(7) 2. Mah±vaggo

1. Titth±yatanasuttavaŗŗan±

62. Dutiyassa paµhame tittha½ n±ma dv±saµµhi diµµhiyo tabbinimuttassa kassaci diµµhivipphanditassa abh±vato. Ettha hi satt± taranti uppilavanti ummujjanimujja½ karonti, tasm± “titthan”ti vuccati. P±ragamanasaŖkh±tańhi taraŗa½ diµµhigatik±na½ natthi, tattheva apar±para½ nimujjanummujjanavasena pilavanameva tesa½ taraŗa½ n±ma. Upp±dak±ti p³raŗakassap±dayo. Titthe j±t± titthiy±, yath±vutta½ v± diµµhigatasaŖkh±ta½ tittha½ etesa½ atth²ti titthik±, titthik± eva titthiy±. Manorameti s±duphalabharitat±ya abhayadisat±ya ca manorame. Imesuyeva t²su µh±nes³ti yath±vuttesu titth±yatanesu.
Yo yath± j±n±ti, tassa tath± vuccat²ti imin± puggalajjh±sayavasena tath± vuttanti dasseti. Puggala-saddo ca tissannampi pakat²na½ s±dh±raŗo, tasm± purisaggahaŗena tato visesana½ yath± “aµµha purisapuggal±”ti. Paµisa½vidita½ karot²ti kevala½ j±nanavasena vidita½ karoti. Anubhavati v±ti vip±kalakkhaŗappatta½ anubhavati. Pubbekatahet³ti antogadh±vadh±raŗa½ padanti ±ha “pubbekatakammapaccayenev±”ti. Imin±ti “sabba½ ta½ pubbekatahet³”ti imin± vacanena. Kammavedananti kusal±kusalakammasahaja½ vedana½. Kiriyavedananti “neva kusal±kusal± na ca kammavip±k±”ti eva½ vutta½ kiriyacittasahaja½ vedana½. Na kevalańca te kammakiriyavedan± eva paµikkhipanti, atha kho s±sane loke ca p±kaµe v±t±b±dh±diroge ca paµikkhipanti ev±ti dassetu½ “ye v± ime”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha pittasamuµµh±n±ti pittavik±r±dhikasambh³t± Anantaradvayepi eseva nayo. Sannip±tik±ti pitt±d²na½ tiŗŗampi vik±r±na½ sannip±tato j±t±. Utupariŗ±maj±ti s²t±di-utuno vipariŗ±mato visamaparivuttito j±t±. Visamaparih±raj±ti asapp±y±h±rayogapaµisevanavasena k±yassa visama½ pariharaŗato j±t±. Opakkamik±ti upakkamato nibbatt±. Kammavip±kaj±ti kammassa vip±kabh³takkhandhato j±t±. Virodhipaccayasamuµµh±n± dh±t³na½ vik±r±vatth±, tappaccay± v± dukkh± vedan± ±b±dhanaµµhena ±b±dho, so eva rujjanaµµhena rogo. Tattha “yo y±pyalakkhaŗo, so rogo, itaro ±b±dho”ti vadanti. Sabbesańca nesa½ ta½ta½dh±t³na½ visama½ ±sannak±raŗa½, na tath± itar±ni. Tatth±pi ca pakop±vatth± dh±tuyo ±sannak±raŗa½, na tath± parapaccay±vatth±ti daµµhabba½. Aµµhama½yeva kammavip±kaja½ ±b±dha½ sampaµicchanti “sabba½ ta½ pubbekatahet³”ti vipall±sagg±hena. “Pubbe”ti pur±tanasseva kammassa gahitatt± upapajjavedan²yampi te paµikkhipant²ti vutta½ “dve paµib±hitv±”ti. Sampaµicchant²ti anuj±nanti.
Attan± katam³laken±ti s±hatthikakammahetu. ¾ŗattim³laken±ti parassa ±ŗ±panavasena katakammahetu. Im±ti tisso vedan±. Sabbe paµib±hant²ti sabbe roge paµisedhenti sabbesampi tesa½ ekena issareneva nimmitatt± tabbh±v²bh±v±sambhavato. Esa nayo sesesupi. Sabba½ paµib±hant²ti hetupaccayapaµisedhanato sabba½ nisedhenti.
