10. Uposathasuttavaººan±

71. Dasame tadah³ti ettha tasmi½ ahan²ti atthoti ±ha “tasmi½ ahu uposathe”ti. Upavasanti etth±ti uposatho, uposathadivaso. Upavasant²ti ca s²lena v± anasanena v± kh²ras±yan±dividhin± v± upet± hutv± vasant²ti attho. Uposathadivase hi s±sanik± s²lena, b±hirak± sabbaso ±h±rassa abhuñjanena kh²ras±yanamadhus±yan±dividhin± v± upet± hutv± viharanti. So panesa uposathadivaso aµµhamic±tuddasipannarasibhedena tividho, tasm± sesadvayaniv±raºattha½ “pannarasika-uposathadivase”ti vutta½. Vavassaggattheti vacas±yatthe. Divasaddo div±saddo viya divasapariy±yo, tassa visesanabh±vena vuccam±no div±saddo savisesena d²pet²ti ±ha “divasassa div± majjhanhike k±leti attho”ti. Paµicch±petv±ti sampaµicchana½ k±retv±. Vip±kaphalen±ti sadisaphalena. Na mahapphalo hoti manoduccaritaduss²lyena upakkiliµµhabh±vato. Vip±k±nisa½sen±ti udrayaphalena. Vip±kobh±sen±ti paµipakkhavigamajanitena sabh±vasaªkh±tena vip±kobh±sena. Na mah±-obh±so aparisuddhabh±vato. Vip±kavipph±rass±ti vip±kavepullassa.
N±ha½ kvacan²ti-±divacanassa micch±bhinivesavasena pavattatt± “ida½ tassa mus±v±dasmi½ vad±m²”ti p±¼iya½ vutta½, catukoµikasuññat±dassanavasena pavatta½ pana ariyadassanamev±ti na tattha mus±v±do. Vuttañheta½–
“Puna capara½, bhikkhave, ariyas±vako iti paµisañcikkhati ‘n±ha½ kvacani, kassaci kiñcanatasmi½, na ca mama kvacani, kismiñci kiñcanatatth²”’ti-±di (ma. ni. 3.70).
Ettha hi catukoµikasuññat± kathit±. Katha½? Ariyo (visuddhi. 2.760; ma. ni. aµµha. 3.70) hi n±ha½ kvacan²ti kvaci att±na½ na passati, kassaci kiñcanatasminti attano att±na½ kassaci parassa kiñcanabh±ve upanetabba½ na passati, bh±tiµµh±ne bh±tara½, sah±yaµµh±ne sah±ya½, parikkh±raµµh±ne parikkh±ra½ maññitv± upanetabba½ na passat²ti attho. Na ca mama kvacan²ti ettha mama-sadda½ t±va µhapetv± kvacani parassa ca att±na½ kvaci na passat²ti ayamattho. Id±ni mama-sadda½ ±haritv± “mama kismiñci kiñcanatatth²”ti so parassa att±na½ “mama kismiñci kiñcanabh±vena atth²”ti na passati, attano bh±tikaµµh±ne bh±tara½, sah±yaµµh±ne sah±ya½, parikkh±raµµh±ne parikkh±ranti kismiñci µh±ne parassa att±na½ imin± kiñcanabh±vena upanetabba½ na passat²ti attho. Evamaya½ yasm± neva katthaci att±na½ passati, na ta½ parassa kiñcanabh±ve upanetabba½ passati. Na katthaci parassa att±na½ passati, na parassa att±na½ attano kiñcanabh±ve upanetabba½ passati, tasm± aya½ suññat± catukoµik±ti veditabb±.
Yasm± pana micch±diµµhik±na½ y±th±vadassanassa asambhavato yath±vuttacatukoµikasuññat±dassana½ na sambhavati, tasm± “natthi m±t±, natthi pit±”ti-±divacana½ (d². ni. 1.171) viya micch±g±havasena “n±ha½ kvacan²”ti-±di vuttanti yutto cettha mus±v±dasambhavo. Katthac²ti µh±ne, k±le v±. Atha “nipphalo”ti kasm± vutta½. “Na mahapphalo”ti saddena hi mahapphal±bh±vova jotito, na pana sabbath± phal±bh±voti ±ha “byañjanameva hi ettha s±vasesan”ti-±di. Sesapadesup²ti “na mah±nisa½so”ti-±d²supi.
