
Ett±vat± yath± taºh±vicaritadesan± paµhama½ taºh±vasena ±raddh±pi taºh±padaµµh±natt± m±nadiµµh²na½ m±nadiµµhiyo osaritv± kamena papañcattayadesan± j±t±, evamaya½ desan± paµhama½ adhis²lasikkh±vasena ±raddh±pi s²lapadaµµh±natt± samathavipassan±na½ samathavipassan±yo osaritv± kamena sikkh±ttayadesan± j±t±ti veditabb±. Ettha hi “s²lesvevassa parip³rak±r²”ti ett±vat± adhis²lasikkh± vutt±, “ajjhatta½ cetosamathamanuyutto anir±katajjh±no”ti ett±vat± adhicittasikkh±, “vipassan±ya samann±gato”ti ett±vat± adhipaññ±sikkh±. “Br³het± suññ±g±r±nan”ti imin± pana samathavasena suññ±g±rava¹¹hane adhicittasikkh±, vipassan±vasena adhipaññ±sikkh±ti eva½ dvepi sikkh± saªgahetv± vutt±. Ettha ca “ajjhatta½ cetosamathamanuyutto anir±katajjh±no”ti imehi padehi s²l±nurakkhik± eva cittekaggat± kathit±, “vipassan±y±”ti imin± padena s²l±nurakkhiko saªkh±rapariggaho.
Katha½ cittekaggat± s²lamanurakkhati? Yassa hi cittekaggat± natthi, so by±dhimhi uppanne vihaññati, so by±dhivihato vikkhittacitto s²la½ vin±setv±pi by±dhiv³pasama½ katt± hoti. Yassa pana cittekaggat± atthi, so ta½ by±dhidukkha½ vikkhambhetv± sam±patti½ sam±pajjati, sam±pannakkhaºe dukkha½ d³ragata½ hoti, balavatara½ sukhamuppajjati. Eva½ cittekaggat± s²lamanurakkhati. Katha½ saªkh±rapariggaho s²lamanurakkhati? Yassa hi saªkh±rapariggaho natthi, tassa “mama r³pa½ mama viññ±ºan”ti attabh±ve balavamamatta½ hoti, so tath±r³pesu dubbhikkhaby±dhibhay±d²su sampattesu s²la½ n±setv±pi attabh±va½ poset± hoti. Yassa pana saªkh±rapariggaho atthi, tassa attabh±ve balavamamatta½ v± sineho v± na hoti, so tath±r³pesu dubbhikkhaby±dhibhay±d²su sampattesu sacepissa ant±ni bahi nikkhamanti, sacepi ussussati visussati, khaº¹±khaº¹iko v± hoti satadh±pi sahassadh±pi, neva s²la½ vin±setv± attabh±va½ poset± hoti. Eva½ saªkh±rapariggaho s²la½ anurakkhati.
“Br³het± suññ±g±r±nan”ti imin± pana tasseva ubhayassa br³han± va¹¹han± s±taccakiriy± dassit±. Eva½ bhagav± yasm± “sabrahmac±r²na½ piyo cassa½…pe… bh±van²yo c±”ti ime catt±ro dhamme ±kaªkhantena natthañña½ kiñci k±tabba½, aññadatthu s²l±diguºasamann±gateneva bhavitabba½. ¿diso hi sabrahmac±r²na½ piyo hoti man±po garu bh±van²yo. Vuttampi heta½–
“S²ladassanasampanna½ dhammaµµha½ saccavedina½;
attano kamma kubb±na½, ta½ jano kurute piyan”ti. (Dha. pa. 217).
Tasm± “±kaªkheyya ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sabrahmac±r²na½ piyo cassa½…pe… s²lesvevassa parip³rak±r²…pe… suññ±g±r±nan”ti vatv± id±ni yasm± paccayal±bh±di½ patthayantenapi idameva karaº²ya½, na añña½ kiñci, tasm± “±kaªkheyya ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu l±bh² assan”ti-±dim±ha. L±bh² assanti l±bh±s±ya sa½varas²laparip³raºa½ p±¼iya½ ±gata½. Kim²disa½ bhagav± anuj±n±t²ti? Na bhagav± sabh±vena ²disa½ anuj±n±ti, mah±k±ruºikat±ya pana puggalajjh±sayena eva½ vuttanti dassento “na bhagav±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha gh±sesana½ chinnakatho, na v±ca½ payutta½ bhaºeti chinnakatho m³go viya hutv± obh±saparikath±nimittaviññattipayutta½ gh±sesana½ v±ca½ na bhaºe, na katheyy±ti attho. Puggalajjh±sayavasen±ti saªkhepato vuttamattha½ vivaranto “yesa½ h²”ti-±dim±ha. Raso sabh±vabh³to ±nisa½so ras±nisa½so.