M±tika½ nikkhipitv±ti tiŗŗampi ved±na½ as±rabh±vadassanattha½ uddesa½ katv±. Tanti ta½ m±tika½. Vibhajitv± dassetunti dosadassanavaseneva vibh±gato dassetu½. Laddhipatiµµh±panatthanti attano laddhiy± paµij±n±panattha½. Laddhito laddhi½ saŖkamant²ti m³laladdhito ańńaladdhi½ upagacchanti paµij±nanti. Pubbekatahetuyeva paµisa½vedet²ti kammavedanampi vip±kavedana½ katv± vadanti. Diµµhigatik± hi by±m³¼hacitt± kammantaravip±kantar±d²ni ±lo¼enti, asaŖkarato sańń±petu½ na sakkonti. Yath± ca akusalakamme, eva½ kusalakammep²ti dassetu½ “eva½ p±ŗ±tip±t±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha evanti yath± pubbekatahetu eva p±ŗ±tip±tino n±ma honti, na id±ni saya½katak±raŗ±, eva½ p±ŗ±tip±t± viramaŗampi pubbekatahetu ev±ti vic±riyam±no pubbekatav±do akiriyav±do eva sampajjati.
Kattukamyat±chando na taŗh±chando. Kattukamyat±ti k±tumicch±. Paccattapurisak±roti tena tena purisena kattabbakicca½ na hoti pubbekatahetu eva sijjhanato. Ubhayampi ta½ esa na labbhat²ti kattabbakaraŗa½ sucaritap³raŗa½, akattabba-akaraŗa½ duccaritavirat²ti ida½ ubhayampi esa na labhati. Samaŗ±pi hi pubbekatak±raŗ±yeva hont²ti pubbekatak±raŗ±yeva samaŗ±pi honti, na id±ni sa½varasam±d±n±din±. Assamaŗ±pi pubbekatak±raŗ±yev±ti pubbekatak±raŗ±yeva assamaŗ±pi honti, na sa½varabhedena.
Yath± pubbekatav±de chandav±y±m±na½ asambhavato paccattapurisak±r±na½ abh±vo, eva½ issaranimm±nav±depi issareneva sabbassa nimmitabh±v±nuj±nanatoti vutta½ “pubbekatav±de vuttanayeneva veditabbo”ti. Esa nayo ahetukav±dep²ti ±ha “tath± ahetukav±dep²”ti.
Imesanti-±din± imesa½ titth±yatan±na½ tucch±s±rat±ya thusakoµµanena kuŗ¹akamattassapi al±bho viya paramatthalesassapi abh±vo, tath± khajjopanakobh±sato tejaso phuliŖgamattassapi abh±vo viya andhaveŗikassapi maggassa appaµil±bho viya saddamatta½ niss±ya micch±bh±gena vipallatthat±ya daddaraj±take (j±. 1.2.43-43) sasakasadisat± ca vibh±vit± hoti. S±rabh±vanti s²las±r±disampattiy± s±rasabbh±va½. Niyy±nikabh±vanti ekanteneva vaµµato niyy±n±vahabh±va½. Aniggahitoti na niggahetabbo. Ten±ha “niggahetu½ asakkuŗeyyo”ti. Asa½kiliµµhoti sa½kilesavirahito. Ten±ha “nikkileso”ti-±di. Anupavajjoti dhammato na upavaditabbo. Appaµikuµµho n±ma appaµisedhana½ v± siy± anakkosana½ v±ti tadubhaya½ dassento “appaµib±hito anupakkuµµho”ti ±ha.
Tassa dhammass±ti “aya½ kho pana, bhikkhave”ti-±din± uddhaµassa dhammassa. Pańha½ pucchitv±ti kathetukamyat±vasena pańha½ pucchitv±. Yath±paµip±µiy±ti m±tik±ya yath±nikkhittappaµip±µiy±. Dh±tuyoti sabh±vadh±raŗaµµhena dh±tuyo. T± pana yasm± taŗh±diµµhikappan±parikappita-attasubhasukhasassat±dipakati-±didhuv±dij²v±dik±y±dik± viya na icch±sabh±v± diµµhi-±dirahitehi vimuccam±na-udumbarapupph±dilokavoh±ravatth³ni viya ca v±c±vatthumatt±, atha kho saccaparamatthabh³t±ti ±ha “sabh±v±”ti, saccasabh±v±ti attho. Attano sabh±va½ dh±rent²ti hi dh±tuyo. Nijj²vanissattabh±vappak±sakoti b±hiraparikappitaj²v±bh±vappak±sako lokiyamah±janasa½kappitasatt±bh±vappak±sako ca. ¾karaµµhen±ti uppajjanaµµh±nabh±vena. Uppattiµµh±nampi hi ±karo ±yatananti vuccati yath± “kambojo ass±na½ ±yatanan”ti. Manopavic±r±ti ta½ ta½ ±rammaŗa½ upecca manaso vividhacaraŗ±k±ro. Kehi katth±ti ±ha “vitakkavic±rap±deh²”ti-±di. Aµµh±rasasu µh±nes³ti cha somanassaµµh±niy±ni cha domanassaµµh±niy±ni, cha upekkh±µµh±niy±n²ti eva½ aµµh±rasasu µh±nesu.