Aµµhahi k±raºeh²ti–
“Atha kho, bhante, sakko dev±namindo dev±na½ t±vati½s±na½ bhagavato aµµha yath±bhucce vaººe payirud±h±si– ‘ta½ ki½ maññanti, bhonto dev± t±vati½s±, y±vañca so bhagav± bahujanahit±ya paµipanno bahujanasukh±ya lok±nukamp±ya atth±ya hit±ya sukh±ya devamanuss±na½, eva½ bahujanahit±ya paµipanna½ bahujanasukh±ya lok±nukamp±ya atth±ya hit±ya sukh±ya devamanuss±na½ imin±paªgena samann±gata½ satth±ra½ neva at²ta½se samanupass±mi, na panetarahi aññatra tena bhagavat±”ti–

¾din± mah±govindasutte (d². ni. 2.296) vitth±ritehi bahujanahit±ya paµipann±d²hi buddh±nubh±vad²pakehi aµµhahi k±raºehi. Atha “navahi k±raºeh²”ti avatv± “aµµhahi k±raºeh²”ti kasm± vuttanti ±ha “ettha hi…pe… sabbe lokiyalokuttar± buddhaguº± saªgahit±”ti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– imasmi½ sutte “itipi so bhagav±”ti imin± vacanena avisesato sabbepi lokiyalokuttar± buddhaguº± d²pit±, tasm± tena d²pitaguºe sandh±ya “aµµhahi k±raºeh²”ti vuttanti. Arahanti-±d²hi p±µiyekkaguº±va niddiµµh±ti arahanti-±d²hi ekekehi padehi ekeke guº±va niddiµµh±ti attho.

Sahatantikanti p±¼idhammasahita½. Purimanayeneva yojan± k±tabb±ti “kiliµµhasmiñhi k±ye pas±dhana½ pas±dhetv± nakkhatta½ k²¼am±n± na sobhant²”ti-±din± nayena yojan± k±tabb±ti attho.
Saªghassa anussaraºa½ n±ma tassa guº±nussaraºamev±ti ±ha “aµµhanna½ ariyapuggal±na½ guºe anussarat²”ti. Dve tayo v±re g±h±pita½ usumanti dve tayo v±re uddhana½ ±ropetv± sedanavasena g±h±pita½ usuma½. Purimanayeneva yojan± k±tabb±ti “kiliµµhasmiñhi vatthe pas±dhana½ pas±dhetv± nakkhatta½ k²¼am±n± na sobhant²”ti-±din± nayena yojan± k±tabb±.
Pah²nak±lato paµµh±ya…pe… virat±v±ti etena pah±nahetuk± idh±dhippet± virat²ti dasseti. Kammakkhayakarañ±ºena hi p±º±tip±taduss²lyassa pah²natt± arahanto accantameva tato paµivirat±ti vuccati samucchedavasena pah±navirat²na½ adhippetatt±. Kiñc±pi pah±naviramaº±na½ purimapacchimak±lat± natthi, maggadhamm±na½ pana samm±diµµhi-±d²na½ samm±v±c±d²nañca paccayapaccayuppannabh±ve apekkhite sahaj±t±nampi paccayapaccayuppannabh±vena gahaºa½ purimapacchimabh±veneva hot²ti, gahaºappavatti-±k±ravasena paccayabh³tesu samm±diµµhi-±d²su pah±yakadhammesu pah±nakiriy±ya purimak±lavoh±ro, paccayuppann±su ca virat²su viramaºakiriy±ya aparak±lavoh±ro ca hot²ti pah±na½ v± samucchedavasena, virati paµippassaddhivasena yojetabb±.
Atha v± p±ºo atip±t²yati eten±ti p±º±tip±to, p±ºagh±tahetubh³to dhammasam³ho. Ko pana so? Ahirik±nottappadosamohavihi½s±dayo kiles±. Te hi arahanto ariyamaggena pah±ya samuggh±tetv± p±º±tip±taduss²lyato accantameva paµivirat±ti vuccanti, kilesesu pah²nesu kilesanimittassa kammassa anuppajjanato. Adinn±d±na½ pah±y±ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Virat±v±ti avadh±raºena tass± viratiy± k±l±divasena apariyantata½ dasseti. Yath± hi aññe sam±dinnaviratik±pi anavaµµhitacittat±ya l±bhaj²vit±dihetu sam±d±na½ bhindanti, na eva½ arahanto, arahanto pana sabbaso pah²nap±º±tip±tatt± accantavirat± ev±ti.