Paccayad±nak±r±ti c²var±dipaccayad±navasena pavattak±r±. Mahapphal± mah±nisa½s±ti ubhayameta½ atthato eka½, byañjanameva n±na½. “Pañcime, gahapatayo, ±nisa½s±”ti-±d²su (mah±va. 285) hi ±nisa½sasaddo phalapariy±yopi hoti. Mahanta½ v± lokiyasukha½ phalanti pasavant²ti mahapphal±, mahato lokuttarasukhassa paccay± hont²ti mah±nisa½s±. Ten±ha “lokiyasukhena phalabh³ten±”ti-±di.
Peccabhava½ gat±ti pet³papattivasena nibbatti½ upagat±. Te pana yasm± idha katak±lakiriy± k±lena kataj²vitupacched± honti, tasm± vutta½ “k±lakat±”ti. Sassusasur± ca tappakkhik± ca sassusasurapakkhik±. Te ñ±tiyonisambandhena ±v±haviv±hasambandhavasena sambaddh± ñ±t². S±lohit±ti yonisambandhavasena. Ekalohitabaddh±ti ekena sam±nena lohitasambandhena sambaddh±. Pasannacittoti pasannacittako. K±lakato pit± v± m±t± v± petayoniya½ uppannoti adhik±rato viññ±yat²ti vutta½. Mah±nisa½sameva hot²ti tassa tath±s²lasampannatt±ti adhipp±yo.
Ajjhottharit±ti maddit±. Na ca ma½ arati saheyy±ti ma½ ca arati na abhibhaveyya na maddeyya na ajjhotthareyya. Uppannanti j±ta½ nibbatta½. S²l±diguºayutto hi aratiñca ratiñca sahati ajjhottharati, madditv± tiµµhati, tasm± ²disamatt±na½ icchantenapi s²l±diguºayutteneva bhavitabbanti dasseti. Cittutr±so bh±yat²ti bhaya½, ±rammaºa½ bh±yati etasm±ti bhaya½. Ta½ duvidhampi bhaya½ bheravañca sahati abhibhavat²ti bhayabheravasaho. S²l±diguºayutto hi bhayabherava½ sahati ajjhottharati, madditv± tiµµhati ariyakoµiyav±s² mah±dattatthero viya.
Thero kira magga½ paµipanno aññatara½ p±s±dika½ arañña½ disv± “idhevajja samaºadhamma½ katv± gamiss±m²”ti magg± okkamma aññatarasmi½ rukkham³le saªgh±µi½ paññapetv± pallaªka½ ±bhujitv± nis²di. Rukkhadevat±ya d±rak± therassa s²latejena sakabh±vena saºµh±tu½ asakkont± vissaramaka½su. Devat±pi sakalarukkha½ c±lesi. Thero acalova nis²di. S± devat± dh³m±yi pajjali. Neva sakkhi thera½ c±letu½. Tato up±sakavaººen±gantv± vanditv± aµµh±si. “Ko eso”ti vutt± “aha½, bhante, tasmi½ rukkhe adhivatth± devat±”ti avoca. Tva½ ete vik±re ak±s²ti. ¾ma, bhanteti. “Kasm±”ti ca vutt± ±ha “tumh±ka½, bhante, s²latejena d±rak± sakabh±vena saºµh±tu½ asakkont± vissaramaka½su, s±ha½ tumhe pal±petu½ evamak±sin”ti. Thero ±ha “atha kasm± ‘idha, bhante, m± vasatha, mayha½ aph±sukan’ti paµikacceva n±vac±si, id±ni pana m± ma½ kiñci avaca, ‘ariyakoµiyamah±datto amanussabhayena gato’ti vacanato lajj±mi, ten±ha½ idheva vasissa½, tva½ pana ajjekadivasa½ yattha katthaci vas±h²”ti. Eva½ s²l±diguºayutto bhayabheravasaho hoti, tasm± ²disamatt±na½ icchantenapi s²l±diguºayutteneva bhavitabbanti dasseti. Dutiy±d²ni utt±natth±ni.

¾kaªkhasutt±divaººan± niµµhit±.