Patiµµh±dh±t³ti sesabh³tattayassa ceva sabb³p±d±r³p±nańca patiµµh±sabh±v± dh±tu. Imin± nayena ±bandhanadh±t³ti-±d²supi attho veditabbo. Apica kakkha¼abh±vasiddho sahaj±tadhamm±na½ ±dh±rabh±vo patiµµh±bh±vo. Dravabh±vasiddha½ sampiŗ¹ana½ ±bandhana½. Uŗhabh±vasiddha½ mudut±pakkat±vaha½ parip±cana½. Thaddhabh±v±vaha½ uddhum±tana½ vitthambhana½. R³pavivitto r³papariyanto ±k±soti yesa½ so paricchedo, tehi so asamphuµµhov±ti vutta½ “±k±sadh±t³ti asamphuµµhadh±t³”ti. Sańj±nanavidhur± ±rammaŗ³paladdhi vij±nanadh±tu. Vitth±ratopi kathetu½ vaµµati saŖkhepantogadhatt± vitth±rassa. SaŖkhepato kathetu½ na vaµµati kathetabbassa atthassa anavasesapariy±d±n±bh±vato. Ten±ha “vitth±ratova vaµµat²”ti. Ubhayath±ti saŖkhepato vitth±rato ca.
Anipphann±pi ±k±sadh±tu bh³t±ni up±d±ya gahetabbat±mattena “up±d±r³pan”teva vuccati. Diµµh±nev±ti sallakkhetabb±ni up±d±r³pabh±vas±mańńato. Tena sahaj±t± vedan± vedan±kkhandho samud±ye pavattavoh±rassa avayavepi dissanato yath± “vatthekadese da¹¹he vattha½ da¹¹han”ti. “Phasso ca cetan± ca saŖkh±rakkhandho”ti vutta½ mah±bh³makatt± tesa½ tappadh±natt± ca saŖkh±rakkhandhassa. Ar³pakkhandh± n±ma½ ±rammaŗ±bhimukha½ namanato n±m±dh²naggahaŗato ca. R³pakkhandho r³pa½ paribyatta½ ruppanaµµhena. Paccayanti nissayabh³ta½ paccaya½. Vibh±gena dv±catt±l²sa. Ek±s²ti citt±ni “sammasanac±royan”ti katv±. Anukkamena paµipajjam±noti eva½ kaŖkh±vitaraŗavisuddhiya½ µhito uparimena tissanna½ visuddh²na½ samp±danavasena visuddhibh±vana½ ussukk±pento.
Phass±yatananti phassassa uppattiµµh±na½. Suvaŗŗ±d²nanti suvaŗŗamaŗivajir±d²na½. ¾kiŗŗa½ viya hutv± uppajjanti etth±ti ±karo. Yath± cakkhu vip±kaphassassa visesapaccayo, na tath± itaresanti katv± vutta½ “dve cakkhuvińń±ŗ±n²”ti-±di. Esa nayo sesav±resupi. Dvatti½s±ya vip±kaphassesu dvipańcavińń±ŗasahagataphasse µhapetv± ses± dv±v²sati vip±kaphass± veditabb±. Diµµhameva hoti tena sam±nayogakkhamatt±. “SaŖkhepato t±v±”ti saŖkhepakatha½ ±rabhitv±pi vitth±rakath±pettha vuttanayatt± suvińńeyy±v±ti vutta½ “heµµh±…pe… veditabban”ti.
Somanassassa uppattiµµh±nabh³ta½ somanassaµµh±niya½. Ten±ha “somanassassa k±raŗabh³tan”ti. Upavicarat²ti upecca pavattati. Sabh±vato saŖkappato ca somanass±di-uppattihetuk± somanassaµµh±niy±dit±ti ±ha “iµµha½ v± hot³”ti-±di. Catuttha½ diµµhameva hoti tadavin±bh±vato.
