3. Mah±vaggo

1. S²han±dasuttavaººan±

21. Tatiyassa paµhame visamaµµh±nes³ti pap±t±d²su visamaµµh±nesu. “Aññehi as±dh±raº±n²”ti kasm± vutta½, nanu cet±ni s±vak±nampi ekacc±na½ uppajjant²ti? K±ma½ uppajjanti, y±dis±ni pana buddh±na½ µh±n±µµh±nañ±º±d²ni, na t±dis±ni tadaññesa½ kad±cipi uppajjant²ti aññehi as±dh±raº±n²ti Ten±ha “tath±gatasseva bal±n²”ti. Imameva hi yath±vuttalesa½ apekkhitv± tadabh±vato ±say±nusayañ±º±d²su eva as±dh±raºasamaññ± niru¼h±. K±ma½ ñ±ºabal±na½ ñ±ºasambh±ro visesapaccayo, puññasambh±ropi pana nesa½ paccayo eva. ѱºasambh±rassapi v± puññasambh±rabh±vato “puññussayasampattiy± ±gat±n²”ti vutta½.
Pakatihatthikulanti (sa½. ni. µ². 2.2.22) giricaranadicaravanacar±dippabhed± gocariyak±l±vakan±m± sabb±pi balena p±katik± hatthij±ti. Dasanna½ puris±nanti th±mamajjhim±na½ dasanna½ puris±na½. Ekassa tath±gatassa k±yabalanti ±netv± sambandho. Ekass±ti ca tath± heµµh± kath±ya½ ±gatatt± desan±sotena vutta½. N±r±yanasaªgh±tabalanti ettha n±r± vuccanti rasmiyo. T± bah³ n±n±vidh± ito uppajjant²ti n±r±yana½, vajira½, tasm± n±r±yanasaªgh±tabalanti vajirasaªgh±tabalanti attho. ѱºabala½ pana p±¼iya½ ±gatameva, na k±yabala½ viya aµµhakath±ru¼hamev±ti adhipp±yo.
Sa½yuttake (sa½. ni. 2.33) ±gat±ni tesattati ñ±º±ni, sattasattati ñ±º±n²ti vutta½, tattha (vibha. m³laµ². 760) pana nid±navagge sattasattati ±gat±ni catucatt±r²sañca. Tesattati pana paµisambhid±magge (paµi. ma. 1.1) sutamay±d²ni ±gat±ni dissanti, na sa½yuttake. Aññ±nip²ti etena ñ±ºavatthuvibhaªge (vibha. 751 ±dayo) ekak±divasena vutt±ni, aññattha ca “pubbante ñ±ºan”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1063) brahmaj±l±d²su ca “tayida½ tath±gato paj±n±ti ‘im±ni diµµhiµµh±n±ni eva½ gahit±n²’ti”±din± (d². ni. 1.36) vutt±ni anek±ni ñ±ºappabhed±ni saªgaºh±ti. Y±th±vappaµivedhato sayañca akampiya½ puggalañca ta½samaªgina½ neyyesu adhibala½ karot²ti ±ha “akampiyaµµhena upatthambhanaµµhena c±”ti.
Usabhassa idanti ±sabha½, seµµhaµµh±na½. Sabbaññut±paµij±nanavasena abhimukha½ gacchanti, aµµha v± paris± upasaªkamant²ti ±sabh±, pubbabuddh±. Ida½ pan±ti buddh±na½ µh±na½ sabbaññutameva vadati. Tiµµham±nov±ti avadantopi tiµµham±nova paµij±n±ti n±m±ti attho. Upagacchat²ti anuj±n±ti.
Aµµhasu paris±s³ti “abhij±n±mi kho pan±ha½, s±riputta, anekasata½ khattiyaparisa½…pe… tatra vata ma½ bhaya½ v± s±rajja½ v± okkamissat²ti nimittameta½, s±riputta, na samanupass±m²”ti (ma. ni. 1.151) vutt±su aµµhasu paris±su. Abh²tan±da½ nadat²ti parato dassitañ±ºayogena dasabalohanti abh²tan±da½ nadati.