Daº¹anasaªkh±tassa paraviheµhanassa ca parivajjanabh±vad²panattha½ daº¹asatth±na½ nikkhepavacananti ±ha “par³pagh±tatth±y±”ti-±di. Lajj²ti ettha vuttalajj±ya ottappampi vuttamev±ti daµµhabba½. Na hi p±pajigucchanap±putt±sarahita½, p±pabhaya½ v± alajjana½ atth²ti. Dhammagarut±ya v± arahant±na½ dhammassa ca att± dh²natt± att±dhipatibh³t± lajj±va vutt±, na pana lok±dhipati ottappa½. “Daya½ mettacittata½ ±pann±”ti kasm± vutta½, nanu day±-saddo “aday±panno”ti-±d²su karuº±ya pavattat²ti? Saccameta½, aya½ pana day±-saddo anurakkhaºattha½ anton²ta½ katv± pavattam±no mett±ya karuº±ya ca pavattat²ti idha mett±ya pavattam±no vutto. Mijjati siniyhat²ti mett±, mett± etassa atth²ti metta½, metta½ citta½ etass±ti mettacitto, tassa bh±vo mettacittat±, mett±-icceva attho.
Sabbap±ºabh³tahit±nukamp²ti etena tass± viratiy± pavattavasena apariyantata½ dasseti. P±ºabh³teti p±ºaj±te. Anukampak±ti karuº±yanak±, yasm± pana mett± karuº±ya visesapaccayo hoti, tasm± vutta½ “t±ya eva day±pannat±y±”ti. Eva½ yehi dhammehi p±º±tip±t± virati sampajjati, tehi lajj±mett±karuº±dhammehi samaªgibh±vo dassito.
Parapariggahitassa ±d±nanti parasantakassa ±d±na½. Theno vuccati coro, tassa bh±vo theyya½, k±mañcettha “lajj² day±panno”ti na vutta½, adhik±ravasena pana atthato vuttamev±ti daµµhabba½. Yath± hi lajj±dayo p±º±tip±tappah±nassa visesapaccay±, eva½ adinn±d±nappah±nassap²ti tasm± s±pi p±¼i ±netv± vattabb±. Esa nayo ito paresupi. Atha v± sucibh³ten±ti etena hirottapp±d²hi samann±gamo, ahirik±d²nañca pah±na½ vuttamev±ti “lajj²”ti-±di na vuttanti daµµhabba½.
Aseµµhacariyanti aseµµh±na½ h²n±na½, aseµµha½ v± l±maka½ cariya½, nih²navutti½ methunanti attho. Brahma½ seµµha½ ±c±ranti methunaviratim±ha. ¾r±c±r² methun±ti etena– “idhekacco na heva kho m±tug±mena saddhi½ dvaya½dvayasam±patti½ sam±pajjati, apica kho m±tug±massa ucch±danaparimaddananh±panasamb±hana½ s±diyati, so ta½ ass±deti, ta½ nik±meti, tena ca vitti½ ±pajjat²”ti-±din± (a. ni. 7.50) vutt± sattavidhamethunasa½yog±pi paµivirati dassit±ti daµµhabba½.
“Saccato thetato”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.19) viya theta-saddo thirapariy±yo, thirabh±vo ca saccav±dit±ya µhitakathatt± kath±vasena veditabboti ±ha “µhitakath±ti attho”ti. Na µhitakathoti yath± haliddir±g±dayo anavaµµhitasabh±vat±ya na µhit±, eva½ na µhit± kath± yassa so na µhitakathoti haliddir±g±dayo yath± kath±ya upam± honti, eva½ yojetabba½. Esa nayo “p±s±ºalekh± viy±”ti-±d²supi. Saddh± ayati pavattati etth±ti saddh±y±, saddh±y± eva saddh±yik± yath± venayik±. Saddh±ya v± ayitabb± saddh±yik±, saddheyy±ti attho. Vattabbata½ ±pajjati visa½v±danatoti adhipp±yo.
Eka½ bhatta½ ekabhatta½, ta½ etesamatth²ti ekabhattik±, ekasmi½ divase ekav±rameva bhuñjanak±. Tayida½ rattibhojanenapi siy±ti ±ha “ratt³parat±”ti. Evampi s±yanhabhojanenapi siyu½ ekabhattik±ti tad±saªk±nivattanattha½ “virat± vik±labhojan±”ti vutta½. Aruºuggamanato paµµh±ya y±va majjhanhik± aya½ buddh±na½ ariy±na½ ±ciººasam±ciººo bhojanassa k±lo n±ma, tadañño vik±lo. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana dutiyapadena rattibhojanassa paµikkhittatt± aparaºho “vik±lo”ti vutto.