Ariyasacc±n²ti purimapade uttarapadalopen±ya½ niddesoti ±ha “ariyabh±vakar±n²”ti-±di. Visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 2.531) pak±sita½, tasm± na idha pak±setabbanti adhipp±yo. Sukh±vabodhanatthanti desiyam±n±ya vaµµakath±ya sukhena avabodhanattha½. Ten±ha “yassa h²”ti-±di. Dv±dasapadanti avijj±d²hi padehi dv±dasapada½. Paccayavaµµanti paccayappabandha½. Kathetuk±mo hoti paccay±k±ramukhena sacc±ni dassetuk±mat±ya. Gabbh±vakkantivaµµanti gabbhokkantimukhena vip±kavaµµa½ dasseti “gabbhass±vakkanti hot²”ti-±din±. Tasm± panettha gabbh±vakkantivaseneva vaµµa½ dassitanti ±ha “gabbh±vakkantivaµµasmi½ h²”ti-±di. Gabbh±vakkantivaµµasminti m±tukucchimhi nibbattanavasena pavattadhammappabandhe. Dassiteti desan±vasena dassite. Purim± dve yoniyo itar±hi o¼±rikat±ya paribyattatar±ti vutta½ “gabbh±vakkanti…pe… avabodhetump²”ti.
Paccayamattanti channa½ dh±t³na½ s±dh±raŗa½ paccayabh±vamatta½, na tehi bh±gaso nipph±diyam±na½ paccayavisesa½ “kuto paneta½ channa½ dh±t³nan”ti avibh±gena vuttatt±. Ten±ha “ida½ vutta½ hot²”ti-±di. Na m±tu na pitu t±sa½ dh±t³na½ imassa sattassa b±hirabh±vato. Gabbhass±ti ettha gabbhati attabh±vabh±vena vattat²ti gabbho, kalal±di-avattho dhammappabandho. Tannissitatt± pana sattasant±no gabbhoti vutto yath± mańcanissit± “mańc± ukkuµµhi½ karont²”ti. Tannissayabh±vato m±tukucchi gabbhoti vuccati “gabbhe vasati m±ŗavo”ti-±d²su (j±. 1.15.363). Gabbho viy±ti v± gabbho. Yath± hi niv±saµµh±nat±ya satt±na½ ovarako “gabbho”ti vuccati, eva½ gabbhaseyyak±na½ satt±na½ y±va abhij±ti niv±saµµh±nat±ya m±tukucchi “gabbho”ti vuccati. Idha pana paµhama½ vutta-attheneva gabbhoti veditabbo. Ten±ha “gabbho ca n±m±”ti-±di.
Nirati-atthena nirayo ca so yath±vuttena atthena gabbho c±ti nirayagabbho. Esa nayo sesapadesupi. Aya½ pana viseso– devamanuj±dayo viya uddha½ d²gh± ahutv± tiriya½ ańcit± d²gh±ti tiracch±n±. Te eva khandhakoµµh±sabh±vena yoni ca so vuttanayena gabbho c±ti tiracch±nayonigabbho. Pakaµµhato sukhato apeta½ apagamo petabh±vo, ta½ patt±na½ visayoti pettivisayo, petayoni. Manassa ussannat±ya s³rabh±v±diguŗehi upacitam±nasat±ya ukkaµµhaguŗacittat±ya manuss±. Dibbanti k±maguŗ±d²hi k²¼anti la¼anti jotant²ti dev±. Gabbhasaddo vuttanayo eva. N±nappak±roti yath±vuttena tadanantarabhedena ca n±nappak±rako. Manussagabbho adhippeto sup±kaµat±ya paccakkhabh±vato. Okkanti m±tukucchi½ okkamitv± viya uppatitv±ti katv±. Nibbattana½ nibbatti. P±tubh±vo uppattippak±sako ca.