Paµivedhaniµµhatt± arahattamaggañ±ºa½ paµivedhoti “phalakkhaºe uppanna½ n±m±”ti vutta½. Tena paµiladdhassapi desan±ñ±ºassa kiccanipphatti parassa avabujjhanamattena hot²ti “aññ±sikoº¹aññassa sot±pattiphalakkhaºe pavatta½ n±m±”ti vutta½. Tato para½ pana y±va parinibb±n± desan±ñ±ºapavatti tasseva pavattitassa dhammacakkassa µh±nanti veditabba½ pavattitacakkassa cakkavattino cakkaratanassa µh±na½ viya.
Tiµµhat²ti vutta½, ki½ bh³miya½ puriso viya, noti ±ha “tad±yattavuttit±y±”ti. Ýh±nanti cettha attal±bho dharam±nat± ca, na gatinivatt²ti ±ha “uppajjati ceva pavattati c±”ti. Yattha paneta½ dasabalañ±ºa½ vitth±rita½, ta½ dassento “abhidhamme pan±”ti-±dim±ha. Sesesupi eseva nayo.
Sam±diyant²ti sam±d±n±ni, t±ni pana sam±diyitv± kat±ni hont²ti ±ha “sam±diyitv± kat±nan”ti. Kammameva v± kammasam±d±nanti etena sam±d±nasaddassa apubbatth±bh±va½ dasseti muttagatasadde gatasaddassa viya. Gat²ti niray±digatiyo. Upadh²ti attabh±vo. K±loti kammassa vipaccan±rahak±lo. Payogoti vip±kuppattiy± paccayabh³t± kiriy±.
Agatig±mininti nibb±nag±mini½. Vuttañhi “nibb±nañc±ha½, s±riputta, paj±n±mi nibb±nag±miniñca paµipadan”ti (ma. ni. 1.153). Bah³supi manussesu ekameva p±ºa½ gh±tentesu k±ma½ sabbesampi cetan± tassevekassa j²vitindriy±rammaº±, ta½ pana kamma½ tesa½ n±n±k±ra½. Tesu (vibha. aµµha. 811) hi eko ±darena chandaj±to karoti, eko “ehi tvampi karoh²”ti parehi nipp²¼ito karoti, eko sam±nacchando viya hutv± appaµib±ham±no vicarati. Tesu eko teneva kammena niraye nibbattati, eko tiracch±nayoniya½, eko pettivisaye. Ta½ tath±gato ±y³hanakkhaºeyeva “imin± n²h±rena ±y³hitatt± esa niraye nibbattissati, esa tiracch±nayoniya½, esa pettivisaye”ti j±n±ti. Niraye nibbattam±nampi “esa mah±niraye nibbattissati, esa ussadaniraye”ti j±n±ti. Tiracch±nayoniya½ nibbattam±nampi “esa ap±dako bhavissati, esa dvip±dako, esa catuppado, esa bahuppado”ti j±n±ti. Pettivisaye nibbattam±nampi “esa nijjh±mataºhiko bhavissati, esa khuppip±siko, esa paradatt³paj²v²”ti j±n±ti. Tesu ca kammesu “ida½ kamma½ paµisandhi½ ±ka¹¹hissati, ida½ aññena dinn±ya paµisandhiy± upadhivepakka½ bhavissat²”ti j±n±ti.
Tath± sakalag±mav±sikesu ekato piº¹ap±ta½ dadam±nesu k±ma½ sabbesampi cetan± piº¹ap±t±rammaº±va, ta½ pana kamma½ tesa½ n±n±k±ra½. Tesu hi eko ±darena karot²ti sabba½ purimasadisa½, tasm± tesu keci devaloke nibbattanti, keci manussaloke. Ta½ tath±gato ±y³hanakkhaºeyeva j±n±ti. “Imin± n²h±rena ±y³hitatt± esa manussaloke nibbattissati, esa devaloke. Tatth±pi esa khattiyakule, esa br±hmaºakule, esa vessakule, esa suddakule, esa paranimmitavasavatt²su, esa nimm±narat²su, esa tusitesu, esa y±mesu, esa t±vati½sesu, esa c±tumah±r±jikesu, esa bhummadeves³”ti-±din± tattha tattha h²napaº²tasuvaººadubbaººa-appapariv±ramah±pariv±rat±dibheda½ ta½ ta½ visesa½ ±y³hanakkhaºeyeva j±n±ti.