Saªkhepato “sabbap±passa akaraºan”ti-±dinayappavatta½ (d². ni. 2.90; dha. pa. 183) bhagavato s±sana½ sacchandar±gappavattito nacc±d²na½ dassana½ na anulomet²ti ±ha “s±sanassa ananulomatt±”ti. Attan± payojiyam±na½ parehi payoj±p²yam±nañca nacca½ naccabh±vas±maññato p±¼iya½ ekeneva naccasaddena gahita½, tath± g²tav±ditasadd± c±ti ±ha “naccananacc±pan±divasen±”ti ¾di-saddena g±yanag±y±panav±danav±d±pan±ni saªgaºh±ti. Dassanena cettha savanampi saªgahita½ vir³pekasesanayena. ¾locanasabh±vat±ya v± pañcanna½ viññ±º±na½ savanakiriy±yapi dassanasaªkhepasabbh±vato dassan±icceva vutta½. Avis³kabh³tassa g²tassa savana½ kad±ci vaµµat²ti ±ha “vis³kabh³ta½ dassanan”ti. Tath± hi vutta½ paramatthajotik±ya khuddakap±µhaµµhakath±ya “dhamm³pasa½hita½ g²ta½ vaµµati, g²t³pasa½hito dhammo na vaµµat²”ti.
Ya½ kiñc²ti ganthita½ v± aganthita½ v± ya½ kiñci puppha½. Gandhaj±tanti gandhaj±tiya½. Tass±pi “ya½ kiñc²”ti vacanato dh³pitassapi adh³pitassapi yassa kassaci vilepan±di na vaµµat²ti dasseti. Ucc±ti uccasaddena sam±nattha½ eka½ saddantara½. Seti etth±ti sayana½. Ucc±sayana½ mah±sayanañca samaºas±rupparahita½ adhippetanti ±ha “pam±º±tikkanta½ akappiyattharaºan”ti, ±sand±di-±sanañcettha sayanena saªgahitanti daµµhabba½. Yasm± pana ±dh±re paµikkhitte tad±dh±rakiriy± paµikkhitt±va hoti, tasm± “ucc±sayanamah±sayan±”icceva vutta½. Atthato pana tadupabhogabh³tanisajj±nipajjanehi virati dassit±ti daµµhabb±. Atha v± “ucc±sayan±sanamah±sayan±san±”ti, etasmi½ atthe ekasesanayena aya½ niddeso kato yath± “n±mar³papaccay± sa¼±yatanan”ti. (Ma. ni. 3.126; sa½. ni. 2.1) ±sanakiriy±pubbakatt± v± sayanakiriy±ya sayanaggahaºeneva ±sanampi saªgahitanti veditabba½.
“K²v±”ti aya½ nip±to. “Kittakan”ti imassa attha½ bodhet²ti ±ha “k²vamahapphaloti kittaka½ mahapphalo”ti. Sesapades³ti “k²vamah±nisa½so”ti-±d²su. Ratta-saddo ratanapariy±yoti ±ha “pah³tarattaratan±nanti pah³tena rattasaªkh±tena ratanena samann±gat±nan”ti. P±¼iya½ pana “pah³tasattaratan±nan”tipi p±µho dissati. Bheritalasadisa½ katv±ti bheritala½ viya sama½ katv±. Tato eka½ bh±ga½ na agghat²ti yath±vutta½ cakkavattirajja½ tato so¼asabh±gato eka½ bh±ga½ na agghati. Tato bahutara½ hot²ti cakkavattirajjasirito bahutara½ hoti.