Sannip±to n±ma avekallaj±tih²navekalleti dassetu½ “idha m±t±pitaro”ti-±di vutta½. Idh±ti imasmi½ sattaloke. Sannipatit±ti samodh±nabh±vato sannipatit± sam±gat± sa½siliµµh±. Utun²ti utumat² sańj±tapupph±. Idańca utusamaya½ sandh±ya vutta½, na lokasamańń±karajassa lagganadivasamatta½. M±tug±massa hi yasmi½ gabbh±sahasańńite ok±se d±rako nibbattati, tattha mahat² lohitap²¼ak± saŗµhahitv± aggahitapubb± eva bhijjitv± paggharati, vatthu suddha½ hoti paggharitalohitatt± an±mayatt± ca. Visuddhe vatthumhi m±t±pit³su ekav±ra½ sannipatitesu y±va satta divas±ni khettameva hoti. Suddha½ vatthu nah±nato parampi katipay±ni divas±ni gabbhasaŗµhahanat±ya khettameva hoti parittassa lohitalesassa vijjam±natt±. Tasmi½ samaye hatthagg±haveŗigg±h±din± aŖgapar±masanenapi d±rako nibbattatiyeva. Itthisant±nepi hi sattapi dh±t³ labbhanteva. Tath± hi p±rik±ya n±bhipar±masanena s±massa bodhisattassa, diµµhamaŖgalik±ya n±bhipar±masanena (j±. aµµha. 4.15.m±taŖgaj±takavaŗŗan±; ma. ni. aµµha. 2.65) maŗ¹abyassa nibbatti ahosi. Gandhanato uppannagatiy± nimitt³paµµh±nena s³canato d²panato gandhoti laddhan±mena bhavag±mikammun± abbati pavattat²ti gandhabbo, tattha uppajjam±nakasatto. Paccupaµµhito hot²ti na m±t±pit³na½ sannip±ta½ olokayam±no sam²pe µhito paccupaµµhito n±ma hoti, kammayantayantito pana eko satto tasmi½ ok±se nibbattanako hot²ti ayamettha adhipp±yo. Tad± hi tatr³pagasatto tatr³papatti-±vahantakammasaŖkh±tena pellakayantena tathatth±ya pellito upan²to viya hoti.
Vińń±ŗapaccay± n±mar³panti ettha vińń±ŗassa paccayabh±vena gahitatt± “tayo ar³pino khandh±”ti vutta½. Idha pana vińń±ŗa½ paccayabh±vena aggahetv± gabbhokkantiy± eva paccayabh±vena gahitatt± “vińń±ŗakkhandhampi pakkhipitv±”ti vutta½. Idha pana manussagabbhassa okkantiy± adhippetatt± “gabbhaseyyak±na½ paµisandhikkhaŗe”ti vutta½.
Taŗh±ya samudayasaccabh±vena gahitatt± “µhapetv± taŗhan”ti vutta½. Tasseva pabh±vik±ti tasseva yath±vuttassa dukkhasaccassa upp±dik±. Dukkhanirodhoti ettha dukkhaggahaŗena taŗh±pi gahit±ti ±ha “tesa½ dvinnampi…pe… dukkhanirodho”ti. Avisesena hi tebh³makavaµµa½ idha dukkhanti adhippeta½. Atha v± dukkhassa anuppattinirodho tabbh±vik±ya taŗh±ya anuppattinirodhena vin± na hot²ti vutta½ “tesa½ dvinnampi…pe… dukkhanirodho”ti. Anuppattinirodhoti ca anuppattinirodhanimitta½ nibb±na½ dasseti.
“Tattha vuttanayeneva veditabban”ti vatv± ubhayattha p±¼iy± pavatti-±k±rabheda½ dassetu½ “aya½ pana viseso”ti ±ha. Tatth±ti visaddhimagge. Idh±ti imasmi½ sutte. Avijj±ya tvev±ti avijj±ya tu eva. Asesavir±ganirodh±ti ettha accantameva saŖkh±re virajjati eten±ti vir±go, maggo, tasm± vir±gasaŖkh±tena maggena asesanirodh± asesetv± nirodh± samucchindan±ti evamettha attho daµµhabbo.
Sakalass±ti anavasesassa. Kevalass±ti v± suddhassa, paraparikappitasattaj²v±divirahitass±ti attho. Kh²ŗ±k±ropi vuccati “nirujjhana½ nirodho”ti imin± atthena. Arahattampi nirodhoti vuccati nirodhante uppannatt±. Nibb±nampi nirodhoti vuccati avijj±d²na½ nirodhassa nimittabh±vato avijj±dayo nirujjhanti etth±ti nirodhoti katv±. Kh²ŗ±k±radassanavasen±ti avijj±d²na½ anuppattinirodhena nirujjhan±k±radassanavasena. Nibb±nameva sandh±ya, na pana arahattanti adhipp±yo. Sabh±vadhamm±na½ niggaho n±ma yath±vuttadhammaparicchedato ³n±dhikabh±vappak±sanena attasabh±vavibh±vaneneva hot²ti ±ha “niggaŗhanto h²”ti-±di.

Titth±yatanasuttavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.