Tath± vipassana½ paµµhapentesuyeva “imin± n²h±rena esa kiñci sallakkhetu½ na sakkhissati, esa mah±bh³tamattameva vavatthapessati, esa r³papariggaheyeva µhassati, esa ar³papariggaheyeva, esa n±mar³papariggaheyeva, esa paccayapariggaheyeva, esa lakkhaº±rammaºikavipassan±yameva, esa paµhamaphaleyeva, esa dutiyaphaleyeva, esa tatiyaphaleyeva, esa arahatta½ p±puºissat²”ti j±n±ti. Kasiºaparikamma½ karontesupi “imassa parikammamattameva bhavissati, esa nimitta½ upp±dessati, esa appana½ eva p±puºissati, esa jh±na½ p±daka½ katv± vipassana½ paµµhapetv± arahatta½ gaºhissat²”ti j±n±ti. Ten±ha “imassa cetan±”ti-±di.
K±manato k±metabbato k±mappaµisa½yuttato ca dh±tu k±madh±tu. ¾di-saddena by±p±dadh±tur³padh±tu-±d²na½ saªgaho. Vilakkhaºat±y±ti visadisasabh±vat±ya. Khandh±yatanadh±tulokanti anekadh±tu½ n±n±dh±tu½ khandhaloka½ ±yatanaloka½ dh±tuloka½ yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²ti yojan±. “Aya½ r³pakkhandho n±ma…pe… aya½ viññ±ºakkhandho n±ma. Tesupi ekavidhena r³pakkhandho, ek±dasavidhena r³pakkhandho. Ekavidhena vedan±kkhandho, bahuvidhena vedan±kkhandho. Ekavidhena saññ±kkhandho…pe… saªkh±rakkhandho…pe… viññ±ºakkhandho, bahuvidhena viññ±ºakkhandho”ti eva½ t±va khandhalokassa, “ida½ cakkh±yatana½ n±ma…pe… ida½ dhamm±yatana½ n±ma. Tattha das±yatan± k±m±vacar±, dve c±tubh³mak±”ti-±din± ±yatanalokassa, “aya½ cakkhudh±tu n±ma…pe… aya½ manoviññ±ºadh±tu n±ma. Tattha so¼asa dh±tuyo k±m±vacar±, dve c±tubh³mak±”ti-±din± dh±tulokassa anekasabh±va½ n±n±sabh±vañca paj±n±ti. Na kevala½ up±dinnasaªkh±ralokasseva, atha kho anup±dinnakasaªkh±ralokassapi “im±ya n±ma dh±tuy± ussannatt± imassa rukkhassa khandho seto, imassa k±¼o, imassa maµµho, imassa sakaºµako, imassa bahalattaco, imassa tanuttaco, imassa patta½ vaººasaºµh±n±divasena evar³pa½, imassa puppha½ n²la½ p²ta½ lohita½ od±ta½ sugandha½ duggandha½, imassa phala½ khuddaka½ mahanta½ d²gha½ vaµµa½ susaºµh±na½ dussaºµh±na½ maµµha½ pharusa½ sugandha½ duggandha½ madhura½ tittaka½ kaµuka½ ambila½ kas±va½, imassa kaºµako tikhiºo kuºµho ujuko kuµilo tambo k±¼o od±to hot²”ti-±din± paj±n±ti. Sabbaññubuddh±na½ eva hi eta½ bala½, na aññesa½.
N±n±dhimuttikatanti n±najjh±sayata½. Adhimutti n±ma ajjh±sayadh±tu ajjh±sayasabh±vo. So pana h²napaº²tat±s±maññena p±¼iya½ dvidh±va vuttopi h²napaº²t±dibhedena anekavidhoti ±ha “h²n±d²hi adhimutt²hi n±n±dhimuttikabh±van”ti. Tattha ye ye satt± ya½ya½adhimuttik±, te te ta½tadadhimuttike eva sevanti bhajanti payirup±santi dh±tusabh±gato. Yath± g³th±d²na½ dh±t³na½ sabh±vo eso, ya½ g³th±d²hi eva sa½sandanti samenti, eva½ h²najjh±say± duss²l±d²heva sa½sandanti samenti, sampannas²l±dayo ca sampannas²l±d²heva. Ta½ nesa½ n±n±dhimuttikata½ bhagav± yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²ti.