C±tumah±r±j²k±nanti-±d²su c±tumah±r±jik± n±ma sinerupabbatassa vemajjhe honti, tesu bah³ pabbataµµh±pi ±k±saµµh±pi, tesa½ parampar± cakkav±¼apabbata½ patt±, khi¹¹±padosik±, manopadosik±, s²taval±hak±, uºhaval±hak±, candim±, devaputto, s³riyo, devaputtoti ete sabbe c±tumah±r±jikadevalokaµµhak± eva. Tetti½sa jan± tattha uppann±ti t±vati½s±. Apica t±vati½s±ti tesa½ dev±na½ n±mamev±ti vutta½. Tepi atthi pabbataµµhak±, atthi ±k±saµµhak±, tesa½ parampar± cakkav±¼apabbata½ patt±, tath± y±m±d²na½. Ekadevalokepi hi dev±na½ parampar± cakkav±¼apabbata½ appatt± n±ma natthi. Tattha dibbasukha½ y±t± pay±t± sampatt±ti y±m±. Tuµµh± pahaµµh±ti tusit±. Pakatipaµiyatt±rammaºato atirekena ramituk±mak±le yath±rucite bhoge nimminitv± nimminitv± ramant²ti nimm±narati. Citt±c±ra½ ñatv± parehi nimmitesu bhogesu vasa½ vattent²ti paranimmitavasavatt².
Tattha c±tumah±r±jik±na½ dev±na½ manussagaºan±ya navutivassasatasahass±ni ±yuppam±ºa½. T±vati½s±na½ dev±na½ tisso ca vassakoµiyo saµµhi ca vassasatasahass±ni. Y±m±na½ dev±na½ cuddasa ca vassakoµiyo catt±ri ca vassasatasahass±ni. Tusit±na½ dev±na½ sattapaññ±sa ca vassakoµiyo saµµhi ca vassasatasahass±ni. Nimm±narat²na½ dev±na½ dve ca vassakoµisat±ni tisso ca vassakoµiyo catt±ri ca vassasatasahass±ni. Paranimmitavasavatt²na½ dev±na½ nava ca vassakoµisat±ni ekav²sa koµiyo ca saµµhi ca vassasatasahass±ni.
Muµµhihatthap±daketi p±datalato y±va aµaniy± heµµhimanto, t±va muµµhiratanappam±ºap±dake. Tañca kho majjhimassa purisassa hatthena, yassid±ni va¹¹hak²hatthoti samaññ±. S²lasam±d±nato paµµh±ya añña½ kiñci akatv± dhammassavanena v± kammaµµh±namanasik±rena v± v²tin±metabbanti ±ha “ta½ pana upavasantena…pe… vic±retabban”ti.
V±ca½ bhinditv± uposathaªg±ni sam±d±tabb±n²ti “imañca ratti½ imañca divasan”ti k±lapariccheda½ katv± “uposathaªgavasena aµµha sikkh±pad±ni sam±diy±m²”ti ekato katv± puna pacceka½ “p±º±tip±t± veramaºisikkh±pada½ sam±diy±mi…pe… ucc±sayanamah±sayan± veramaºisikkh±pada½ sam±diy±m²”ti eva½ vac²bheda½ katv± yath±p±¼i sam±d±tabb±ni. P±¼i½ aj±nantena pana attano bh±s±ya pacceka½ v± “buddhapaññatta½ uposatha½ adhiµµh±m²”ti ekato adhiµµh±navasena v± sam±d±tabb±ni, añña½ alabhantena adhiµµh±tabb±ni. Up±sakas²lañhi attan± sam±diyantenapi sam±dinna½ parasantike sam±diyantenapi, ekajjha½ sam±dinnampi sam±dinnameva hoti pacceka½ sam±dinnampi. Ta½ pana ekajjha½ sam±diyato ek±yeva virati ek± cetan± hoti. S± pana sabbaviraticetan±na½ kiccak±r²ti tenapi sabbasikkh±pad±ni sam±dinn±neva. Pacceka½ sam±diyato pana n±n±viraticetan±yo yath±saka½ kiccavasena uppajjanti sabbasam±d±ne pana vac²bhedo k±tabboyeva. Par³parodhapaµisa½yutt± paravihi½s±sa½yutt±.
Nanu ca “maºin”ti vutte ve¼uriyampi saªgahitameva, kimattha½ pana ve¼uriyanti ±ha “ve¼uriyanti…pe… dasset²”ti. “Maºin”ti vatv±va “ve¼uriyan”ti imin± j±timaºibh±va½ dasset²ti yojetabba½. Ekavassikave¼uvaººanti j±tito ekavass±tikkantave¼uvaººa½. Laddhakanti sundara½. Candappabh± t±ragaº±va sabbeti yath± candappabh±ya kala½ sabbe t±r±gaº± n±nubhavant²ti ayamettha atthoti ±ha “candappabh±ti s±mi-atthe paccattan”ti.

Uposathasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.

Mah±vaggavaººan± niµµhit±.