Vuddhi½ h±niñc±ti paccayavisesena s±matthiyato adhikata½ anadhikatañca. Indriyaparopariyattañ±ºaniddese (vibha. 814; paµi. ma. 113) “±saya½ j±n±ti, anusaya½ j±n±t²”ti ±say±dij±nana½ kasm± niddiµµhanti? ¾sayaj±nan±din± yehi indriyehi paroparehi satt± kaly±ºap±p±say±dik± honti, tesa½ j±nanassa vibh±vanato. Evañca katv± indriyaparopariyatta-±say±nusayañ±º±na½ visu½ as±dh±raºat±, indriyaparopariyattan±n±dhimuttikat±ñ±º±na½ visu½ balavat± ca siddh± hoti. Tattha ±sayanti yattha satt± nivasanti, ta½ tesa½ niv±saµµh±na½, diµµhigata½ v± yath±bh³tañ±ºa½ v± ±sayo, anusayo appah²nabh±vena th±magato kileso. Ta½ pana bhagav± satt±na½ ±saya½ j±nanto tesa½ tesa½ diµµhigat±na½ vipassan±maggañ±º±nañca appavattikkhaºepi j±n±ti. Vuttañheta½–
“K±ma½ sevanta½yeva bhagav± j±n±ti– ‘aya½ puggalo k±magaruko k±m±sayo k±m±dhimutto’ti. K±ma½ sevanta½yeva j±n±ti– ‘aya½ puggalo nekkhammagaruko nekkhamm±sayo nekkhamm±dhimutto’ti. Nekkhamma½ sevanta½yeva j±n±ti. By±p±da½, aby±p±da½, thinamiddha½, ±lokasañña½ sevanta½yeva j±n±ti– ‘aya½ puggalo thinamiddhagaruko thinamiddh±sayo thinamiddh±dhimutto”’ti (paµi. ma. 1.113).
Paµham±d²na½ catunna½ jh±n±nanti r³p±vacar±na½ paµham±d²na½ paccan²kajjh±panaµµhena ±rammaº³panijjh±panaµµhena ca jh±n±na½. Catukkanayena heta½ vutta½. Aµµhanna½ vimokkh±nanti ettha paµip±µiy± satta appitappitakkhaºe paccan²kadhammehi vimuccanato ±rammaºe ca adhimuccanato vimokkh± n±ma. Aµµhamo pana sabbaso saññ±vedayitehi vimuttatt± apagamavimokkho n±ma. Catukkanayapañcakanayesu paµhamajjh±nasam±dhi savitakkasavic±ro n±ma. Pañcakanaye dutiyajjh±nasam±dhi avitakkavic±ramatto. Nayadvayepi upari t²su jh±nesu sam±dhi avitakka-avic±ro. Sam±patt²su paµip±µiy± aµµhanna½ sam±dh²tipi n±ma½, sam±patt²tipi cittekaggat±sabbh±vato, nirodhasam±pattiy± tadabh±vato na sam±dh²ti n±ma½. H±nabh±giyadhammanti appaguºehi paµhamajjh±n±d²hi vuµµhitassa saññ±manasik±r±na½ k±m±di-anupakkhandana½ Visesabh±giyadhammanti paguºehi paµhamajjh±n±d²hi vuµµhitassa saññ±manasik±r±na½ dutiyajjh±n±dipakkhandana½. Iti saññ±manasik±r±na½ k±m±didutiyajjh±n±dipakkhandan±ni h±nabh±giyavisesabh±giy± dhamm±ti dassit±ni. Tehi pana jh±n±na½ ta½sabh±vat± ca dhammasaddena vutt±. Tasm±ti vuttamevattha½ hetubh±vena pacc±masati. Vod±nanti paguºat±saªkh±ta½ vod±na½. Tañhi paµhamajjh±n±d²hi vuµµhahitv± dutiyajjh±n±di-adhigamassa paccayatt± “vuµµh±nan”ti vutta½. Keci pana “nirodhato phalasam±pattiy± vuµµh±nanti p±¼i natth²”ti vadanti. Te “nirodh± vuµµhahantassa nevasaññ±n±saññ±yatana½ phalasam±pattiy± anantarapaccayena paccayo”ti im±ya p±¼iy± (paµµh±. 1.1.417) paµisedhetabb±. Yo sam±pattil±bh² sam±no eva “na l±bh²mh²”ti, kammaµµh±na½ sam±na½ eva “na kammaµµh±nan”ti saññ² hoti, so sampatti½yeva sam±na½ “vipatt²”ti paccet²ti veditabbo.
Na tath± daµµhabbanti yath± parav±din± vutta½, tath± na daµµhabba½. Sakasakakiccameva j±n±t²ti µh±n±µµh±naj±nan±disakasakameva kicca½ k±tu½ j±n±ti, yath±sakameva visaya½ paµivijjhat²ti attho. Tamp²ti tehi dasabalañ±ºehi j±nitabbampi. Kammavip±kantaramev±ti kammantarassa vip±kantarameva j±n±ti. Cetan±cetan±sampayuttadhamme niray±dinibb±nag±minippaµipad±bh³te kammanti gahetv± ±ha “kammaparicchedamev±”ti. Dh±tun±nattañca dh±tun±nattak±raºañca dh±tun±nattak±raºanti ekadesasar³pekaseso daµµhabbo. Tañhi ñ±ºa½ tadubhayampi j±n±ti. “Im±ya n±ma dh±tuy± ussannatt±”ti-±din± (vibha. aµµha. 812) tath± ceva sa½vaººita½. Saccaparicchedamev±ti pariññ±bhisamay±divasena sacc±na½ paricchinnameva. Appetu½ na sakkoti aµµhamanavamabal±ni viya ta½sadisa½, iddhividhañ±ºamiva vikubbitu½. Etenassa balasadisatañca niv±reti. Jh±n±diñ±ºa½ viya v± appetu½ vikubbituñca. Yadipi hi jh±n±dipaccavekkhaºañ±ºa½ sattamabalanti tassa savitakkasavic±rat± vutt±, tath±pi jh±n±d²hi vin± paccavekkhaº± natth²ti jh±n±disahagata½ ñ±ºa½ tadantogadha½ katv± eva½ vuttanti veditabba½. Atha v± sabbaññutaññ±ºa½ jh±n±dikicca½ viya na sabba½ balakicca½ k±tu½ sakkot²ti dassetu½ “jh±na½ hutv± appetu½, iddhi hutv± vikubbituñca na sakkot²”ti vutta½, na pana kassaci balassa jh±na-iddhibh±vatoti daµµhabba½.
Eva½ kiccavisesavasenapi dasabalañ±ºasabbaññutaññ±ºavisesa½ dassetv± id±ni vitakkattikabh³mantaravasenapi ta½ dassetu½ “apic±”ti-±di vutta½. Paµip±µiy±ti-±dito paµµh±ya paµip±µiy±.
Anupadavaººana½ ñatv± veditabb±n²ti sambandho. Kiles±varaºa½ niyatamicch±diµµhi. Kiles±varaºassa abh±vo ±savakkhayañ±º±dhigamassa µh±na½, tabbh±vo aµµh±na½. Anadhigamassa pana tadubhayampi yath±kkama½ aµµh±na½ µh±nañc±ti tattha k±raºa½ dassento “lokiya…pe… dassanato c±”ti ±ha. Tattha lokiyasamm±diµµhiy± µhiti ±savakkhay±dhigamassa µh±na½ kiles±varaº±bh±vassa k±raºatt±. S± hi tasmi½ sati na hoti, asati ca hoti. Etena tass± aµµhitiy± tassa aµµh±nat± vutt± eva. Nesa½ veneyyasatt±na½. Dh±tuvemattadassanatoti k±madh±tu-±d²na½ pavattibhedadassanato, yadaggena dh±tuvematta½ j±n±ti, tadaggena cariy±divisesampi j±n±ti. Dh±tuvemattadassanatoti v± dhammadh±tuvemattadassanato. Sabb±pi hi cariy± dhammadh±tupariy±pann± ev±ti. Payoga½ an±diyitv±pi santatimah±matt±d²na½ viya. Dibbacakkh±nubh±vato pattabben±ti ettha dibbacakkhun± parassa hadayavatthusannissayalohitavaººadassanamukhena tad± pavattam±nacittaj±nanattha½ parikammakaraºa½ n±ma s±vak±na½, tañca kho ±dikammik±na½, yato dibbacakkhu-±nubh±vato cetopariyañ±ºassa pattabbat± siy±. Buddh±na½ pana yadipi ±savakkhayañ±º±dhigamato pageva dibbacakkhuñ±º±dhigamo, tath±pi tath±parikammakaraºa½ natthi vijj±ttayasiddhiy± sijjhanato. Ses±bhiññ±ttaye cetopariyañ±ºa½ dibbacakkhuñ±º±dhigamena pattanti ca vattabbata½ labhat²ti tath± vuttanti daµµhabba½.

S²han±dasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.